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284. annum, see § 239, b; G. 330; H. 376, N.

285. hiemps, the fifth winter since the fall of Troy; the voyage having been begun in the following spring, one winter spent in Thrace, and two in Crete. (Heyne.)

286. aere (abl. of material) cavo, on account of the form of the shield. -Abantis: Abas was an ancient king of Argos, connected with some marvellous tale of a votive shield, which appears to be Virgil's reason for the choice of name. This shield, an old trophy apparently, must have been taken away in the flight from Troy.


287. postibus adversis, on the doorposts fronting you (loc. ablative). mine, such inscriptions were often in verse. 288. Æneas, sc. dedicat (often omitted, as here).

289. tum, that is, in the following spring. considere, etc., cf. Od. ix. 103, 104; Bry. 127.

291. abscondimus, lose, leave below the horizon. -aerias... arces, the cloudy summits of the Phaacians (Od. v. 280; Bry. 334).

292. legimus, coast along: the word seems to mean, originally, "pick out, or gather"; hence applied to reading a book, as well as hugging a shore.-portu, a contracted dative; cf. § 68, N.; H. 116, ft.-note.

293. Chaonio, see v. 334 and note.celsam urbem, the lofty city, a stock epithet (compare "Towered cities please us then."-L'Allegro), cf. v. 76. Buthrotum was apparently a low-lying coast town. For case see § 258, b; H. 380, 3.

Fig. 93.

294. occupat, meets, with the additional idea of seizing them with surprise.

295. Helenum: Helenus, the son of Priam, had the gift of prophecy (II. vi. 76; Bry. 93). The story of Eneas meeting him is said to have been related by Varro.- regnare, see § 272, R.; H. 535, 3.

296. coniugio coniuge: Andromache, the widow of Hector, had fallen in the distribution of booty to the lot of Pyrrhus, son of Achilles and great-grandson of Eacus (Aeacidae). The rest of the story is told


below (compare Eurip. Androm. 1243-1249, where it is given as a prophecy by Thetis). For case see § 249; H. 421. - sceptris, there seems to be no metrical reason for the plural, but its use may indicate the multiplicity of powers, or of the states under his sway.

297. cessisse, had fallen (passed over). - patrio marito, to a hushand of her own people: her father was king of the Cilicians, and in alliance with Troy.

298. incensum pectus, my heart was fired.-amore, desire (§ 248; H. 420).

299. compellare, depending on incensum pectus, as an expression of wishing (§ 271, a; H. 533, ii. N.3).

300. portu (ablative).

301. sollemnis dapes: the anniversary offering (parentalia) at the grave, consisting among the Romans of wine, milk, oil, honey, with more solid food, such as eggs and beans, the graves being decorated with wreaths. A similar observance is represented in Fig. 84.

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302. falsi, pretended, i.e. named for the original, a natural memorial of the old familiar places; cf. vv. 349 et seq.

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303. libabat: the indicative seems to violate the rule for cum in narration; but absolute time is meant (just at the time when it happened), so the violation is only apparent (§ 325, a; G. 582). Manis: the spirit in its semi-deified condition would visit, like any divinity, the monument erected to it, and receive the offering.

304. Hectoreum ad tumulum, to a mound consecrated to Hector, i.e. a cenotaph erected to his memory. — caespite, see § 244; H. 415, iii. quem inanem, an empty tomb, which: the ashes of Hector had been buried in Troy (Il. xxiv. 797; Bry. 1004).

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305. geminas: the number is common.

prose it would be genitive (H. 392, N.').

lacrimis, see § 235, a; in

307. amens, distracted (ab-mens, like de-mens, § 168, b). stris, the apparition of Æneas seems to her a prodigy.


308. deriguit visu in medio, even while gazing at me she swooned.

―ossa, frame.

309. tempore (§ 259, d; H. 423, N.2).

310. vera... . adfers, do you present yourself, a real form?

311. recessit: if he is a spirit from below, then Hector might be expected to appear in bodily form as well as he; cf. v. 303.

313. clamore, wailing. furenti, see note, Écl. i. 29.

314. hisco (incept.), agitated, I scarce open my lips in these few words. vocibus (abl. of manner).

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315. equidem, 'tis true, with a hint that it is barely life.

317. deiectam deprived (with violence).

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318. digna, equal to her worth. — revisit, returns to. really two questions here compressed into one: "What fate is hers, and is it worthy of her?"

319. The weight of Ms. authority is perhaps in favor of Andromache, with which te must be supplied. But the present reading seems preferable from its simplicity. For construction see § 214, b; G. 360, R.3; H. 398, N.2-Pyrrhin': the omission of the e is colloquial and antiquated. 320. deiecit: the mention of Pyrrhus reminds her of her slavery and humiliation.

321. felix, etc., the one most happy beyond all others. - Priameia virgo: Polyxena, promised in marriage under a truce to Achilles. It was at an interview with her that Achilles was treacherously shot in the heel by Paris; and after the fall of Troy Polyxena was sacrificed by Pyrrhus at his father's tomb.

322. hostilem (§ 190; II. 395, N.2).

323. sortitus, the allotment of captives among the victors.

324. eri, often wrongly spelled herus, see § 12, b.

325. nos, opposed to Polyxena. diversa, various.

327. servitio enixae, having borne offspring to him in slavery (a son named Molossus). -secutus (§ 290. b; G. 278, R.; H. 550, N.'). 328. Hermionen, the one child of Menelaus and Helen, daughter of Leda, variously said to be the wife and the betrothed of Orestes.

329. me famulo, etc., I was his slave, and so he made me over to Helenus a slave as well. A kind of apology for her present position. — habendam, see § 294, d; H. 544, N.o

330. ereptae, see note v. 328.

331. sceleruin Furiis agitatus, haunted by the furies that avenged his crimes (his mother's murder): by which the ancients meant the madness arising from the act. Fig. 85 represents him taking refuge at Delphi.

Fig. 85.

332. patrias ad aras: the altar where Pyrrhus was slain was usually said to be at Delphi.

333. reddita cessit = has come by succession.

334. cognomine, see § 253; G. 398; H. 424.

335. Chaone, according to one story, a brother of Helenus, accidentally killed by him.

337. qui venti, what winds, what fates, have driven you on this course?

338. aut: the alternative is between an accidental arrival (venti), and divine direction (deus).- ignarum, unaware.

339. quid, sc. agit, a common form of inquiry for one's health. 340. Troia: broken off as if by a sudden thought of Creüsa, whose death she knows or conjectures. Perhaps it is not too far-fetched to sup

pose the face of Æneas hints the sad news. The line completed would perhaps mean "whom after the siege of Troy was already begun, Creüsa bore you."

341. ecqua cura, does he still remember? The pronoun emphasizes the question, has he any regard. — tamen, though she is dead, yet,


342. ecquid, at all, see § 240, a; H. 378, 2. antiquam, ancestral. 343. avunculus: Creusa was a daughter of Priam (cf. patruus), uncle on the father's side. - excitat, i.e. does their fame arouse him to emulate them?

348. verba inter singula, with every word.

349. Troiam, see note v. 302. magnis: dative, depending on simulata in its original sense of made like.

350. arentem rivum, the dried-up brook, a picturesque way of contrasting it with the formidable Xanthus of Il. xxi. 234; Bry. 300. - Xanthi: the word may depend on cognomine or rivum: for the construction in either case see § 214, f; G. 359; H. 396, vi.

351. amplector, compare ii. 490.

of Troy.

Scaeae, the most famous gate

353. porticibus: in imitation of the manners of heroic times the attendants are entertained in open galleries, of which there were many in the ancient houses; see Tabula Iliaca, p. 65. — accipiebat: the imperfect denotes the repetition, day after day, of the feast.

354. aulaï (§ 36, a; H. 49, 2): the great court-yard of the palace is here referred to (compare Figs. 71 and 72), where stood the Altar of Zeus. For construction see § 193, N.; G. 371, 6. —libabant: the libation was a regular accompaniment to the feast. - Bacchi, wine. Compare Ecl. vi. 15.

356. dies alterque processit, day after day went by. The chronology of the poem seems to require that another winter should have been passed in Epirus. The lapse of time is given as Æneas' reason for addressing Helenus. Helenus is represented as possessing all powers of divination, being a vates (as priest of Apollo), an auspex (or augur), and an astrologer.

357. vocant, etc., i.e. the weather again becomes favorable. 358. quaeso, the old form of quaero (§ 11, a; H. 31).

359. numina, purposes.

360. Clarii, of the Clarian god: a famous oracle of Arollo was at Claros in Asia Minor. sentis: being a "seer," things future and unseen were to him objects of direct perception. -sidera, the stars in the astrological meaning, as "lords of life."

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