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II. quem (predicate apposition).· quam forti pectore et armis (abl. of quality), how brave his heart and [deeds of] arms! It is best to take the words as referring to moral qualities, since timor (cf. v. 13) is obviously opposed to them. The whole thus becomes much more striking. "What a noble mien, what heroic mind and doughty deeds! in fact he must be of divine descent, for common souls are recognized by fear." Here quibus, etc., is dictated by compassion, as the first exclamation is by admiration, and then v. 15 gives the natural conclusion. The rendering imitated by Tennyson is less satisfactory :

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"O noble breast and all-puissant arms."
"Idyls of the King.

12. equidem, I'm sure. — vana, idle, i.e. groundless.

13. degeneres: the emphatic position gives a different sense from the apparent one, as if she said, "ignoble souls are betrayed by fear." - heu quibus, etc., but ah! tossed by what fates, what wars, proved to the utmost, did he recite! exhausta: the image is of drawing out all the contents of a well or cistern.

15. animo (loc. ablative).

16. ne... vellem, not to think of, etc. (§ 331, d; G. 546; H. 498, i.). For tense see § 287, g; G. 517, R.2 — cui, see § 229, c; G. 346, r.2; H. 385, 4. — vinclo (abl. of manner).

17. deceptam. . . fefellit, cheated me betrayed by his death.

18. pertaesum (impers., see § 146, b), utterly weary; for the force of per, cf. § 170, c.—1 - taedae (§ 221, b; G. 376; H. 410, iv.): torches had a conspicuous place in marriage rites; cf. v. 338.

19. potui, I might have perhaps (§ 308, c; G. 246, R.; H. 511, N.3). 21. sparsos Penates, my household gods [were] stained (§ 292, a; G. 324, R.3; H. 549, N.2). — fraterna, etc., by a brother's murder.


22. inflexit sensus, has changed my feelings. — animum . . . impulit, has moved my heart to waver. -labantem (proleptic).

24. ima tellus, the depths of earth.optem, see § 311, a; G. 250; H. 486, i. — dehiscat, see § 331, R.; G. 546, R.; H. 499, 2.

27. resolvo, make void (cf. ii. 157), see § 327, a; G. 577; H. 520, 1. 29. abstulit, has borne away with him.-habeat (hortatory subjunctive).

31. luce, see § 247; G. 399; H. 417.— magis dilecta, etc., dearer to thy sister than light = sister, dearer to me than life.

32. sola... iuventa, wilt thou wither, sorrowing alone, all through thy youth; compare carpitur, v. 2.

33. nec... . noris, etc., nor know dear offspring, or the joys of love? 34. Manus, referring back to abstulit, etc., v. 29: think you that

ashes or the buried shades can care for this? i.e. those are all that is left of your former husband, and what interest can they have in your action?

35. esto, and if they did, referring to the preceding.

Even in that case, you have done all that could be expected. — mariti : suitors.

aegram, in your grief.

36. Libyae, of Libya. - Tyro, a comparatively rare use of the ablative of place from whence.

37. Africa terra, the Afric land; triumphis dives, i.e. warlike and victorious.

38. placito, pleasing to you. -- amori, dative: partly an imitation of Greek, and partly an extension of such uses as resistere, obstare (§ 229, c; G. 344, R.3; H. 385, 4).

39. quorum arvis, see i. 339, 563. — consederis (ind. question). 40. hinc... hinc (as usual, of the two sides).

41. infreni, riding without bridles, alluding to a well-known habit of the Numidians, and indicating skilful horsemanship. — inhospita, i.e. on account of the marauding tribes on the shore.

42. deserta siti: and hence affording no retreat or assistance. — Barcaei, the wild tribes of the desert here hinted at - like the modern Bedouins alarm the imagination still more than a regular force.

43. Tyro, ablative of place from which.

44. germani, see i. 361.

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45. equidem, in fact, i.e. the circumstances are providential. — Iunone secunda: Juno both as tutelar divinity of Carthage, and as goddess of marriage. The construction may be regarded as ablative absolute. 46. hunc cursum, i.e. their course hither.

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48. coniugio tali, under such an alliance (abl. of cause or means). The learner will have seen by this time that the ablative cannot accurately be divided off into its various uses, for the reason that the author himself did not know which one he was using, any more than we determine exactly the shade of meaning in which we use a common preposition.

49. quantis rebus (dative) = to what a height.

50. sacris litatis, i.e. having propitiated the gods by fit offerings. litare means properly to sacrifice with favorable omens. The poets add a cognate accusative, which, as here, becomes the subject of the passive. 52. desaevit, has spent its rage, literally, "is spending" (§ 328). — hiemps (§ 11, c). — aquosus, compare i. 535, and note.

53. quassatae, sc. sunt. — tractabile, sc. est. as often, put for the weather.

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- caelum, here,

55. solvit pudorem, did away her scruple: pudor is that feeling of shame which rises from self-respect.

57. bidentes, the name given to the sheep during the second year, when two of the eight "milk-teeth" (in the lower jaw only) drop out, and are replaced by two large, conspicuous, permanent teeth; so that, till the beginning of the third year, when two more are replaced in a similar way, the creature looks as if it had only two teeth in all. This sacrifice was a kind of sin-offering.

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A fine representation of her is given in Fig. 89.

59. Iunoni: Juno was the special guardian of women, each woman having her own Juno, as every man his genius. She presided over mar. riage, and (as Lucina) over childbirth. (See Fig. 90.)

61. vaccae, the cow, apparently, to Juno alone.

62. ora, i.e. of the statues. - spatiatur: before a sacrifice, the Roman performed a slow measured movement before the altar, holding a lighted torch.- pinguis: the portion laid upon the altar consisted principally of bones and fat.

63. instaurat diem donis, renews the offerings the next day, lit., renews the day with gifts, i.e. makes a new day of sacrifice by means of the offerings. This repetition seems to be caused by the anxiety of Dido to secure the favor of the gods. It is possible, also, as suggested by Ladewig, that the omens may have continued unfavorable. - reclusis, opened. This ceremony represents the extispicium, the most important form of augury.

64. spirantia exta, the palpitating entrails; the heart, liver, etc., were the organs observed in this sort of divination. —inhians, gazing (lit., with open mouth).

65. ignarae, i.e. in supposing these sacrifices and omens can avail a woman consumed with love.

66. est (§ 140; G. 187; H. 291) ... medullas, the subtle flame consumes her vitals: many take mollis with medullas.

69. coniecta sagitta, when the arrow has reached its mark. 70. Cresia: the particular place has no significance except so far as the Cretans were famous archers, and to give the favorite Greek flavor. 71. pastor agens: the figure is of an accidental shot by a shepherd, which has taken effect without his knowledge.-volatile, flying.

75. paratam, emphatic: already prepared, so that he need seek no further for a city yet to be built.

77. eadem, she, again. — labente die, at the close of day, the usual time for the principal meal.

78. demens, heedless, since it would only inflame her unhappy passion. 79. pendet ab ore, hangs on the lips.

So. lumen... premit, the moon in her turn hides her light.

82. stratis relictis, the couch [in the banquet-hall] which he has left. 83. absens, absentem: a favorite collocation of words with the ancients, bringing the same or kindred words together.

84. Ascanium, who has now returned to his father in his proper shape. - genitoris imagine, his likeness to his father, lit., the image of his father in him.

85. infandum amorem, her unspeakable love. si possit, to try if For construction cf. i. 578 and note.

she can.

87. portus: notice that there is a division into two parts connected by -ve; the second part is again subdivided by aut.

88. minae murorum, menacing walls: a favorite Latin form of expression, making a quality more emphatic by embodying it in a noun.

89. machina, enginery: probably the crane or windlass that remains useless at the top of the unfinished wall. (See Fig. 91.)

90. peste, plague (the madness of love). — teneri, possessed.

IV. 104.]


The Æneid.

91. famam = regard for her reputation, a common form of expression in Latin, where we with more exactness require two words instead of one. The Latin, with its small vocabulary and brevity of expression, often makes one word mean more than we do.

92. adgreditur, accosts: used of the one who begins the dialogue. 93. vero, truly (ironical). — refertis, you carry off: used of carrying away the prize won in battle.

96. nec... fallit, and it does not escape me, either, that in fear of adeo only gives emphasis to our walls you have held in suspicion, etc. the whole.

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Fig. 91.


98. quo, etc., to what end with all this strife? Many editions have We must suppose an ellipsis of tendis, or some such

certamina tanta.

word, taking the noun (certamine) as ablative of means.
100. exercemus, maintain; see § 269, f; G. 268.


IOI. traxit throughout her frame.

furorem = has caught the madness (and feels it)

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102. communem (§ 186, c; G. 324; H. 438, 2), in common, i.e. auspiciis: from the power possessed only by with joint authority. the highest magistrates of taking the auspices, this word comes to mean authority.

103. liceat, sc. ei, i.e. Dido. - marito (§ 227; G. 345; H. 385, i.). 104. dotales Tyrios, the Tyrians as her dower: i.e. the portion brought by the wife to her husband (dos), not the marriage-portion settled upon the wife, as among northern nations (Tac. Germ. 18). The gift is

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