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100. quae .



every man according to his ability, i.e. eam

copiam quae, in apposition with dona, etc.

102. ordine, in long array; i.e. all partake of the feast in companies; each around its own kettle or fire.

104. serena, with luce.

105. Phaethontis, the sun-god (Ecl. vi. 62). — equi. (See Fig. 105).

Fig. 105.

106. fama, the talk of the games.

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108. Aeneadas: these famous exiles are more attractive even than the games. visuri, see § 293, b; G. 673, 3; H. 549, 3.- certare (§ 273, b; G. 424; H. 533, ii. 3); compare Ecl. vii. 5.-parati (§ 187, d; G. 202, R.; H. 438, 6).

109. circo (v. 289): it may here be used of the place of gathering, or of the circle of spectators.

110. tripodes: the tripod was a tall, slender, three-legged stand used to support sacred objects used in worship; a very common prize in games (II. xxiii. 259, 264, 702). On account of the famous one at Delphi, it is peculiarly associated with the worship of Apollo. Fig. 106.)

112. perfusae, dyed.

113. commissos, see § 292, a; G. 667, R.; II. 549, N.2


114. pares, i.e. rivals. - remis: the ancient galleys relied on oars for their manoeuvres, but used sails for speed. The ship-race here takes the place of the chariot-race in Homer, adopting some of its incidents.

116. Pristim: these fabulous creatures were probably represented in the ships' figure-heads.

117. Memmi: it was a fancy of the Romans to derive their names and descent from these Trojan heroes.

119. urbis opus, either vast, like a city or a work worthy of a city. Thus ships have been compared to floating islands. — triplici versu, in a triple tier; versu is used for row as also for a line in poetry, from the

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turning to resume the count: in fact, however, triremes were not invented till some centuries later (Thuc. i. 13). (See Figs. 107 and 108.) 123. caerulea, the regular color of the sea-divinities (iii. 432). 124. saxum, a rock evidently just at the surface.

Fig. 107.

126. condunt, hide with clouds.

127. tranquillo, in calm (locative ablative of circumstance, whence comes the ablative of time).

128. apricis, sun-loving


that love to sun themselves.

129. frondenti, i.e. it is set up there, leaves and all. 130. pater, in his character as patron of the game.

131. scirent (subj. of purpose). - circum flectere: they had to sail round the rock in turning, as around the meta in the circus.

134. populea, of poplar, because these were funeral games (Ecl. vii. 61) notice the quantity.

136. intenta, sc. sunt.

137. haurit, etc., throbbing apprehension strains their beating hearts.

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140. prosiluere, bound forward; said loosely of both ships and crew. The perfect indicates the suddenness of the action.

141. versa, upturned (verto, not verro).

142. pariter, together, no one being in advance.

143. tridentibus, the form usually given to a ship's beak, a reminiscence of which is still seen in the prow of the gondola. The beak was a massive projection of brass or iron, intended to sink or disable an enemy's ship in action, like the modern "ram." (See Fig. 108.)

144. biiugo certamine chariot-race. Virgil here brings in the Homeric contest by way of comparison.

145. carcere: the bound, or starting place; properly, stalls in which the horses were confined till the word was given.

146. immissis, at full speed.

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- iugis, often referring to teams.

147. proni, etc., the action of whipping the horses.

148. studiis, a regular word for expressions of approval which take sides. It refers to both plausu, clapping, and fremitu, shouts, which

are the particular methods of showing favor. 434), partisans.

149. inclusa, enclosed by hills.

151. primis, foremost.

faventum (see note i.

volutant, echo back.

152. turbam inter, amid the confusion and noise of his competitors. 154. discrimine (abl. of manner), distance, i.e. from Cloanthus.

155. superare priorem, i.e. each to get ahead of the other.

157. iunctis frontibus, even prows.

159. scopulo (§ 226; G. 343). — tenebant, were just reaching the halfway point (metam medio gurgite).

162. quo, where (lit. whither). -— mihi (§ 236; G. 351; H. 389). 163. litus ama, hug the shore (i.e. the rock). stringat sine palmula, let the oar-blade just graze (ut omitted, § 331, R.2; G. 546, R.3; H. 499, 2): they leave the rock on the left as they sweep round it.

165. pelagi, the open sea.

166. diversus, so wide.

167. revocabat, was trying to call him back (§ 277, c; G. 224; H. 469, 1).

168. tergo (dative). — propiora tenentem, winning the inside track.


170. iter (§ 238; G. 331; H. 371, ii. N.).· priorem (§ 228, a; G. 330; H. 372), his leader. tuta, i.e. because he has rounded the rock and is now inside on a straight and open course.

172. tum vero, introducing the important moment, as usual. — iuveni (§ 235, a; G. 343, R.2; H. 384, 4, N.2).

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180. scopuli (§ 216, b; G. 371, 7).

181. illum (§ 237, b; G. 329, R.'; H. 371, iii.).

184. superare (§ 330, ƒ; G. 424, R.3).

185. propinquat, gets the nearer place.

186. præeunte: observe that the diphthong is here made short be

fore the following vowel (§ 347, b; G. 702; H. 576, 1).

190. sorte suprema: = on the last fatal day (§ 256; G. 392; H. 429). 191. promite, put forth.

192. animos, spirit.

193. Maleae: this headland, the extreme south of Greece, is proverbially dangerous to navigation. — sequacibus undis, the pursuing waves, from which it is hard to escape.

195. quamquam O, and yet! oh that: a half-expressed wish. - superent, etc., let whomsoever the gods favor, win the first prize; at least to come off last let us be ashamed.

196. hoc vincite, win this at least (cognate acc.).

198. procumbunt, bend to their oars. — aerea, armed with brass. 199. subtrahitur solum (for aequor), the course flies beneath them. artus, frame.

201. viris, i.e. Mnestheus' crew, of the Pristis.

202. animi (§ 218, c; G. 374, R.3; H. 399, iii.).

203. iniquo, i.e. dangerous.

205. murice, reef: properly a rock jagged and rough, like some sorts of shellfish (murex).

206. obnixi crepuere, striking against it, crashed.

hung, while the stern still dragged in the water.

207. morantur: translate as a participle, delaying.



208. trudes, boat-hooks, tipped with an iron crescent. — contos, poles tipped with a spike.

211. agmine... vocatis, with the rapid driving of oars, and with an appeal to the winds.

212. prona, descending, i.e. where he can run smoothly down to


215. plausum, fluttering.

216. tecto, in her home (the rock).

217. radit, skims: notice the rapid and smooth movement of the


221. brevibus vadis, shallow reefs, the adjective really adding nothing to the meaning, except to express the idea from another point of view.

222. discentem, practising (said with a touch of humor).

224. consequitur, overtakes.

226. urguet, presses him close.

227. clamor, the cheers (from shore).

228. instigant, spur him on.


studiis, with their favoring ap

229. proprium, their deserved, i.e. so far won. -hi, Cloanthus and his men.

230. ni teneant, for “are indignant at the disgrace (which will be theirs) if they do not," etc. (§ 341, c; G. 603; H. 511, 1).

231. hos, Mnestheus and his party.

234. fudisset, poured forth. in vota: i.e. the gods are summoned to be witnesses to his vows.

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