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THE ENEID.

BOOK I.

FROM the beginning to v. 34 is introductory, giving the subject and the occasion (see argument in text). The real action begins with Juno's soliloquy. It will add greatly to the understanding and interest of the Eneid to consult the corresponding passages in Homer, which are frequently cited, with references to Bryant's translation (Bry.). In general, the first six books have a certain correspondence with the Odyssey, and the last six with the Iliad; but the direct allusions to the Iliad are much more frequent in the former portion.

Introductory verses. - The lines, Ille ego, etc., printed before the Eneid, are by some editors included in the text, but the general opinion is that they are a spurious addition.

Verse 1. Arma virumque, i.e. the conflicts attending the settlement in Italy, and the adventures of the hero who led the expedition. Compare the opening of the Iliad and of the Odyssey. For construction see § 238; G. 331; II. 371, i. 1). — primus venit, who first came (§ 191; G. 324, R.): the settlement of Antenor (i. 242, Liv. i. 1) is not reckoned, as North Italy (Cisalpine Gaul) was not until 42 B.C. considered as belonging to Italy proper. By some it is made = of old.

2. Italiam, to Italy: acc. of end of motion (§ 258; G. 410; H. 380, 3). fato (§ 245; G. 407; H. 416) profugus, driven by fate, i.e. not merely an adventurer: the verbal adjective here= = a perfect participle. Lavinia (the last i has the sound of y, as in pinion, and is not counted in scanning), i.e. the western coast of Italy, where is the town of Lavinium, assumed to be named for Lavinia, the Italian bride of Eneas. The reading of some editors, Lavina, is less approved.

3. ille, etc., the man long tossed; there is no verb to be supplied, but the pronoun is in a kind of apposition with qui.—terris, alto (locative abl. § 258, ƒ; G. 384, r.2; H. 425, N.3), by land and on l'e deep.

4. vi, the immediate cause or instrument, while ob iram is more remote, the primary cause; compare fato above. —superum (gen. pl. § 40, e ; H. 52, 3), of the gods above. saevao... ob iram, on account of the ever-mindful wrath of cruel Juno. · memorem, i.e. which would never let him escape from her mind. Iuno (= Iovino, feminine form of Iovis) is the goddess of the sky, represented by the poet as filled with a vindictive and relentless hatred of Troy, which does not stop at the destruction of the city, but pursues Aneas into his distant exile.

5. et bello, i.e. his sufferings did not end with his arrival, but continued in the subsequent wars (§ 258, ƒ; G. 384, R.2; H. 425, N.3). — dum conderet (§ 328; G. 573, 574; H. 519, 2), till he could found: the subjunctive here shows the act as the purpose of the gods, for although they thwarted him to please Juno, yet they meant in the end that he should succeed.

6. Latio, into Latium (dative after inferret, § 228, but cf. 225, b; H. 385, 4). Latium is the undulating plain between the Sabine mountains and the sea: its inhabitants Latini, and its language Latin. The name is assumed to be derived from an ancient king, Latinus: in fact, it was just the other way; the name of the king is purely imaginary: he is a socalled eponymous hero, i.e. one invented to account for the name. — unde, i.e. from all the foregoing.. Latinum: this is not strictly accurate, as that race already existed. But in Virgil's time it had long been incorporated with Rome, and many great families traced their descent from it: he therefore represents the whole as if sprung from Troy.

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7. Albani patres: Alba Longa was the head of the Latin league of thirty confederate towns. When conquered by Rome, its leading families, Albani patres, were said to have been transferred to Rome, which now became chief of the confederacy. The term refers here, in general, to the great senatorial families.

8. Musa, etc. (see note, v. 1): Virgil follows the regular epic method in referring all the plot to the gods. quo numine laeso. Of this muchvexed passage the best meaning seems to be, what purpose [of Juno] having been thwarted? The answer would then be in vv. 12–22, as that to quid dolens is in vv. 23-28. The two causes, then, are that Eneas hindered her plans, and was also personally hateful to her. This view agrees best also with the etymology of numen, the will or power of the gods as expressed by their nod (nuo); and is not inconsistent with the meaning of laedere (cf. vuaivopat in Xen. Anab. i. 3, 16; see Rosc. Am. 50, 48). 9. quidve dolens, pained at what: dolere, to feel pain, is transitive also in prose. See § 237, b; G. 329, R.1; H. 371, iii. - tot volvere casus, to run the round of so many chances. "The misfortunes are regarded as a destined circle which Eneas goes through." The infinitive follows impulerit by a poctic use (§ 331, g; G. 546, R.; H. 535, iv.), and has for its subject virum.

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10. pietate (§ 245; G. 407; II. 416): this word means his filial devotion in the rescue of his father, as well as his piety towards the gods. The gods could, however, pursue with vengeance even a pious man, either because under the power of Fate he thwarted their purposes, or because his ancestors had committed crimes, as was the case with the descendants

of Pelops. Both causes existed in the case of Æneas (see the story of Laomedon). adire, encounter. - labores, see § 228,-a; G. 330; H. 386, 3.

II. impulerit, indirect question (§ 334; H. 529, i.).—animis, dative (§ 231; G. 349; H. 387).- tantae... irae, does such wrath [as she exhibits] belong to celestial souls? (§ 75, c; G. 195, R.5; H. 130, 2).

12. urbs antiqua, ancient in reference to Virgil's time.

13. Karthago: the probable date of the foundation of Carthage (B.C. 812), was some three centuries later than that generally assumed for the destruction of Troy (B.C. 1184), and so later than the occurrences here referred to. Italiam contra: look at the map and notice how precisely the two cities front each other, connected by the almost land-locked Tyrrhenian Sea.-longe, modifying contra.

14. dives opum: a poetical extension of the use of relative adjectives (§ 218, c; G. 373, R.; H. 399, i. 3).- studiis, in its passion for, abl. of respect (§ 253; H. 424). For the plural see note to irae above. Virgil had in mind no doubt the experience of Rome in the Punic wars.

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15. quam... coluisse, which Juno is said to have cherished, etc. (§ 330, b; G. 528; H. 534, 1). The gods were naturally supposed to be especially fond of the places where they were most worshipped, or whence their worship first came. Juno had an old and famous temple at Samos (see Fig. 32). As patroness of Carthage, she is here confounded with the Syrian Astarte, queen of heaven (the Ashtaroth of the Bible).unam: unus is often thus used with superlatives for emphasis; so here, where magis

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omnibus is equivalent to a superlative.

16. posthabita Samo, holding Samos in less regard (§ 255; G. 409;

LPROCIU

Fig. 33.

MMETTIVS

H. 431). arma: Juno in several of her manifestations is represented with the shield and spear. (See Figs. 33 and 34.) The reference here is probably to some arms long preserved in her temple, corresponding to the relics of modern saints. Compare.

also, the famous chariot tied with the Gordian knot, Q. Curtius, iii. 2.

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17. currus: see Iliad, v. 720-723; Bry. 903.thage, but takes the gender of regnum; see $ 195, d; H. 445, 4) ... fovetque, this the goddess—ij by any means the fates permit - already aims and fondly hopes to make the seat of royal power for the nations. gentibus, dative of reference (§ 235). -sinant, subjunctive in an intermediate clause (§ 342; G. 666; H. 529, ii.).—iam tum, even then, while Carthage was in its infancy, and before Rome was founded. tendit esse, see § 331, g; H. 533, ii. 2; cf. adire, v. 10. fovet, cherishes the hope.

19. sed enim, but [she feared for Carthage] for, etc., referring to the doubt implied in si... sinant. An ellipsis is implied, as with Greek arzà yáp. — duci (§ 336; G. 653; H. 523, i.): present

- hoc (refers to Car

Fig. 34.

tense because Eneas, the founder of the race, was now living.

20. Tyrias... arces, which should hereafter overturn the Tyrian towers. Carthage was one of a group of colonies from Tyre. quae verteret, subj. of purpose (§ 317; G. 632; H. 497, i.); for the tense see § 286; G. 510; H. 491.

21. populum late regem, a people widely ruling. The word populus, used in its political sense, is constantly personified. For the adjective use of regem, see § 188, d; compare § 81 and note preceding; G. 284, R.; H. 441, 3.-bello (§ 253; G. 398; H. 424). — superbum victorious,

flushed with victory.

22. excidio Libyae, datives: one to what, the other for what (§ 233; G. 350; H. 390). —volvere, spin the thread of destiny (Servius): the simple verb is not elsewhere used in this meaning, but its compounds often mean to spin (Ovid, Her. xii. 4; Sen., Herc. F. 181; Claud. R. P. 1, 53). The Parcae, or Destinies, are conceived as spinning the threads of human fate: Clotho is represented with a spindle; Lachesis draws the thread, and Atropos cuts it off:

"Comes the blind Fury with the abhorred shears,
- Lycidas.

And slits the thin-spun life." -

23. veteris belli, the war of Troy (§ 218, a; G. 373; H. 399). — Saturnia, daughter of Saturn (Kronos), according to the Greek theogony, but the Italian mythology makes no connection whatever between Saturnus, the old god of husbandry, and Juno. Compare Ecl. iv. 6, note.

24. ad Troiam, round Troy (see Introd.). For construction see

$258, f, R.; G. 410, R.; cf. H. 380, ii. 1.-pro caris Argis: the Grecian Hera (identified with Juno) was worshipped with especial veneration at Argos, as the grea. goddess of the Dorian race. Here this city is put for all Greece. - prima: as chief (before all others; compare primus, v. 2). 25-28. These lines are parenthetical, recounting more particularly the grounds of Juno's enmity.

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25. necdum etiam, nor even now (etiam et iam).- causae irarum, motives of wrath (irarum, plural, referring to its many manifestations, § 75, c; G. 195, R.; H. 130, 2).

26. animo: in prose ex would be repeated; see § 243, b; G. 388, R.; II. 412, 2. manet (§ 205, d; G. 281, 1; H. 463, i.).. alta mente, etc. (§ 258, f; G. 384, R.; H. 425, N.3), laid away deep in her mind. repostum (for repositum), by syncope.

27. iudicium Paridis, see Introduction.- spretae formae, of her slighted beauty, i.e. of the disparagement shown to her beauty (§ 292, a; G. 667, R.; H. 549, N.2). We should expect iniuria to be in apposition with iudicium, because it means the same thing, but the Latin often prefers to separate two such ideas, and connect the words with et or que.

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28. genus invisum: from jealousy, since Dardanus, the founder of the Trojan race, was son of Jupiter and Electra (En. viii. 135).-Ganymedis, see Introd., page 34, and Fig. 35.

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