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206. nune, opposed to the doubt he raises in v. 208 that their sacrifices are idle. — pictis epulata toris, banqueting on embroidered couches, a general expression for Moorish pomp and luxury.

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208. an te... horremus, is it in vain we stand in awe of thee? The alternative is either that Jupiter does not see what is going on, or that he cares not for mortal affairs at all, otherwise he would not permit it; in the latter case the fear of the gods is idle.

209. caeci, i.c. do thy lightnings strike blindly? So inania, unmeaning. These phenomena were commonly regarded as the avenging action of Jupiter.

The word

210. miscent, raise. means to produce any confused effect; here used of the wild thunder.

212. pretio, i.e. on land she had purchased, not taken by force; hence her conduct is the more arrogant. — litus, i.e. territory by the sea.

213. loci leges, authority over the region.

214. dominum, as her lord: said scornfully.

215. ille Paris: both as vain and luxurious, and as the successful suitor of another's wife. semiviro, unmanly, a later epithet of Phrygians (partly on account of their dress, cf. ix. 616), but not properly of the Trojans of the heroic age.

216. mitra, a Phrygian cap, having lapels which covered ears and chin. (See Fig. 86, p. 172, and Fig. 96.) -madentem, moist with perfumes.

Fig. 96.

217. subnexus, tied under the chin. Anything worn on the head, except for defence in battle, was a mark of effeminacy. The Emperor Hadrian "marched on foot and bare-headed over the snows of Caledonia and the sultry plains of Upper Egypt” (Gibbon). — rapto, the spoil, i.e. her and her kingdom.


218. quippe, while we, forsooth (with sarcasm). — famam, story, i.e. belief that the gods help mankind; compare note to v. 208. That is, we worship thee as a righteous divinity.

219. aras tenentem, cf. “holding the horns of the altar," as appealing for protection or revenge.

222. Mercurium (cf. Od. v. 28-42): Mercury, the Italian god of merchandise (merx), was identified because of this function with the Grecian Hermes, the proper messenger of the gods, protector of heralds, and divinity of persuasion and intercourse between man and man. — - talia mandat, gives him these commands.

223. voca, in a slightly different sense from vocatis (iii. 253): Mercury summons the winds as a god, Eneas implores them as a mortal. 225. exspectat, lingers. - non respicit, etc., has no regard to the cities assigned him.

226. celeris per auras, i.e. swiftly through the air. The idea is something like " on the wings of the wind."

227. non... promisit, not like this did his beauteous mother promise him to be.

228. ideoque, or for this end. — bis: Æneas was rescued by Venus from Diomed (II. v. 311–317; Bry. 378), and from the flames of Troy (Æn. ii. 589-633).

229. sed fore, but [promised] that he should be one who should govern Italy, big with [the future destinies of] empire, and resounding with the din of war. including in her promise the warlike story of after ages, as implied in v. 231. regeret (subj. of purpose, cf. note to Ecl. iv. 33). 233. molitur laborem, attempts the task.—laude (§ 260, c; G. 419; H. 435, N.2).

235. spe: notice the hiatus at the caesura. - inimica, hostile, in anticipation of later history.

237. naviget: i.e. this one word of command contains the whole (summa, noun). — haec, hic, this; referring to the command preceding, but agreeing as usual with the predicate. nostri: we should expect noster, as the genitive is subjective; but perhaps Virgil uses the form merely because it is less common.

242. virgam, the rod (caduceus) twined with two serpents, familiar on account of Mercury's functions as the emblem of commerce, but properly the herald's staff, and used by Mercury as yoTouTóc in the manner described here. (See Fig. 97.) For the whole description compare Od. v. 43; Bry. 55.

244. resignat, seals fast. [re in composition has two exactly opposite meanings. With signo it almost, if not always, means to undo the action of the verb. The passage would then imply a metempsychosis. As this however does not give a satisfactory meaning to the passage, it seems better to take it in the intensive sense which is common (along with the other) in relego, recludo, revincio, repagula (repag- as in pango), refixo, redimio, recingo. This word resigno

is also used in the sense of rescribo, which shows that undoing was not the only meaning. In this view hac animas... mittit expresses the powers of the rod in the world below; the remainder, its powers on the earth.]—morte (abl. of manner).


245. illa fretus with this aid (§ 254, b; G. 373, R.'; H. 425, ii. I, N.): here begins the narrative again. — agit, sets in motion. - tranat (transno, hence taking the accusative).

247. Atlantis duri, of much-enduring Atlas. There is a special fitness in this, as Maia, Mercury's mother, was the daughter of Atlas. This mountain, the limit of the world to the ancients, on which the heaven was supposed to rest, was made a mystical demigod with human attributes. 248. cinctum ... caput, whose pine-grown head is ever girt with black clouds.

Fig. 97.

251. senis, the ancient one: not merely the momentary personification of a mountain, but a mountain which was at the same time, by a long-established conception, a demigod.

252. paribus nitens alis, poised on even wing, like a sailing bird (§ 254, b; G. 403, R.; H. 425, ii. 1, N.).—Cyllenius, so called from a mountain in Arcadia; see viii. 139.

253. praeceps ad aquas, i.e. swoops down perpendicularly.

257. litus... secabat, i.e. skimming near the water: in his flight he cut between the sandy shore and the stormy deep.

258. avo, see note, v. 247.

260. novantem, i.e. planting new structures, to take the place of the magalia.

261. stellatus iaspide, set with jaspers (like stars), on the hilt.

262. laena, a thick woollen cloak, much used under the empire instead of the toga, and of a "warm" purple (ardebat murice). The whole description is here apparently a mark of luxury. — ardebat, blazed. 264. discreverat, had broidered; separated the thread of the warp, with different color, gold-thread on purple.

265. invadit, attacks (like aggreditur, but stronger).—altae, a hint at the future grandeur and hostility of Carthage.

266. uxorius, devoted to your bride.


269. torquet, etc., whirls sky and earth, i.e. guides their revolution. 271. struis aim at, but with special reference to the city he is building. teris otia, waste your time; lit., wear away idleness, i.e. making the time idle instead of laborious, and thus wearing it away.

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273. nec super, etc., see v. 233.

274. spes Iuli (obj. gen.), i.e. the hope connected with Iulus as your heir. The name, in this connection, seems particularly to point to the Julian house: Ascanium, as the son; Iuli, as the heir.

277. medio sermone, abruptly.

279. amens, bewildered.

283. quid agat, a sort of indir. discourse: what shall he do? His words would be quid agam. — ambire, approach (indirectly), with the special view of propitiating.

285. dividit, turns in various ways.

286. rapit, hurries; versat (intens.), turns rapidly.

287. alternanti, vacillating (whether to inform Dido or not).

289. aptent, cogant (subj. of indir. disc. after the verb of ordering implied in vocat, directs them to equip, to gather, etc. (§ 331, R.2; G. 655; H. 523, iii.).

290. arma: perhaps for defence in case of interference; but not, necessarily, anything except the outfit of rigging, etc., for the voyage. rebus novandis, dative (§ 299, b; G. 430; H. 544, 2).

291. optuma, best of women; a mere epithet.

292. nesciat (ind. disc.). — speret, expect; used in a bad as well as a good sense. — rumpi, see § 330, ƒ; G. 424, R.3

293. temptaturum (sc. esse), depending on the idea of saying implied in vocat. - quae (sc. sint), indirect question depending on the preceding.


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294. rebus, for the business. - - dexter, skilful, as in Eng. dexterous,

295. facessunt, make haste to do.

297. excepit, caught, i.e. a hint of.

298. tuta = however safe. — eadem, see v. 190. — impia, cruel.

300. inops animi


amens, genitive, not locative, as in v. 203;

compare compos mentis (§ 218, c; G. 373; H. 399, i. 3).

301. commotis sacris, at the shaking of the sacred emblems. The orgies of Bacchus were accompanied by the brandishing of the thyrsus, the

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clashing of cymbals, and the carrying of the mystic cista containing sacred emblems, which was probably shaken. (See Figs. 98 and 99.)

302. Thyias (dissyl.), the priestess of Bacchus, probably from 0vw, to rush headlong; possibly from Ovía,

the branch of juniper or fragment of cedar borne in the procession. trieterica (Greek) orgia, biennial festival of Bacchus in Thebes, occurring, according to Greek and Roman modes of reckoning, every third year. Citharon is the mountain-range south of Thebes, where the night-orgies took place. -audito Baccho, hearing the cry of Bacchus, i.e. Evoë Bacche, the customary cry.

304. ultro, first, i.e. before he has found heart to speak.

305. dissimulare, see note to

rumpi, v. 292. - sperasti, etc.,

Fig. 99.

did you even hope, faithless one, that you could hide so great a wrong, and steal silently from my shores? (i.e. not only go, but conceal your going).

307. data dextera = plighted faith (i.e. the three points are love, honor, and pity).

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