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564. certa mori, bent on death, and accordingly reckless; compare certus eundi, with no difference of meaning (§ 273, d; G. 429, R.1; H. 533, ii. 3).—vario, changing; cf. v. 532.

565. non fugis, will you not fly? see § 276, c; G. 268.

566. iam, presently. — trabibus, i.e. the Carthaginian fleet.

568. attigerit, see § 307, c.

569. varium, see § 189, c; G. 202, R.; II. 438, 4.

571. subitis umbris, the sudden apparition.

572. fatigat, chides.

573. vigilate, waken (lit., be awake).

574. solvite, unfurl.

576. sancte deorum, holy deity (§ 216, b; G. 371, R.').

578. sidera... feras, grant us propitious stars (weather).

582. litora deseruere, i.e. and now they have left the shore, taking a new point of view to indicate the haste of the action.

587. aequatis, even, i.e. right before the wind.

590. abscissa, plucking. -flaventes comas (cf. collecta, i. 320 and note), golden locks, the color universally ascribed to heroic persons.

591. advena, an adventurer. — inluserit, i.e. laugh my power to scorn; the fut. perf. looks forward to the completion of the act, as if she said "shall he succeed in doing so?"

592. non arma expedient, will not my men bring forth their weapons?

593. navalibus, from the dockyards. (A peculiar abruptness is given by the pause at the end of the fifth foot: notice also the rapid and hurried movement of the following verse.)

594. flammas, torches.

vela: the reading tela seems forced. 595. mentem, i.e. her purpose of death.

596. nunc, emphatic: unhappy Dido! is it now first that your wrong. doing [to Sychæus] comes home to you?

597. tum decuit, emphatic: then it ought. - cum... dabas (§ 277, c), when you offered him the sceptre = before you put the power in his hand.

- en dextra, i.e. the right hand given in making a pledge, as with us; spoken with scorn, i.e. this then is the honor of this most pious hero. For the confusion of moods and tenses in the whole of this passage see A. & G. Gr., chap. 4, note.

598. quem aiunt (i.e. eius quem), of him who, they say, carries with him his country's gods.

600. non potui. . . divellere, could I not have torn? (§ 288, a; H. 537, 1). —abreptum (§ 292, R.; G. 667, R.'; H. 549, 5). 602. epulandum (§ 294, đ; "Lyestes.

G. 431; H. 544, N.2), see the story of

603. fuerat, might have been (§ 308, c; G. 246, R.3); fuisset, suppose it had (§ 266, c; G. 257; H. 514, N.).

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604. quem metui, i.e. why did I not do it? faces, i.e. set the ships on fire. The Romans drew their ships on land and fortified them. tulissem, I ought to have, etc. (§ 266, e; G. 266, R.3).

605. foros, the gangways.

606. exstinxem, for exstinxissem (§ 128, b; G. 191, 5 ; H. 235, 3). 607. opera omnia terrarum, all deeds of mortals.

608. interpres... et conscia, conscious witness; properly agent, or even cause, as the goddess of marriage.

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610. Dirae, see v. 473.—di, the special or tutelar divinity, but why more than one is not clear. Perhaps it was conceived as twofold: hence the expression Manes, and the custom of erecting two altars to the shade (cf. iii. 63). The idea of divinities in pairs was a common Roman notion.

611. accipite, hear, as often. - haec, these my words. meritum, as I have deserved (agreeing with numen). There is underlying these curses the idea of the second sight of a person about to die. malis advertite numen, turn your power to (avenge) my wrongs.

612. audite, grant.

614. hic terminus haeret, this end (of his wanderings) remains


615-620. at, at least. These are the ominous lines which were opened by Charles I., when he consulted the Sortes Vergilianae at Oxford. It will be noticed that they are so worded, that they do not prevent the expedition of Æneas from being one of final glory and success. The curses are literally fulfilled in the later fortunes of Æneas (see the later books of the Eneid), including his reign of only three years, and the loss of his body, which was swept away by the Numicius, or at least was not found after the battle in which he perished.

616. extorris (ex-terra), an exile. - finibus (abl. of separation). 619. optata, longed-for, a general epithet of light. As we might say in English," the boon of light."

622-629. tum vos . .

nepotes: an imprecation prophetic of the Punic wars; which, strictly fulfilled, made the greatest struggle, but also the proudest military glory of Rome.

623. exercete, pursue.

625. exoriare . . . ultor, arise thou (unknown) avenger!— aliquis, because no one person is supposed to be meant. No Roman, however, could hear it without thinking of Hannibal (cf. Livy, xxi. I, 1, 3). 626. qui sequare, to pursue (§ 317; G. 632; H. 497, i.).

627. nunc olim, now or hereafter.

not cease.

629. ipsique nepotesque, i.e. may the warfare begin at once, and Notice that -que is cut off before the next verse (synapheia). 631. quam primum, on the instant. - abrumpere, to destroy. — lucem, life.

633. namque, etc., for her own the dark tomb (cinis) held in her native land.

634. mihi huc siste, bring hither to me, lit. set (cause to stand) before me.

635. corpus ... spargere, to sprinkle her body for lustration with running water, a very ancient rite. properet, see § 331, R.; G. 655;

H. 523, iii.

636. pecudes, the black sheep, sacrificed to Pluto (Iovi Stygio). The rite for which she is ostensibly preparing is a mock funeral, in which the effigies of Æneas and his exuviae are to be burned on the pile; see v. 496. — monstrata, appointed.

637. sic veniat, i.e. after having made such preparations.

638. paravi, see vv. 504-508.

640. capitis = person: she speaks of the funeral pyre of the faithless Trojan, disguising the fact that it is her own.

641. anili, i.e. bustling.

642. coeptis immanibus, her horrid purpose, lit., that which she has begun (abl. of cause). — effera, maddened.

643. trementis (accusative).

645. inrumpit: she rushes down from the tower (v. 586), where she has been hitherto, into the inner open court.

647. quaesitum munus, a gift sought for no such service: probably an ornamental sword or dagger given her by Æneas; though this seems to contradict v. 507.

648. hic, hereupon.

649. mente, thought.

650. que. • que, correlative.

651. dulces exuviae, etc., dear relics while fate and the god allowed. 652. exsolvite, i.e. by my death.

654. magna, i.e. I shall go a famous woman.

656. ulta virum, etc., i.e. she has avenged her husband by carrying away her brother's money and people. — recepi, inflicted the due (re-) punishment; see note to ii. 103.

657. felix, a verb fuissem is implied, the apodosis of tetigissen^. - tantum, only, lit., so much and no more.

660. sic, sic iuvat ire, thus, thus, I joy to go (as she speaks these words, she is supposed to stab herself twice): the words imply that though unavenged, still even thus she joys to go.

661. hunc ignem, the blaze of the pile which is about to be kindled. -hauriat, let him drink in.

663. ferro (ablative of instrument).

664. comites, her attendants (cf. v. 391).

665. sparsas, blood-stained.

666. concussam, startled. - bacchatur, runs wildly. (Fig. 101.)

Fig. 101.

669. ruat, were falling in ruins; see § 312, R.; G. 604; H. 513, ii. 671. culmina = lofty abodes.

672. trepido cursu, running wildly (abl. of manner).

675. hoc illud, i.e. was this the thing you meant?

676. hoc rogus, etc., is this what the funeral pile, etc., were preparing for me?-iste, i,e. that you ordered me to build.

677. quid, etc., i.e. shall I complain that you did not let me die with

you, or that you made me instrumental in your death?

678. vocasses, you should have called me (§ 266, e; G. 266, R.3). 680. struxi, with these hands did I build it (the pyre)?—vocavi voce, with my voice did I call?

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683. date... abluam, let me wash her wounds in water (object clause without ut). The reading of Heyne makes the sense "Bring water for her wounds, I will," etc.

685. ore legam, a customary office of affection, like closing the eyes of the dying. See Cic. Verr. v. 118.-evaserat, etc., as she spoke she had already mounted.

686. semianimem: the first i is read like y (§ 347, c; G. 717;

H. 608, iii. N.2).

687. siccabat (§ 277, c; G. 224; H. 469, 1), tried to stanch.

689. stridit, gurgles.

690. cubito (§ 254, b; G. 403, r.3; H. 425, 1, N.). — adnixa, leaning. levavit, supported.

691. toro, dative, or possibly loc. ablative; cf. humi, v. 481.

692. quaesivit lucem: the ancients were strongly impressed with the thought that the last act of the dying was to gaze upon the light. - reperta, sc. luce (ablative absolute).

693. longum, prolonged.

694. Irim: Iris was the messenger of Juno; but the thread of life was usually supposed to be cut (for women) by Proserpine (v. 698).

695. quae... resolveret, to disengage the struggling spirit and the close-locked limbs (subj. of purpose).

696. fato, i.e. by natural death; merita morte, i.e. by death incurred by her own guilt.

698. crinem: as a few hairs were plucked from the head of the victim before sacrifice, so the "fatal lock" must be cut from the crown (vertice) before death; cf. sacrum, v. 703.

700. croceis, of course, the rainbow, the pathway of the goddess.


701. mille colores, i.e. the actual rainbow, which in Homer is not an attribute of Iris the divine messenger, though called by the same name. trahens, drawing out the long line of color. — sole, see § 255, a; G. 408; H. 431, 4.

702. hunc (sc. crinem).— sacrum, predicate.

704. una, at the same time.

705. in ventos: the breath was naturally identified with the life or soul; cf. animus, anima, exanimis, etc.

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