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640. largior aether, a freer air, i.e. not closed in by the denser clouds and exhalations of the earth. -et, connecting irregularly the two ideas of freedom and brilliancy. — lumine purpureo, brilliant light.

62. gramineis palaestris, wrestling-matches on the grass. (See Fig. 119.)

644. plaudunt choreas, keep time to the dance.

645. Threïcius sacerdos, Orpheus, the mythic father of song and revealer of mysteries. — longa, as a priest.

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646. numeris septem (dat.), the seven tones of the scale as played on the lyre. discrimina vocum, the notes of the voice.

Fig. 119.

647. eadem, referring to discrimina, but naturally identified with numeris. pectine, so called because inserted among the strings of the harp like the "comb" among the threads of the loom. (See Fig. 63, p. 114.)

648. Teucri, see table, p. 65.

651. arma... inanes, he gazes from afar upon the phantom arms and chariots of the heroes.

653. gratia, fondness for. — currum (obj. gen., contracted).

657. choro (abl. of manner).

658. superne volvitur, flows in the world above. The Eridanus (Po) was held to have its rise in the infernal regions. In fact, near its source it flows underground for about two miles.

660. manus... passi (§ 187, d; G. 202, R.'; H. 461), a troop that had suffered wounds in fighting for their country.

663. vitam excoluere, etc., as we should say, adorned or ennobled human life by skilful inventions. -inventas (§ 292, a; G. 324, R.3; H. 549, N.").

664. qui... merendo

who by their service have left a grateful

memory among men, a general phrase for the benefactors of mankind.

665. vitta, i.e. as if victors in the games.

667. Musaeum, the mythical father of poets, who here usurps the place which Homer should have claimed. — nam, introducing the reason why the priestess addressed him particularly; the respect in which he is held indicates a corresponding distinction.

668. humeris (abl. of manner). — suspicit, looks up to.

670. illius (§ 214, g; G. 372; H. 398, 5).

672. atque, and at once.

676. sistam: Museus is to leave them when they have passed the ridge and the way is in sight.

680. ituras: the doctrine of Metempsychosis, here hinted at, is further developed later on.

681. lustrabat recolens, surveyed thoughtfully.—studio, with in


682. forte, i.e. his thoughts happened to be busy at that moment on this subject.

683. manus, i.e. martial exploits.

685. alacris (§ 84, N.; H. 153, N.2).

691. tempora dinumerans, counting the days. mea cura = my fond hope.

694. quam metui: and yet Anchises must have known that Æneas went to Africa by divine direction, and that his course to Italy was safe. The verse expresses, however, a father's natural anxiety.

695. tua imago: it would appear from this that the visions of Anchises, seen by Æneas in dreams, were not the visitation of his real presence.

697. stant sale, etc., ride on the Tuscan wave: the ships are still afloat, not hauled up on shore, as at the end of a voyage. - Tyrrheno: though the Tuscan territory lies north of the Tiber, the whole sea west of Italy is called Tyrrhenum, because the Tuscans were the first great naval power in that region.

698. amplexu (probably dative).

702. This line is probably repeated from ii. 794.

704. virgulta sonantia silvis woods with rustling thickets.

705. domos (§ 228, a; H. 386, 3). — praenatat, flows in front. 706. volabant, flitted: the word expresses the noiseless and hurried movement of the spirits. The faint sound they make is compared to the humming of bees in summer.

709. funduntur, swarm, 710. horrescit, starts.

711. porro, further on.

715. securos latices, waters which abolish care.

718. Italia reperta, in your finding of Italy.

719. anne... animas, what! can we think that spirits go hence on high to [the light of] heaven?

721. lucis... cupido, so wild a desire of life. Contempt of life, real or affected, was part of the old philosophic creed.

723. suscipit, takes up the argument. This style of philosophical reasoning is very characteristic of the spirit of Virgil's poetry; see note, Ecl. vi. 31.

724. principio, in the first place. terras, the lands, i.e. the earth as a whole, physically; personified, it would be singular.

725. Titania astra, the Sun; see iv. 119, and note. Possibly the plural form may indicate the rising and the setting sun.

726. spiritus intus alit: a celebrated phrase, as containing the ancient creed of pantheism; compare Georg. iv. 221-227. totam miscet, mind, infused throughout the parts, gives life to the entire mass, and mingles in the mighty frame, i.e. the universe.

728. inde genus, etc.: the meaning is, that the mingling of spirit with a material body is what causes organic or individual life.

729. monstra, strange shapes, as marine creatures always look to us. 730. igneus vigor: the "fiery force" and "heavenly source " found in these forms of life (seminibus) are two expressions for the same thing; the celestial ether being conceived as flame.

731. quantum, etc., i.e. so far as the gross nature of the body allows. Compare Shakespeare,

"But while this muddy vesture of decay

Doth grossly close it in."- Merchant of Venice.

Thus in the New Testaneque auras dispici

733. hinc: i.e. from the effect of the body. ment, passions are said to reside in the flesh." unt, they look not abroad [through the darkness] to the light.


735. supremo . . . reliquit, when life has left them, with its parting


736. tamen, even then, though the soul has put off its earthy envelope. 738. diu concreta, which have long grown in. inolescere, said properly of parasitic growths, which become "strangely" implicated with what they grow on (modis miris).

740. panduntur, they are spread abroad to the empty winds. The

language is of purification by the air, but the image suggests also the torment of crucifixion.

742. exuritur igni: in passages like this Dante very naturally found an anticipation of the doctrine of purgatory. The three elements are used to cleanse the soul.

743, 4. quisque... tenemus, we suffer, every man his own retribution (manes the soul that receives the penalty, being put for its destiny or life in the world below); then we pass through the vast space of Elysium, and a few of us (only) attain the blissful fields. The passage is one that has given great difficulty, and may be one that Virgil left incomplete. It would seem to teach that all souls attain at least a glimpse of that bliss which on account of their sins is denied to most, who, after expiation has been made below, must renew the weary penance and probation of mortal life.

746. purum, etc. (pred.), has left pure the ethereal sense.

747. auraï simplicis ignem, the flame of pure light (the ether).

748. rotam volvere, have run through the circle of a thousand years

(see the myth in Plato's Republic, Book x.).

750. immemores, etc. (pred.), that without memory they may revisit the upper earth.-convexa, i.e. under the arch of heaven.

754. possit (characteristic subj.).

755. adversos legere, scan those before them. 756. deinde = dehinc, etc., what glory shall henceforth follow the Dardan race, what progeny await thee of Italian birth; the whole depending on expediam.

758. nostrum in nomen ituras, a legal phrase of adoption into a family, the heroes whose names follow belonging to Roman story, but not all to the house of Anchises. The list of Alban kings formed part of the earliest traditions, but seems to have been fabricated in order to bridge over the space, of more than three centuries, between the alleged dates of the fall of Troy and the founding of Rome.

760. pura hasta, sometimes explained of a "headless spear," given as a prize to young men

Fig. 120.

after their first feat of arms. (See Fig. 120.) It would seem to be here in any case a symbol of peace.

761. lucis, i.e. order of birth.

763. postuma proles, youngest born: but in some legenas Silvius is

called postumus, as born after his father's death, in the woods to which Lavinia had fled in fear of Ascanius (compare the prediction, i. 263–271). 764. longaevo, in your old age: apparently contradicting the legend just referred to.

765. educet, shall bring forth.

766. Longa Alba, the “long white town,” stretched along a ridge on the edge of Lake Albanus. It was supposed to be the old capital of the Latin league, from which rank it was dispossessed by Rome. Other Latin towns are mentioned below. Compare, for some of these legendary names, the fourteenth book of Ovid's Metamorphoses.

Fig. 121.

767. proxumus, close by: in the lists, Procas stands as the twelfth or fourteenth.

770. si umquam acceperit, when once he gains. Æneas Silvius, it was said, was kept from his inheritance for 53 years. regnandam Albam = the throne of Alba (§ 294, d'; H. 549, 3).

772. umbrata quercu, wreathed with oak. The oak-wreath (corona civilis) was bestowed on him who had saved the life of a Roman citizen in battle. (See Fig. 121.) As perpetual preserver of the people, such wreaths were hung before the door of Augustus by vote of the Senate. Hence the allusion is a personal compliment.

773. Nomentum, etc., towns of the Prisci Latini.

776. tum... erunt, these shall then be names, i.e. places of note. 777. avo comitem, a companion (or champion) to his grandfather. The first exploit of Romulus was to restore Numitor to the throne of Alba. 779. viden', do you see? - geminae cristae: the double plume was a distinguishing mark of Mars, but no representation of it appears in works of art (but compare Fig. 88, p. 183); like him, Romulus is constantly represented with a helmet. It is by this sign that his father marks him by his own sign of honor as belonging to the world on high (superum).

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