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at ease: properly flexible, but often used as the reverse of braced or strained to toil.

5. formosam, shapely: i.e. her charms are coupled with her name in the song. The ancients especially prized beauty of form and tall stature (cf. Anab. iii. 2, 25).· resonare, reëcho: the effect of song in the groves. doces: the contrast is heightened by the peaceful and happy occupation of Tityrus, singing the charms of his love. - Amaryllida (Gr. form, § 63, b; H. 68; for construction see § 238; H. 371, 12), a favorite Greek name, meaning bright-eyes.

deus, a god: as we

6. Meliboee, a Greek name, meaning cow-herd. should say, guardian-angel. The gods of the ancient mythology were so numerous, and so near to mankind, that the name often has about the same dignity as that of saints in modern times. The reference is to Augustus, who was, however, not regularly deified until after his death in A.D. 14; hence probably the apologetic tone of namque, etc.—otia, freedom from care, the reverse of neg-otium, business or trouble. The plural seems to be = the blessings of ease; but the plural is often used by poets for metrical reasons only (§ 75, c; H. 130, 2).

7. namque (very rare in prose, more commonly etenim), for, I tell you; the enclitic que connects it with the preceding words, while nam introduces the reason, the whole expression regularly implying that no argu ment is necessary, as with our "you see,” “you know."-ille: Tityrus uses

FIG. 3.

the emphatic pronoun as if to say, "He, my great patron," though Melibus does not know to whom he refers (§ 102, b; H. 450, 4).— mihi, in my regard (dat. of reference, § 235). illius (see § 347, 1; H. 577, 3). aram, altar, for lesser sacrifices (see Fig. 3): the altare, high altar for burnt offerings (Ecl. v. 66), was dedicated only to the higher deities, but this distinction is not always observed.

8. tener, young. nostris: Tityrus speaks as the steward of his master's farm.-imbuet, shall

stain (with its blood). agnus, the offering of a humble estate: the richer might sacrifice a calf, and the poorer a pig, a fowl, or some fruit. 9. errare, to stray, or graze at large. See § 331, c; G. 546, r.'; 535, iv. ipsum, opposed to boves.


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10. ludere, to sing in sport. quae vellem, what I will (imperf. by seq. of tenses, § 287, a; G. 511, R.; H.495,1; subj. in an intermediate clause, § 342; H. 529, ii.). — calamo, reed (like avena), strictly, a stalk of grain. [In this and similar lines, observe the beauty of movement given by the alternate dactyls and spondees.]

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11. equidem, I'm sure. · magis = potius, rather. - totis agris (§ 258, f; G. 386; H. 425, 2), throughout the fields.

12. usque adeo turbatur, to such a degree does confusion prevail (impers. passive, § 146, c; H. 301, 1).- adeo would properly be correlative to ut in a clause of result, which however is made the main clause (miror, etc.), and so no ut appears. - ipse, contrasted with others implied in undique. — capellas, she-goats (dimin. form for the regular capra).

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13. protinus, farther on: i.e. I cannot (as usual) find a shelter near at hand.aeger, sick at heart. - duco, lead (being too weak to be driven).

14. modo, just now. - namque regularly introduces its clause, but here the order is changed on account of the metre. - gemellos (dim. of geminos, § 164, a; H. 321, 4), twin-kids.

15. silice in nuda, on the bare flint by the roadside, where they must presently die.conixa (for enixa, on account of the hiatus), bringing forth with difficulty. The sufferings of the dumb creatures add to the pathos. reliquit, has abandoned. Notice how this word, at the end of the line, contrasts with spem gregis, at the beginning; the hope is only to be disappointed.


16. malum hoc, this misfortune (exile). — laeva, dull or warped ("left-handed," compare Fr. gauche). —si . . . fuisset: i.e. it would have been a warning, had not, etc. The conclusion is only implied. The omens were seen, the gods did their part, but he was too blind to heed the warning. Cf. § 308, b.

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17. de caelo tactas, struck by lightning (the usual phrase). See Cic. ad Cat. III. viii. 19. praedicere: for tense see § 288, b; G. 277, R. quercus: the blasting of the olive, it is said, was understood to predict barrenness; that of the oak, exile. [Thunder and lightning were good signs, in some cases, when nothing was blasted by the stroke. Cf. Cic. de Div. xxxv. 74. The most important omens were from lightning or from birds. These were interpreted very variously by the different Italian nations: the Romans made only two classes of auguries from lightning; the Etruscans eleven. Auguries from birds were either from their song (oscines) or from their flight (alites).]

18. This line has probably crept in from ix. 15. See note there.

19. tamen, still, i.e. notwithstanding my misfortunes I would willingly hear of your better luck.—iste, that . . . you speak of (§ 102, c; H. 450). - qui sit (more euphonious than quis sit), what god it is (§ 104, a; H. 188, 1). — da (for die; so accipe for audi), tell me.

20. urbem: the great city was what first struck his rustic fancy, and so he begins with that, leaving the question quite unnoticed.

21. stultus ego, fool that I was.-huic nostrae, Mantua, from which Andes, Virgil's birthplace,* was some three miles distant.

22. depellere, drive down to market from the upland. 23. sic.

noram (§ 128, a; H. 297, 2), so I knew (had learned to know) puppies like dogs, and kids like their dams (similis, acc. plur., § 58; II. 67). And so also I compared Mantua to Rome. - canibus, see § 234, a; H. 391, i.

24. sic parvis (§ 229, c), proverbial. — extulit, i.e. when I reached there.

25, 26. verum haec, etc., i.e. those do not differ in kind; but Rome is of another nature from Mantua, differing as cypress from osier. - viburna, a tough shrub (wayfaring tree), used to twine in wattles or bind faggots.

27. Meliboeus here catches his neighbor's wonder, and forgets his question. tibi (§ 231; H. 387).

28. libertas: here we see how little Virgil keeps to the circumstances of his own case, the allegory being mixed, rather unskilfully, with the real facts. He himself was really a yeoman, the free owner of a little farm. Tityrus is a slave, tending flocks for a noble proprietor, who lived, like most land-owners, in Rome. respexit, regarded me took pity on me, a word often used of regard from a superior to an inferior. Libertas is here personified as a divinity. — inertem, idle as I was, and so not entitled to it. A thrifty slave might generally buy his freedom in five or six years.


candidior, whiter and whiter.-tondenti, as I clipped it (§ 235, a; H. 384, 4); a very suitable way of speaking here, for the slave could not shave his beard till emancipated. Supply mihi. The Latin, for brevity, often leaves out a pronoun, when a word meant to agree with it is present to indicate the case of the omitted word. Cf. Cæs. B. G., i. 42 (petenti), i. 47 (cedentes). — cadebat, began to fall; properly, was falling (§ 324, a; G. 564; H. 471, 4).

* The relation in which the smaller places (fora, vici, and conciliabula) stood to the civitas (municipium or colonia) was the same as that of the smaller towns of Attica to Athens. Mantua was not the capital of the territory, but included the territory. The citizens were not classed as urban and rural; but the vicus was an integral part of the civitas, and the village proprietor was politically a member of the city organization.

30. respexit, she did regard, emphatic. - post, adverbial.pore, abl. of difference (§ 250; H. 423).

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31. Amaryllis, Galatea, the successive contubernales of Tityrus. The condition of slavery permitted no lawful marriage. These names have been thought to stand, allegorically, for Mantua and Rome. - habet, present for perfect, as with iamdudum, because the bond still continues (§ 276, a; H. 467, 2); the real present with postquam is antiquated or colloquial, as in Plautus and Terence.

32. namque, for, you see.-1 - tenebat: for tense see § 276, e, Note. 33. peculi (§ 40, b; H. 51, 5), savings, generally out of the produce of the cattle. Strictly, all that a slave had might be regarded as his master's. In practice, however, he was permitted and encouraged to save his earnings and certain perquisites, to buy his freedom. His peculium, indeed, was in a manner his property in the view of Roman law.

34. quamvis multa, no matter how many.- exiret, § 266, c; H. 515, iii.victima, i.e. sold to the priests for sacrifice, apparently a profitable branch of the shepherd's trade. (Victima usually signifies a larger victim; hostia, a smaller. The use of the singular is like our "many a one.") A farmer taking his products to market is represented in Fig. 4.

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35. ingratae, ungracious, absorbing his products for a scanty price without caring for him.-pinguis caseus, i.e. cream-cheese.- domum (§ 258, b; H. 380, 2).

dextra, i.e.

36. mihi (dative of reference, § 235, a; H. 384, 4). the money was spent as soon as received, probably to gratify his mistress. 37. mirabar, i.e. I see now the reason of what I wondered at at the time. "And really you were much missed, Tityrus." His friend noticed the effect though he did not know of his absence. — quid (§ 240, a). — Amarylli, see § 348, 6; H. 581, i. 2.

38. sua in arbore (cf. vii. 54), i.e. on the tree where they grew.

39. aberat: for quantity see § 359, f, but compare § 375, 8, 5. — ipsae pinus, etc., the very pines, these very watersprings and orchards. Even they are playfully represented as sharing in the grief of Amaryllis and missing their master, not as wanting any special care, but as not finding the man they were wont to see. The pine here mentioned is probably the stone-pine, planted for its large edible seeds, as well as for shade: valuable also as furnishing wax and food for bees. The arbusta are the plantations of young elms, on which vines were trained in festoons from tree to tree, as in the vineyards of Italy now.

41. quid facerem, what was I to do? (§ 268, and R., cf. 266, e; G. 258; referred by H. to 486, ii.). At length, answering the question of v. 19, he says, To leave home and go to Rome was his only chance, first, of freedom, and second, of protection. It is by these two sentences that the allegory is connected, though somewhat loosely, with the facts.

42. praesentis (acc. plur., § 58), i.e. propitious (compare "a very present help"). — alibi, elsewhere than at Rome (belonging to licebat). ✓43. iuvenem: Octavianus (Augustus), who was only twenty-two at the time of distributing the lands to the veterans.

44. bis senos dies, twelve days, i.e. the first day of every month (kalends), when offerings were regularly made to the Lares, or household gods. Virgil means that he will join with the worship of his own Lares that of young Caesar's genius or guardian spirit (Preller, Röm. Myth. 571): Ovid (Fast. ii. as Horace says (Od. iv. 5), laribus tuum miscet numen. 636) describes the ceremony:

Parca precaturi sumite vina manu,

Et Bene vos, bene te, patriæ pater, optime Cæsar
Dicite suffuso per bona verba mero.

-fumant, i.e. the service is already an established custom: this dialogue being supposed to be held in the autumn (see line 82).-altaria, high altars, see note, 7. 7.

45. responsum dedit, the phrase used properly of an oracular response, keeping up the thought of Cæsar as a divinity. — primus, i.e. this was the first assurance of security and favor, anxiously sought.

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