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177. Pergama, the citadel of Troy.

178. omina: Virgil here transfers a Roman custom to the Homeric Greeks. All enterprises were undertaken by the direction of the gods, who were supposed to dwell in the city, and were consulted by auspices before setting out; and if the event was unsuccessful, the auspices must be taken again in the city, and the whole be begun anew. The term for this was repetere auspicia, of which repetere omina is here a variation. — Argis, from Argos. — repetant (§ 336; G. 653; H. 524). — numen, the favoring presence of the gods, as shown by renewed favorable auspices. 179. pelago (§ 258, g), by sea. — curvis carinis (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420), in the crooked ships; cf. II. ii. 297.

180. quod, in that (§ 333, a; H. 516, 2, N.). The antecedent or main clause is parant, etc.

182. digerit omina, interprets the omens, i.e. those referred to in vv. 171-175. The word omen (root in os, oro) properly means any casually spoken word which serves as a prognostic of the future. It is used here, as very commonly, for visible signs, which were properly ostenta, portenta, prodigia.

183. pro Palladio, in lieu of the Palladium; pro numine, in propitiation of the offended divinity. The goddess is however identified with her image the Palladium, hence pro can be used with both, though not in precisely the same sense.

184. triste, gloomy (in its effect).

185. The gist of the idea is in immensam molem. They were to make it huge so as to keep it where it would protect them, and not the Trojans. — tamen, i.e. though it was in lieu of the Palladium, yet it was to be of no service to the Trojans.

186. caelo (§ 225, b; G. 344, R.3; H. 385, 4), to the sky.

187. recipi and duci are branches of the same general idea; neu introduces a different one. Sinon at once accounts for the size of the horse, and hints at the disposal of it which he desires.

188. antiqua, i.e. just as formerly under the protection of the Palladium. — religione: this word implies both piety (religious veneration), the sanctity which calls it forth, and the object which possesses that sanctity. Here it seems to be used with a confused notion of all, chiefly the last. violasset,

189. donum Minervae (obj, gen.), gift to Minerva. ind. disc. for future perfect (§ 286, R.; G. 516; H. 525, 2).

190. quod di... convertant, may the gods turn the omen against himself (Calchas), with a curious notion that the anger of the gods must be satisfied, but that it might by prayers be turned upon something else,- - a notion which seems to be the foundation, in very ancient oriental


custom, of the idea of atonement as shown in the symbolic scapegoat."

191. futurum [esse], indir. disc. following the verb of saying im plied in iussit (§ 330, e; G. 652, R.2).

193. ultro... venturam, i.e. would make an offensive war beyond the defensive warfare they were now waging. — Pelopea moenia, the walls founded by Pelops, i.e. Argos.

194. ea, i.e. the fates implied in exitium.

195. talibus insidiis, by means of such deceit.

196. capti, those (implied antecedent of quos, § 200, c; G. 623; H. 445, 6) were caught.

197. Larissaeus, i.e. Thessalian, so called from a town of Thessaly, near Phthia, the city of Achilles.

199. aliud: by this prodigy the fall of Troy is shown to have occurred by fate, and not merely by the wiles and valor of the Greeks. — miseris, [to us] ill-fated.

200. improvida, not knowing the future, blinded.

201. Neptuno, dat. (§ 235, a; G. 343; H. 384, 4). — ductus sorte,

a Roman custom transferred to Troy; see Tac. Ann. i. 54.

203. alta, deeps.

204. immensis orbibus, with vast coils (abl. of quality). 205. pariter, side by side.

206. iubae sanguineae, blood-red crests, characteristic of fabulous


207. superant, tower above.

208. legit, skims (the flood). The word seems literally to mean pick, hence used of the course of a vessel, and so here of the monster. volumine (abl. of manner): the plural would be more natural, but doubtless the singular is occasioned by the metre. Compare capite, v. 219.

210. oculos (Greek acc.) suffecti, their blazing eyes suffused. 212. visu (abl. of cause). — agmine certo, with steady march (like an army), not roaming about aimlessly as they might be expected to do if not divinely sent.

215. morsu, with their fangs.

216. auxilio, to their help (dat. of service, § 233; G. 350; H. 390). 218. collo (dat.), about their neck (§ 225, d; G. 348; H. 384, 2). 219. terga (§ 240, c, N.; G. 332, R.2; H. 378, 1). — capite (ablative of measure, § 250; G. 400; H. 423): căpitibus could not be used in hexameter.

220. tendit, strives. divellere (§ 271, a; G. 424, R.1; H. 498, ii. N.1). 223. quales mugitus, cum, such roarings as when, etc.; cf. II. xx.

403; Bry. 507, for tales mugitus (in apposition with clamores), quales tolluntur, etc.

224. incertam, ill-aimed. — securim (§ 56, b; G. 60, 2; H. 62, iii.). 225. lapsu, gliding (as if it were a participle). — delubra summa, i.e. the citadel.

226. saevae, cruel, in withdrawing her protection.

227. clipei: many statues of Minerva are represented with a shield resting on the ground, the upper edge held by her hand; and one of the most famous the Minerva Medica or Giustiniani — has a serpent crawling behind the shield.—teguntur (§ 111, N.1; G. 209).

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228. tum vero, see note, v. 105. novus: the former fear was a terror of the serpents; the new is a religious awe.

229. scelus expendisse merentem, has expiated his guilt, as he deserves, see § 292; G. 669; H. 549, 1.

231. laeserit, for mood see § 320, e; G. 636; H. 517. — sceleratam, guilty, as the instrument of guilt.

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234. dividimus, etc. by breaking down the walls (muros), we lay open the defenses (moenia) of the city; moenia is the more general word. 235. accingunt, alluding to the long loose garments of the ancients. - rotarum lapsus, a bold expression in which an abstract noun is used for a property of an object and the object itself is put in the genitive; see A. & G. Lat. Comp., p. 124.

236. collo, i.e. the neck of the horse.

238. feta armis, big with armed men. - pueri, etc., again a Roman custom, see Hor. Carm. Sec. Many of these customs of Virgil's time alluded to in the Æneid were supposed to have been imported direct from Troy.

239. gaudent, because it was a sacred service. (See Fig. 66.)

240. illa subit. As Menelaus tells the story in the Odyssey (iv. 274-289; Bry. 355), Helen went thrice about the horse, calling the several chiefs by name, imitating by her voice the wife of each; and they were only prevented by the strong hand of Ulysses laid upon their mouths from betraying themselves. — minans, towering high.

241. O patria, copied or imitated from Ennius. see v. 351.

divom domus,

243. substitit, stopped: stumbling on the threshold was always a bad omen with the Romans. utero (abl. of separation).

244. immemores, thoughtless: they had forgotten the warning of Laocoon (v. 45).

245. monstrum infelix, the inauspicious, i.e. fatal, prodigy. — arce (§ 260, a; G. 384, R.2).

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246. tunc etiam, then too (besides our other warnings). — Cassandra, daughter of Priam. She had been beloved by Apollo, and endowed by him with the gift of prophecy; but, as she rejected his suit, the gift was accompanied with the curse that no one should believe her inspired words. (See Fig. 66, where she appears on the walls in the act here described.)— fatis (abl. of manner).

247. non credita, [those lips] never believed, etc. - Teucris, dative (§ 232, a; G. 352; H. 388, 1).

248. quibus esset (§ 320, e; H. 515, iii.): though that day was our last (contrasting the signs of joy with their real fate). Notice how this idea is brought out by the position of miseri before quibus.

249. velamus, i.e. we deck the shrines (delubra) with festal wreaths: decking the houses with garlands had a religious as well as festival meaning. 250. ruit oceano, comes suddenly from the ocean: Night, like Day, is conceived as rising from the vast Ocean which encircles the earth.

251. involvens: the grave effect of the spondees in this verse is perhaps intentional.

252. dolos: the same shadow which makes them helpless aids the craft of their enemies. - fusi, compare i. 214.

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253. conticuere, became silent, i.e. were hushed.

254. ibat, was already on its way, anticipating the success of Sinon's fraud.

255. Tenedo (§ 258, R.3; G. 411, R.1; H.412, N.). —per amica silentia lunae by the still and friendly moonlight (compare v. 340).

256. flammas ... extulerat, the royal ship had shown the signal light, as a sign to Sinon. (Compare vi. 518, where Helen is said to have held forth a lighted torch as a signal.) This clause should properly be the subordinate one, but, as often, is emphasized by its present form. See § 325, b; G. 581, R.; H. 521, ii. 1.

257. fatis deum, cf. vi. 376. 258. utero (loc. abl.). · · Danaos... claustra, lets loose the Greeks from their pine-wood prison. As the verb laxat can apply in slightly different senses to both Danaos and claustra, the hendiadys, always a favorite form of expression, is preferred to the ablative of separation (claustris).

259. laxat is in the same construction as extulerat, but the action of the latter verb precedes and that of the former is brought forward to present time (hist. pres.); hence the great difference of tense. auras, open air; compare iv. 388.

260. cavo robore promunt, compare Od. viii. 500-520; Bry. 613, where the story is told by Demodocus.

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