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29. his accensa, inflamed by these things, i.e. what has been told in the foregoing lines (§ 245; G. 407; H. 416). — super = insuper, besides, i.e. in addition to her anxiety for Carthage. - aequore, the ablative is used without in when totus accompanies, even in prose (§ 258, f).

30. reliquias Danaum, left of the Greeks, i.e. escaped from them, the relation expressed is the same as in the vulgar "leavings." Virgil uses the Homeric tribal names Danai, Achivi, etc., indiscriminately for "the Greeks" in general. — atque, and especially: for construction compare note, v. 27, and see § 156, a.

31. Latio, see § 258, a; G. 388, R.3; H. 414, N.'

32. errabant, had wandered (and still were wandering), (§ 277, b; G. 225; H. 469, ii. 2).

33. tantae molis, [a task] of so great toil (as is indicated by the description preceding, a very common use of the demonstrative adjective or pronoun), see §§ 215 and 214, d; G. 364, R., 365; H. 402. -condere, to found, lit., place firmly (§ 270; G. 423; H. 538).

34. vix, etc. In the manner of the Odyssey, the story begins in the middle (in medias res... auditorem rapit, Hor. A. P. 148), the earlier adventures being told afterwards in the words of the hero himself. The Trojans have left the port of Drepanum in their voyage along the coast of Sicily, -a course they were led to take by the dangers of the Strait of Messina (iii. 562).

35. laeti, at the prospect of a speedy end of their wanderings. — salis, of the salt [sea]. So ac in Greek. aere, bronze (beaks of the ships). The most ancient metal work was chiefly of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, much easier to melt than pure copper, as well as harder.ruebant, were ploughing up. The verb ruo, here used transitively, is equivalent to


36. cum Iuno... secum, sc. loquitur. The construction would require the omitted verb in the indicative (§ 325, b; G. 581, r.). — sub pectore, i.e. in her heart, as we say. The ancients also localized the passions, but referred anger to the lower vital organs (subter praecordia) instead of the heart, which was with them the seat of the intellect. -servans, cf. “Nursing her wrath to keep it warm.”

mene desistere,

Italia (§ 258, a; G. 388; H. 414). - at in prose.

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37. incepto (§ 243, b; G. 388; H. 413, N.3). what! I desist! (§ 274; G. 341, 1; H. 539, iii.) 38. nec posse, and be unable. 39. quippe, to be sure (ironicai) - Pallas, an epithet of Athene (Minerva), as brandisher of the lance (a77, shake). — ne : regularly, as here, appended to the emphatic word, which always comes first. classem Argivom (§ 7), i.e. the fleet of Ajax Oileus (see Od. iv. 499-511; Bry. 641).

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40. ipsos, themselves (opposed to the ships).- ponto, either instrumental (means) or locative.

41. unius, a whole fleet for one man's crime; opposed to classem, etc., v. 39. — furias: the great crimes of antiquity were supposed to be committed in a frenzy induced by the Furies, the agents of divine wrath

Fig. 36.

(compare "by instigation of the Devil in modern indictments). Hence furiae is often used of ungovernable passion. Ajax, by one legend, is said to have offered violence to Cassandra, daughter of Priam and priestess of Pallas. (See Fig. 36.)

42. ipsa iaculata, hurling with her own hand. Pallas was the only deity except Jove who might wield the thunderbolt. (See Fig. 37.)

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Fig. 37.


43. evertit aequora, upturned the seas. 44. exspirantem... flammam, breathing out flames from, &c.— pectore, abl. of separation (§ 243, b; G. 388, r.3; H. 414, N.'). - turbine, abl. of means (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420). — scopulo, locative abl. or dat., see § 260, a; G. 384, R.; H. 425, N.3 46. ast, old form of at, but.

The incessus of the gods human act of walking.

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move the word suggests dignity by mentioning the gait at all when there is no need of it. is an even gliding movement, not the mere


47. soror (see Il. xvi. 432; Bry. 545) in the Greek mythology, the king and queen of heaven are both children of Kronos (Saturn). — una cum gente: here is a double antithesis, first in reference to unius, v. 41,

a whole race compared with a single man Ajax, and second to ego, a single race of men compared with the queen of the gods. -annos (§ 256; G. 337; H. 379).

48. gero, have been [and still am] waging (§ 276, a; G. 221; H. 467, 2). — quisquam: the question implying a negative (§ 105, h; G. 304; H. 457). — adoret, the reading varies with adorat. The subjunctive seems better, see § 268; G. 468; H. 485.

49. imponet, the future in this usage differs little from the subjunctive. – praeterea, any more (save those who adore already). — aris, dative (§ 228; G. 346; H. 386).

50. corde (258, ƒ; G. 384, r.2; H. 425, N.3).

51. patriam, luctantes, indignantes, these words all belong strictly only to persons, and their use makes a lively personification of the Winds. - austris (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420), one of the most violent winds used for the whole. feta, teeming, keeping the metaphor.

52. Aeoliam, one of the Lipari Islands, north-east of Sicily (cf. Od. x. 1); for construction compare Italiam, v. 2.

54. imperio (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420). — vinclis, for vinculis: so periclum, and many other words. This growing tendency to drop out unaccented vowels is especially marked in the derivation of French words from Latin, as doigt (digitus). For construction see § 248; G. 403; H. 420. 55. cum murmure montis: for the expression compare v. 245, and see Hor. Od. iii. 29, 38.

56. arce, a lofty seat or citadel within the cave, not the mountain itself. — sceptra: the poets often use the plural without special reasons except metrical ones. — animos, passions, regularly used in the plural of the feelings, especially pride. — iras, cf. v. 25, and note.

58. ni, old form for nisi, retained in laws, religious formulas, and poetry, also in late prose. - ni faciat, more vivid than the imperfect as suggesting the possibility that he may omit it (compare Lucr. i. 277), see $ 307, b.

59. quippe (not ironical), doubtless they would bear away, etc.— verrant, sweep, intrans. as in English, see § 307, b; G. 598; H. 509.— rapidi, see § 191.

61. molem et montis (acc. plur. long i) = the mass of lofty moun tains, etc. (the figure, hendiadys, by which two nouns are used with a conjunction instead of one modified noun).

62. foedere certo, under fixed conditions; a compact, as it were, between the sovereign and his vassal (§ 253: G. 401; H. 416).

63. sciret, etc., should know, when bidden, how both to check and to give loose rein. Subj. of purpose (§ 317; G. 632; H. 497, 1). — pre

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mere, from the motom of the band 11. 600. Opposed to laxas dare is ore expression. See § 271: G. 424: H. 533 -lussus § 222; 67: HAI

04. vocibus $240: 6405: H 42

read usa'st, see § 13, 7

usa est: n scanning,

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65. namque prise z coming to him; compare FC- more. —divom...rex: compare II. The expression is sed have been used by Ennius. 1344; Brv. 6N

60 mulcere, res ut mulceas § 331 : G 4243; H. 535, IV). See 0d x 21: By 25 - venta see me, E.

67. aequor: a kind a seat accuSITTE $ 238: G. 331: H. 471, H.N

68. lium: they a moil in ecrane TR in her way to found a new city to conte "he

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78. tu mihi... concilias, you win for me whatever rule I have. hoc quodcumque regni, a short form for hoc regnum quodcumque est (§ 216; G. 371; H. 397, 3).- sceptra Iovemque = the sceptre (i.e. power) from Jove (hendiadys). The address is one of courtly compliment, as by v. 62 the power is direct from Jupiter.

79. accumbere (§ 331,g; G. 532, R.; H. 535, iv.). The Romans reclined at their meals, and the same custom is attributed by Virgil to the gods, and to earlier nations, though in fact the early Greeks sat, as we do (See Fig. 38.)

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80. potentem, iord. - nimborum (§ 218; G. 374; H. 399, 3). 81. conversa cuspide, with the spear-point turned that way. Macrobius says the description of the storm is taken from Nævius' Punic War, but see Od. v. 295; Bry. 347.

82. agmine facto, like an assaulting column, the technical term for a column of attack.

83. qua, where (§ 258,g; cf. § 148, e).. - turbine (abl. of manner); in prose we should have a preposition.

84. incubuere: the perfect suddenly shifts the point of view, to indicate the swiftness of the act: and now they have fallen upon the sea, and are ploughing up (ruunt), etc. (cf. Od. v. 291; Bry. 348). - mari (§ 228; G. 346; H. 386).

85. procellis, gusts (§ 248, ; H. 421, ii.). - Africus: the south-west

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