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THE funeral games in this book make an agreeable interlude in the more serious action of the poem. Many of the incidents of these games are taken directly from the account of the funeral games of Patroclus in the twenty-third book of the Iliad. The contest of ships, however, and the equestrian exhibition, are features wholly original. The incident of the burning of the fleet, variously told, was part of the old Trojan legend.

I. interea, i.e. during the time of Dido's death. - medium iter, i.e. he is well on his way; compare aequor medium, iii. 664.

2. certus, fixed in his purpose. atros Aquilone, dark (ruffled)

with the north wind.

3. iam conlucent: the pile built ostensibly to burn the effigy of Æneas is supposed to serve for her own cremation.

4. accenderit, see § 341, d; G. 630; cf. H. 524. The clause may also be regarded as an indirect question.

5. duri, etc., but the cruel pangs of a great love betrayed, and the knowledge of what a maddened woman can attempt, lead the hearts of the Trojans into sad forebodings. Though they have no certain knowledge, yet they suspect the cause of the fire. - polluto: the word means, properly, desecrated"; here "betrayed.". amore (§ 255; G. 409;

H. 431).

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6. possit, an indirect question serving as a noun in agreement with notum. — notum, see § 292, a ; G. 667, R.2; H. 549, N.o

10. olli (§ 235, a ; G. 343, R.2 ; H. 384, 4, N.").—caeruleus imber, dark rain-cloud.

11. inhorruit, the waves grew rough with black shadows. Virgil doubtless has in mind the dark appearance of the water produced by a squall; compare atros, v. 2.

12. ipse, even the pilot himself is at a loss.

13. quianam (an archaic use of quia, cf. iv. 538), ah! why?

14. paras, have in store.

15. colligere arma, to secure the rigging, i.e. to make all tight, and prepare for the gale; perhaps a military rather than nautical phrase. — incumbere, bend to.

16. obliquat sinus, trims the sail: they had been sailing with the wind astern (aequatis velis, iv. 587), probably from the southwest, and as the wind now comes from the west, they can no longer sail on the same

course, so as to weather the gates islands. The ancients could probably only sail within seven or eight points of the wind (nearly at right angles with it). (See Fig. 102 for a representation of their style of rigging.)

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17. auctor, in its proper sense of voucher or security; here as predicate apposition (§ 184, third example; G. 324; H. 363). -spondeat, see § 307, b; G. 598; H. 509.

18. hoc caelo (§ 248; G. 401; H. 419, iii.), with this weather.

19. transversa (adverbial, § 240, a; G. 331, R.3; H. 378, 2), across

our course.

20. aer: clouds being supposed to be condensed air.

21. tantum, merely (so much as that even).

24. fraterna, of your brother, i.e. Eryx, son of Venus (§ 190).

25. rite memor, recalling correctly. — servata, before observed, i.e.

in their former voyage.

27. iamdudum, qualifying poscere.

28. flecte viam velis (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420), turn the course of your voyage. Literally, turn your course with your sails by setting them on that tack. - sit, see § 268; G. 251; H. 486, ii.

29. optem, see $311, a; compare note over $ 319; G. 602; H. 503, i. - demittere, bring into port; compare i. 381.

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32. secundi: the wind is now astern, which had been abeam before they changed their course.

35. miratus, having seen with wonder.

36. rates (hendiadys).

37. pelle: Virgil here, as in many other places, preserves the remembrance of the earlier civilization, in which skins were the common covering; compare i. 275, and Fig. 45, p. 87.

38. Criniso, the reading of most Mss., though the Greek name of the river is Crimisus. Egesta or Segesta, said the tale, was a Trojan maid whom her father had sent to Sicily, to avoid the doom of an oracle which commanded Trojan maidens to be cast to a sea-monster sent by Neptune to avenge the perfidy of Laomedon: her son by the river-god was Acestes (Egestus).

39. parentum, i.e. through whom he was akin to Æneas. 40. reduces


on their return.

gaza, store, i.e. of provisions and

42. primo, compare iii. 588 and note.

46. completur, is just closing.

49. nisi fallor: it should be remembered that the Roman calendar was extremely confused till the time of Julius Cæsar; hence it is not unnatural that Virgil should attribute a doubt on the subject to Æneas.

51. Gaetulis, etc., i.e. even in times of the utmost hardships and hazard (in barbarous Africa or on the hostile shores of Greece): much more under the friendly hospitality of Acestes. Notice the emphasis on hunc = on this day if I were passing it, etc. 52. deprensus, overtaken by it. Mycenae (§ 214, f; G. 359; H. 396, vi.).

53. pompas exsequerer, etc., I would perform the solemn procession (hence the noun exsequiae, used of funeral rites).

54. suis, appropriate.

55. nunc, but now as it is, opposed to the supposition above. — ultro, without our agency.

56. haud equidem, surely not.

57. delati, brought down to land by favoring winds. intramus, perhaps for intravimus, which would be more natural.

58. laetum, cheerful, with more of gratitude than grief, assured as we are of divine favor.

59. poscamus ventos, let us pray for favorable winds. Some

suppose that the prayer is addressed to the winds themselves (cf. iii. 115).

60. velit, may he [Anchises] be pleased to grant that, when my city is established, I may offer him yearly these rites in temples consecrated in his name (sibi). The construction is that of an object-clause after poscamus, withcut ut.

62. adhibete epulis, bid to your feast (see Hor. Od. iv. 5, 32; Ovid, Fasti iv. 827-830).

64. si when (cf. German wenn). · nona Aurora: the novemdiale was a festival on the ninth day after death, when the days of mourning were ended (see II. xxiv. 664; Bry. 843: "Nine days we would bewail him in the halls").

66. ponam, a technical word; compare Ecl. iii. 31.

67. qui: the antecedents are the subjects of adsint.

68. incedit, advances proudly. -- viribus, referring to wrestling. iaculo: the hurling of the javelin is not included in the games which actually follow.

69. fidit: audet, ventures.

71. ore favete, i.e. let only auspicious words be spoken: the form regularly used for imposing silence when a religious ceremony is about to begin, because any quarreling or ill-omened expressions would destroy the sanctity of the rites. -- ramis: the wreath was a regular accompaniment of all religious ceremonies.

73. aevi maturus (§ 218, c; G. 374, R.; H. 399, iii.), of ripe years, i.e. old as compared with Elymus or Ascanius.

Fig. 103.

75. ibat, passed.

77. carchesia, bowls (compare iii. 66; Ecl. v. 67): a vessel peculiar to Bacchus and Hercules. (See Fig. 103). Baccho, see § 244.

78. sanguine, of course of a slain victim; cf. Ecl. v. 66.

79. purpureos, gay: the ancients applied the word to a wide range of colors on the purple side of red, and so often used it of a merely bright color as here.

80. cinere recepti, the ashes [of my father] in vain rescued; cf.

iii. 711.

81. animae, umbrae: plural, like Manes, though of a single person. 82. non licuit (exclam.) = why was it not permitted me? compare iv. 550.

83. quicumque, whatever, but agreeing in gender with Thybrim; the expression implies a very human doubt as to his ever reaching the river, almost as if he said, "if there is any such."

84. anguis: the genius (v. 95, indwelling spirit, or tutelar divinity) of a place, especially of a tomb, is frequently typified by a serpent in ancient art (compare Ovid, Met. xv. 389, 390). (Fig. 104.) The seven coils have been fancifully held to signify the seven years of Æneas' wandering.

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"as when," and not, as usual, a supposition, "as if."

90. ille, the serpent: notice this common use of the pronouns to change the subject.

91. tandem serpens slowly winding. - pateras: the arrangements for libation consisted of a vessel of some kind; here pocula, carchesia, so called, to hold the liquid, and a similar shallow vessel from which it was poured, patera. -lēvia: notice the quantity.

92. libavit, compare i. 256 and note.-dapes, the offerings of blood, wine, milk.

94. hoc (abl. of cause). - instaurat continues with fresh zeal. genium loci: local deities seem often to be conceived in the form of serpents. The worship of serpents is a very ancient custom.

95. famulum: as a deified person, Anchises might have a special attendant.

96. putet, see § 334, .- bidentes (see iv. 57), sues, iuvencos, the suovetaurilia. (See Fig. S2, p. 166.)

99. remissos, sent back to share in these solemnities: apparently the shade, like a divinity, came to receive the offering; compare iii. 303.

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