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474. respondet, etc., "answers all her cares, and equals all her love" (Dryden).

477. datum iter, the appointed way (not granted).

478. ultima, the last before coming to the regions of blessedness or torment. secreta, apart (se-cerno).

479. Tydeus, etc.: these were heroes of the Theban war ("Seven against Thebes "), the chief event of the time immediately before the Trojan war.

481. fleti ad superos, i.e. mourned in the world above. caduci (passive verbal), fallen.

485. Idaeum, Priam's herald and charioteer in the Iliad. 487. usque, still.

488. conferre gradum, to walk by his side.

492. tollere vocem exiguam, raise their piping voice as in the battle-fields of old. So Homer speaks of the thin voice of the shades ; and in Shakespeare

"The sheeted dead

Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets." - Hamlet.

493. frustratur, disappoints, i.e. they attempt to utter the war cry, but have no voice. - hiantes = their open mouths.

495. Deiphobum, see note, ii. 310. There were various legends of his death.

496. manus ambas : in some cases of mutilation, the hands were cut off and fastened under the armpits. This, it was thought, would prevent the victim from avenging himself in the lower world.

497. nares, the two nostrils.

498. vix adeo adgnovit, he could scarce so much as recognize. 499. supplicia, signs of mutilation. — notis, familiar.

500. armipotens: the name Deiphobus signifies the terror of the foe. Compare the dialogue of Ulysses and Agamemnon (Od. xi. 396-433; Bry. 500).

501. optavit sumere, has chosen to inflict.

502. cui, etc., i.e. who has been permitted (by the gods) such outrages upon you. — suprema nocte, on that last night.

504. confusae, heaped together, and so failing recognition.

505. tumulum, an empty tomb (cenotaph), which would allow the shade to cross the Styx. — Rhoeteo, a promontory of Mysia.

506. ter, see note, v. 231.

507. te, emphatic, as opposed to the tomb; hence not elided, but merely shortened before amice. arma, cf. v. 233.

509. tibi relictum, left undone by thee.

511. Deiphobo, funeris umbris, to the man himself, and to the shade of the dead.

512. haec monumenta, these memorials, the ghastly mutilations.

514. nimium, etc., you must needs too well remember.

515. venit, see ii. 237, 238.

517. illa, Helen.

chorum, a festive dance (see Fig. 98, p. 201). —

orgia circum, through a wild orgy.

518. flammam tenebat: in ii. 256 it is said that the signal was given from Agamemnon's ship. In like manner compare v. 525 with ii. 571-574. Virgil leaves us to settle the contradictions (if there are any) as we can. 524. capiti subduxerat, had taken from my pillow.

526. scilicet, doubtless. — amanti, to her fond husband.

529. Aeolides, a name of insult for Ulysses, hinting that his real father was the crafty Sisyphus, son of Æolus.

531. fare vicissim, tell in turn.

532. pelagi erroribus: Deiphobus was, of course, ignorant of Æneas's voyage or his settlement in Italy. The question is imitated from Homer, who places the world of shadows beyond the Ocean, whither only wandering could bring a man. The alternative is, whether by chance of travel or by divine direction.

534. adires: the imperfect is used because fatigat has also the sense of the perfect "has pursued and still pursues"; cf. § 276, a; G. 221; H. 467, 2. — turbida, gloomy, the opposite of liquida, bright and clear; cf. Job x. 21-22.

535. hac vice sermonum, this interchange of discourse.

536. medium axem: a night appears to have been spent in the preliminary sacrifices, and it is now past noon of the next day.

537. fors... tempus, they might perchance have spent the whole allotted time in similar discourse. -traherent, for tense see § 308, a; G. 599, R. The construction changes at sed, and so no condition appears. 541. dextera (sc. est).

542. Elysium, accus. of end of motion.

543. exercet poenas, inflicts the doom, i.e. by sending them to Tartarus (mittit, etc.).

545. explebo numerum, I will fill out the number (of the shades by taking my place among them).

546. utere, enjoy.

547. in verbo, at the word, in the act of speaking.

548. respicit, looks back, having advanced beyond the parting of the


549. moenia, a fortress or vast castle used as a dungeon, to which

Phlegethon, the river "blazing with flame," serves as a moat.

is drawn from a torrent of lava.

553. bello, i.c. with the engines of war.

The image

554. ferrea turris, a tower or “keep " of steel, rising high in the midst. 558. stridor... catenae the clank of iron chains.

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561. plangor, doleful sound.

563. sceleratum, as the especial seat of the Furies, no less than as the entrance to the place of torture.

566. Rhadamanthus: another famous Cretan said to have become a judge in the world below. The judge appears as a Roman quaesitor parricidii holding a court for the trial of greater offences, different from that of Minos.

567. castigat, audit, subigit: the famous so-called hysteron-proteron, here, is a fiction of grammarians. Castigo cannot refer to punishment, but must refer to the upbraiding, menacing language of the judge, which was perhaps accompanied with torture (subigitque fateri). dolos, dark ways, because crime skulks from justice.


568. quis (indef.). — furto, concealment. — inani, bootless. - quae commissa piacula, the committed guilt, which, equivalent to commissa quorum piacula.

569. distulit in seram mortem, has deferred [the expiation of] till death too late, since the expiation must now be in the other world.

570. sontes (§ 227, b; G. 347; H. 386, 3). — accincta flagello, armed with scourge.

571. Tisiphone, the eldest of the Furies who opens the awful doors (sacrae portae).

573. horrisono cardine: compare the celebrated imitation by Milton:

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"On a sudden open fly,

With impetuous recoil and jarring sound,
The infernal doors, and on their hinges grate

Harsh thunder." — Paradise Lost, ii. 879-882.

574. custodia, the guard at the entrance is Tisiphone; within is the Hydra, fiercer than she; and still beyond, Tartarus itself, more dreadful than either.

576. hiatibus, the gaping jaws of the several heads.

578. bis patet, compare iv. 445, 446.

579. suspectus ad Olympum, the upward look to Olympus.

580. pubes, the Titans, sons of earth, who warred with the gods.

582. Aloidas, sons of Aloeus, Otus, and Ephialtes, who put Mars in chains (II. v. 385-387; Bry. 476).

585. Salmonea, king of Elis, brother of Sisyphus, who contemptuously imitated the thunder and lightning of Jupiter. - dantem, see note to ii. 103.

586. dum imitatur = imitantem (cf. § 290, c; G. 572, R.), i.e. punished for imitating the thunders of Jupiter (so qui . . . simularet below). 588. per Elidis urbem: Olympia, built in especial honor of Zeus, thus adding to the affront to his majesty.

591. aere, a brazen chariot, as was that of Salmoneus, driven over a bridge, or vessels of "sounding brass."- simularet (§ 320, e; G. 636; H. 517).

593. non ille faces, etc.: his was no mere imitation of thunder and lightning.

594. turbine, the rush of the thunderbolt.

595. Tityon, another of the giants.

596. cernere erat = one might see, by a common Greek construction. - iugera, the iugerum was about half an acre (240 feet by 120). 597. porrigitur, lies stretched.

598. iecur the liver, as the supposed seat of lust, is fitly the organ attacked; compare the punishment of Prometheus (Fig. 25, p. 41).— fecunda poenis (dat.), fertile for torture.

599. rimatur epulis (dat.), tears at his banquet.

601. Lapithas (hated by Mars), etc., simply examples of men that have incurred the wrath of the gods. There seems no good reason for omitting the line.

603. genialibus toris, banqueting-couches, especially those set for the birthday festival.

604. fulera, props, or supports (gold-footed frames for couches). 606. manibus, with their hands.

608. hic quibus, here [are they] to whom, etc. -invisi fratres, like Atreus and Thyestes, etc.

609. pulsatus parens: the act of striking a parent is regarded with peculiar horror, as shown by the ancient punishment of parricide. — înnexa, contrived. - clienti: the client had a certain sacred claim to the protection of his patronus; see note to Cic. Rosc. Am. § 4; Cat. iv. 23. 610. qui... repertis : those who have found a treasure, and kept it all to their selfish use,- — a type of all who are greedy of gain.

611. posuere, have set aside.

612. caesi: though punished on earth, they still do not escape the doom of hell. — arma impia, i.e. civil war.

613. dextras, the pledge of the right hand, referring to servile insurrection.

615. poenam (sc. exspectent).- mersit, has overwhelmed.

617. districti, fastened, with their limbs strained apart, the com monly reported punishment of Ixion. (See Fig. 118.)

618. Theseus, punished for his crime in attempting to carry oft Proserpine; Phlegyas, son of Ares, and founder of a robber community, the Phlegyæ. His crime was that he burned the temple of Apollo at Delphi. 621. vendidit, imposuit: these were the special crimes of a period of civil war, such as Rome had just passed through.

622. fixit, refixit: laws were published by being posted up on brazen tablets, and when repealed were taken down again.

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625. sint: translate by the contrary-to-fact construction, if I had, etc.

The present is used either because the Latin idiom is different from ours, or because this is a relic of an earlier construction in which the present was equivalent to the later imperfect; cf. v. 325, and i. 58 and notes.

630. Cyclopum educta caminis (abl.), i.e. wrought at the forges of the Cyclops. The walls of Pluto were supposed to have been built of iron or steel.

631. adverso fornice (abl. of quality), with arch in front.

632. praecepta, the instructions given by the gods.

635. corpus spargit: the water stands ready for ceremonial purifica

tion, as in the vestibule of a temple. - recenti, fresh.

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