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263. primus Machaon: Machaon, son of Esculapius, and the inspired Healer; the epithet may be a translation of åptorevovra (Il. xi. 506), or, perhaps, among the first, but the meaning is doubtful.

264. doli, i.e. the horse, which makes the ambuscade. Notice the variety of words Virgil uses to refer to the horse.

266. portis (ablative of means).

267. conscia, allied, knowing each other's plans.

268. tempus erat: this, with nox erat, has been observed to be a favorite form of transition with Virgil.

271. effundere fletus, compare the ghost of Patroclus, II. xxiii. 65; Bry. 77.

273. pedes tumentes, see note, i. 484.

lora (Greek accusative).

275. redit" as I seem to see him returning." The tense is used like the historical present; see Il. xvii. 188; Bry. 232.

277. squalentem: this word, which gives us a ludicrous impression, had different associations with the ancients as a sign of mourning. — concretos, matted.

278. volnera: apparently the honorable wounds which he is supposed to have received in battle, though Homer hardly speaks of any; less likely the hurts and bruises from being dragged at the car of Achilles. quae plurima, of which he had received so many (§ 200, d; G. 618; H. 453, 5). 279. ultro, first (without being spoken to).

281. O lux, etc., imitated from the address of Paris to Hector's dead body, in Ennius. Here Æneas forgets for the moment that he has been slain.

285. ut, how, i.e. in how sad a plight.

287. quaerentem vana, making vain inquiry. nec moratur, nor does he stay for (i.e. does not mind my inquiry).

289. his, with a gesture, the so-called deictic use of the pronoun. 291. sat... datum, a legal phrase: your debt to your king and country is fully paid. —si... possent. . . fuissent, if Troy could (at any time) be saved by human hand, it would have been saved (before) by mine. For tense see § 308, a; G. 599, R.'; H. 510, N.2

293. penates, associated here and elsewhere with Vesta, the goddess of the Home. This is Eneas' charge, to protect his home, not the vain effort to defend the city.

294. his, dative of reference (§ 235; H. 384, 4).

295. pererrato... ponto, which [mighty walls] thou shalt at last establish, when thou hast crossed the sea.

296. vittas Vestamque, i.e. the filleted image of Vesta.

297. ignem: the sacred fire, which was carried from the hearth of

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Vesta, in the mother city, to kindle that of the new community. Colonies which like the coloniae Romanae and the Greek cleruchiae - had no independent political existence, but ranked as still belonging to the mother city, retaining their share in its sacred hearth, took no fire with them. The gods and fire here referred to were supposed to be preserved in the temple of Vesta at Rome.

298. miscentur, etc., disturbed by various mingled sounds of grief, the regular word for any confusion.

299. secreta, retired (se-cerno). - secreta and obtecta are used as predicates with recessit, stood apart.

301. horror, the dread din of arms.

302. somno (probably ablative).

303. ascensu (§ 248; G. 401; H.419, iii.) supero mount to the top of 304. veluti cum: compare Il. xi. 492-497; Bry. 599. The com parison is, I stand listening [to the roar of battle] just as, when the blaze driven by furious southern blasts falls upon the crops, or the hurrying torrent of a mountain flood overwhelms the fields, etc., the shepherd, ignorant of the cause, from the lofty summit of a rock, bewildered, hears (stupet accipiens) the roar.

309. manifesta fides, the truth is clear, i.e. belief is forced upon me of what would otherwise seem impossible.

310. Deiphobi (Od. viii. 517; Bry. 636). Deiphobus was the next of the sons of Priam after Hector and Paris, and had married Helen after Paris' death. His house was therefore the first destroyed. — dedit, as we say "gave a crash.". - ruina means both the fall and the consequences

of it.

311. Volcano, not merely fire, but the god of fire in person. The Homeric fire-god, Hephaistos, with whom Vulcan was identified, is the favorite son of Juno (Hera).

312. Ucalegon (i.e. his house), one of the ancient counsellors who sat with Priam on the wall (II. iii. 148; Bry. 186). — Sigea freta: Sigeum is a port on the Trojan coast.

314. nec sat rationis, and yet (= though) there is no sense.

315. glomerare . . . animi, my soul burns to gather a troop for the fight, and to rush with my friends upon the citadel. Notice the common use of the plural in the sense of passion, while mentem is the intellect, or judgment.

317. succurrit, it comes [to my thought] that it is glorious to die in arms. Compare the familiar sentiment from Horace, dulce et decorum est pro patria mori.

318. Achivom (§ 7; G. I, R.; H. 52, 1).

319. Panthus, another aged counsellor (Il. iii. 146). —arcis Phoebique (hendiadys), of Apollo in the citadel. Like the Capitol at Rome, the citadel of Troy is conceived as having shrines of several divinities.

321. ipse, i.e. he alone without attendants to bear the sacred burden. - cursu (abl. of manner) ... tendit, comes running wildly to my door.

322. quo... loco, where is the main struggle? quam... arcem, what stronghold shall we occupy? supposing the citadel to be already taken. This seems the best rendering of this much-vexed passage. Another meaning of the first question is, In what condition is the decisive struggle? For tense of prendimus, cf. Quid ago nunc? Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 102; Juv. iii. 296, iv. 130. The answer of Panthus is, that all is lost; and Æneas accordingly rushes out in the general direction of the noise (v. 337). — Panthu, a form representing ou in Greek contracted from oë.

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324. ineluctabile, inevitable (lit., that cannot be wrestled away.) 325. fuimus Troes, we Trojans are now no more. - fuit, is no longer: "It was a common phrase with the Romans," says Appian (Syr. 37), "to say, Antiochus the great has been." See § 279, a; G. 228, 1; H. 471, 1, 2).

326. omnia ... transtulit, Jupiter has carried over everything to Argos. According to the Greek legend, "the gods departed in a body from Troy on the night of its capture, bearing their images with them" (see v. 351). — ferus, not a general epithet, but indicating his present state of feeling.

327. incensa ... urbe, i.e. they have set fire to the city, and are masters in it.

328. mediis in moenibus, i.e. in the very citadel. - adstans, standing there, a vivid way of indicating its presence.

329. victor in his success. - incendia miscet, spreads fire far and wide, cf. v. 298.

330. bipatentibus, i.e. thrown wide open (lit., with both folding-doors open).

331. quot, sc. tot milia in appos. with alii; see § 200, b.

332. angusta viarum (cf. i. 422), the narrow ways.

333. oppositi, on guard (to prevent flight).

334. primi vigiles, the foremost of the guards, i.e. there is scarcely a

show of resistance.

335. caeco, i.e. having no orders or plans, they fight wildly.

336. numine, the idea can only be general, i.e. that this, as all his ac

tions, is under the divine direction.

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341. Coroebus: the lover of Cassandra, lately (illis diebus) come to Troy, who is slain by Idomeneus; see the story of Othryoneus (Il. xiii. 363-372; Bry. 449).

342. forte, as it happened.

343. insano = crazy; but the later traditions make him a weak and Here his love is only mad because untimely.

foolish person.

344. gener, as a son-in-law (by betrothal).- auxilium ferebat, was rendering assistance.

346. audierit (§ 320, e; G. 636; H. 517).

347. confertos, in close array (as we say, shoulder to shoulder), indicating a union of purpose and readiness for any fate..

348. super (adv.), besides (though already they were brave). his (abl. of manner or means).

349. audentem extrema, one who is ready to dare the worst.— pido certa, a fixed desire.


350. sequi, depending on certa cupido together, which are equivalent to a verb of wishing (in prose, sequendi).— rebus, of affairs.

351. excessere, an allusion to the evocatio of the gods of the enemy as practised by the Romans. See A. & G. "Orations of Cicero," notes, page 36. — adytis, shrines; lit. that which may not be entered (a-dio), the inner sanctuary, where were the statue and the oracle of the god.

353. incensae (emphatic), you are rushing to defend a city already in flames.—moriamur et ruamus. The first is the more important and includes the other, and hence we need not assume any inversion of the ideas. 354. una, the only.

355. animis, courage, i.e. they had determination before, but now they are roused to madness.

356. improba... rabies, ravening hunger has driven [to prowl] blindly. caecos (§ 186, c; G. 324).

360. nox... umbra, black night with embracing shadow hovers about us. It is moonlight, but the streets are dark. Besides, such expressions are not to be taken too strictly.

361. quis... explicet, who can tell in speech? (§ 268; G. 468; H. 486, ii.). The expression is a prelude, not to the account of his own exploits, but of the scene of slaughter which they now witnessed in the streets. 363. dominata, mistress.

364. inertia, helpless, being dead.

365. religiosa, venerable; see derivation, § 164, 4; G. 786, 13, k; H. 328. 366. dant: notice that punishment is regularly treated as a penalty paid, which the inflicter takes and the sufferer gives (cf. i. 136).

417. confligunt, the fitful blasts of a veering storm are often conceived as a conflict of the different winds. Compare the storm, i. 81. — laetus equis, rejoicing in his steeds, which he is represented as driving like a warrior to battle; a frequent and very old metaphor.

420. si quos fudimus all whom we have routed.

421. insidiis, by the trick of exchange of armor.

422. primi: because the others had only fought for the booty, as be tween allied bands, thinking them to be Greeks (§ 191; G. 324, R.; H. 443, N.').-mentita tela, the lying (not counterfeited) weapons.

423. ora... signant, they mark our tongues, discordant in tone: their speech betrays them, the Trojans speaking a different dialect from the Greeks, though probably not a different language. There is nothing to indicate that they were not akin.

Fig. 67.

424. ilicet (ire licet), instantly, lit. you may go (all is over): the phrase used by the crier in dismissing court, and by priests at the end of a sacred office, especially at funerals.

428. dis aliter visum, the gods judged otherwise, i.e. as inferred from his fate, for, though innocent, he suffered death like the guilty.

430. infula: a broad woollen band worn by priests and others engaged in sacred offices (see Fig. 67); even this badge of sanctity was no defence, cf. II. i. 28; Bry. 36.

431. Iliaci cineres, I appeal to you, ashes of Troy. - flamma extrema, i.e. the blazing city is regarded as their funeral pile.

433. vitavisse (sc. me). —vices Danaum, chances of war with the

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