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wind (sirocco), blowing hot from Africa, is often one of the most violent on the Italian coast.

89. Teucrorum, the Trojans: so called from one of their ancestor Teucer. As the Trojans have to be constantly mentioned, Virgil uses all the names that can be made from the names of their various ancestors or heroes, or from any thing else connected with them; as Anchisiade, Laomedontiada, Dardani, etc., just as the Greeks are called by various tribal names, Achivi, Danai, Argivi, etc.— incubat, broods upon.

90. poli, the poles the heavens which revolve upon them (according to the ancient astronomy). — micat, flashes: the word expresses both the glittering and the quivering effect of the flash.

91. intentant, threaten: literally, spread before them.

92. solvuntur, etc., his limbs are paralyzed by the chill of terror (cf. Od. v. 297; Bry. 356): the ancients betrayed their emotions in a far more lively way than would be allowable in heroes of the present time.

93. duplicis palmas, simply, both hands. The ancient attitude of prayer was not with clasped hands, but with the palms spread upward, as if to receive the blessing: hence the emphasis of the phrase "worship with clean hands."

94. refert, simply, utters (strictly, brings back his words to the light as things hidden). — ter quaterque, cf. Od. v. 306; Bry. 366.

95. quis, dat. plur. following contigit. ante ora: a happy lot, because their friends were witnesses of their deeds and glorious death.

96. contigit, befell: usually said of good fortune, as here.—oppetere, sc. mortem, hence, to die.

97. Tydide, son of Tydeus, Diomedes, who met Eneas in single combat. Il. v. 297 ; Bry. 201. — campis (locative abl.). — mene potuisse, to think that I could not, etc., cf. v. 37 (§ 274 ; G. 341, 1; H. 539, iii.). — dextra (abl. of instrument).

99. saevus, stern, not sparing the foe: so Eneas himself is called saevus, xii. 107. — Acacidae, i.c. Achilles, grandson of „Eacus,

100. Sarpedon: the Lycian prince, son of Jupiter. His body is said to have been borne home by Sleep and Death; but Virgil does not care for this detail. Simois, etc., the Simois rolls the shields, helms, and stalwart forms of so many heroes carried away beneath its waves. See II. xii. 22; Bry. 29.

102. iactanti, as he utters (dative of reference, § 235; G. 354). Compare note to Ecl. i. 28. - procella, the hurricane, concretely, as the solid body that strikes; Aquilone, the particular wind that produces it, and so makes it howl (stridens).

103. adversa, right in his face (adjective for adverb, § 191; G. 324, R.; H. 443).

104. avertit, (sc. se; compare v. 158, note) dat: the subject is prora. The prow by turning away is said to cause the broaching-to.

105. cumulo (abl. of manner).

106. his (§ 235; G. 343).

107. aestus, the seething flood: originally the boiling of heated water. -arenis, i.e. the water is turbid with sand; they are approaching the Syrtes. See v. III.

108. torquet, hurls: the word is usually applied to the hurling of a spear, from the revolving motion like that of a rifle-ball given by the thong wound round it.— latentia, hidden by the roaring waves: in calm they are visible ("dorsum immane," v. 110) at the surface. These reefs are supposed to be just outside the bay of Carthage.

109. saxa: a sort of parenthesis. Rocks like what, in midwater, the Italians call altars, not, necessarily, this particular group, which they probably knew nothing about.

III. in brevia et Syrtis, shoals and quicksands, i.e. the shoals of the great Syrtis. — visu (§ 303; G. 437; H. 547).

112. aggere, embankment: the image is taken from military (naval) entrenchments, in which the ships drawn up on land were thus fortified; compare castris, iv. 604.

114. ipsius, i.e. Æneas, the leader himself; compare Ecl. iii. 3, and note. — ingens pontus: like our phrase, a heavy sea."



115. puppim (§ 56, b; G. 60; H. 62).—excutitur, is thrown overboard: the regular term for being thrown from a chariot or horse, etc.

116. ibidem torquet, spins about in the same spot. ter: the number is proverbial ("three times round went our gallant ship ").

117. rapidus, hungry; compare rapio, to seize. aequore (locative abl.).

118. rari, scattered, i.e. the drowning crew.

119. arma shields, for instance, would float quite visibly for awhile, or the word may refer to any equipments. — tabulae, planks.

121. qua, instrumental ablative (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420).

122. hiemps: this word has properly a parasitic p in the nominative. — laxis compagibus (instrumental abl.), with loosened joints.

123. imbrem, properly rain-flood; but here water in general. — rimis (abl. of manner).

124. murmure (abl. of manner).

125. Neptunus: the name of this god is probably from the same root as our word naphtha (Zend, NAPTA, wet). Originally a god of water generally, he became in time identified with the Greek Poseidon, and restricted to the sea, i.e. the Mediterranean, the outer waters belonging to Oceanus.

126. stagna refusa, i.e. the still waters beneath were forced forth upon the surface. — vadis, abl. of separation (§ 243; G. 388, R.; H. 414, N.).— commotus, disturbed, inwardly; but as a god he must be represented with placidum caput.— alto (locative abl. or possibly abl. of separation).

127. unda (abl. of separation).

128. aequore, compare v. 29.

129. caeli ruina (root in ruo, to dash; German, stürzen), the wreck of the sky the violent storm of rain is regarded as an actual downfall of the sky itself.

130. fratrem, obj. of latuere, were hid from (§ 239, d; G. 329, R.'; H. 371). — doli, irae, her craft (known to him as her brother), and the wrath which was the motive of its exercise.

131. dehinc, a monosyllable.

132. generis fiducia vestri, confidence in your origin: the winds were the sons of Aurora and the Titan Astræus; and so on one side of divine origin, and on the other sprung from the rivals of the gods.

133. iam, at length, with the notion of a gradual progression, the regular force of the word.

134. miscere (§ 271; G. 424; H. 533). — tantas moles, i.e. such mighty billows.

135. quos ego: he leaves the threat to their imagination; he can spare no time for words. Such a break is called aposiopesis (p. 299), a sudden silence. - componere (§ 270; G. 423; H. 538).

136. post, hereafter; commissa, your misdeeds. non simili poena (abl. of instrument), no penalty so light. —luetis, atone for: the word signifies the payment of a debt or fine (the true meaning of poena). 139. sorte datum: Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto were said to have chosen their realms by lot, a notion probably suggested by the Roman mode of assigning provinces. Supply esse (§ 336; G. 653; H. 523, i.). 140. vestras though addressing Eurus, he includes them all.. factet se, let him display his arrogance.—aula: as a king, he must have his court somewhere.

141. clauso, i.e. reign over the winds imprisoned, without the power to let them loose. - dicto (§ 247, H. 417, N.3).

144. Cymothoe, a sea nymph, "she that runs upon the wave"; Triton, Neptune's trumpeter, blowing a conch-shell. These names are mentioned to suggest all the sea-divinities. — adnixus, pushing against the ships.

145. scopulo (abl. of separation). —levat, lifts, using the trident as a "lever." tridenti (§ 87, a; G. 85, 2; H. 157, N.).

146. syrtis, the sand-banks piled against the ships; cf. v. 112.

147. levibus, light, skimming the surface.-rotis (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420).

148. veluti, just as: introducing the first and one of the most celebrated of Virgil's similes. The ferocity of a mob and the power of eloquence were things very familiar to the Romans. Hence the simile is proper, though generally the less vivid should be compared with the more magno in populo: the greater the crowd the more striking the - saepe belongs properly to the whole idea, and so is equivalent to as often happens.



149. seditio, revolt, lit. a going apart (= se-itio).— animis, with passion; compare v. 56, note (§ 248; G.401; H.419, iii.).—ignobile, mean or obscure (lit. of no recognizable standing: in-gnosco).

150. iam, see note, v. 133. - faces, fire-brands: Rome, being at that time largely built of wood, was very vulnerable to this favorite weapon of the mob.

151. tum, correl. with cum, v. 148. - gravem, of weight or influence. - meritis, services (to the state).—si quem belong with virum. 152. conspexere, plur. because here the individuals are thought of, though a collective noun is used before. adstant, stand by, implying


153. regit... animos, sways their minds by words (addressed to their reason); pectora mulcet, calms their passion (whose seat is in the breast; compare note to v. 36). —mulcet: used originally of the stroking of an animal, and so of soothing the blind passion of the crowd.

154. fragor, crash of the breakers (frango).

155. caelo (locative abl.). — curru, old dative (§ 68; H. 116). –

secundo (old participial

form = sequendo), following, i.e. gliding easily after the horses. (See Fig. 39.)

157. quae proxima the nearest, sc. erant.


158. vertuntur, turn : used in the reflexive or "middle" sense, which is expressed in English by the active form, and in Latin more commonly by the passive (§ 111, N.'; G. 210;

H. 465). But the active

Fig. 39.

is also common in the same sense after Cicero's time; compare v. 104.

160. obiectu, interposition: "an island makes a port by interposing its shores, against which every billow breaks, and parts [running up] into deep coves" (sinus). (For a similar harbor see Fig. 40.) - quibus, abl. of instrument (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420).

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162. rupes, the rocky shore in general; scopuli, peaks or headlands ("look-outs," see v. 180, note). -gemini, twin, i.e. corresponding, one on each side. - minantur, tower. For the whole description cf. Od. xiii.

96; Bry. 117; also ix. 136; Bry. 164.

164. scaena, properly the decorated wall (frons scaenae) at the back of the stage in Roman theatres: here, the background of woods and hills as seen from the shore. (See Fig. 41.) silvis (abl. of quality, a dark forest with bristling shade (referring to the forms of the firs, etc.), like a scene with waving woods juts over from above.

165. umbra (abl. of manner).

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