Billeder på siden

Nereids. amara: translate as if agreeing with undam, so as not to in

terfere with the personification of the sea (Doris).

6. sollicitos = torturing.

7. dum, while we watch the browsing

goats. simae, see Fig. 31.

Fig. 31.

8. respondent, compare i. 5, and note. 9. nemora, groves, where the trees are not so close but that the cattle can graze (νέμειν), like the "oak openings" of the West; saltus, glades, open spaces among the woods, where the game leap from covert (salio) or, more generally, rocky wooded hills, or mountain passes; lucos, woods, partially clear (luceo), sacred to some divinity. — habuere, i.e. that you did not fly to his relief.

Naides in Theocritus (viii. 92)

10. peribat, was consuming. Daphnis is said to win a sea-nymph for his bride; hence the nymphs (i. 66) are bidden to mourn for him. Here, as in v. I, they play the part of the muses, in connection with Pindus and Parnassus. As the Muses were nymphs, any nymphs are sometimes improperly confounded with them. indigno, i.e. a love which he did not deserve to suffer from (viii. 18).

12. ulla, i.e. it wasn't any of these, I am sure. — Aganippe, a fountain of Helicon, of which a poetic name was Aonia. These would not detain him because they sympathized with his woe. For scanning see § 359, e; G. 714, R.; II. 608, ii.

13. lauri (observe the hiatus): the neglect of the muses is contrasted with the sorrow of trees and plants.

15. Maenalus, Lycaei: mountains of Arcadia, cf. viii. 22.

16. nostri, i.e. as the flock do not disdain to share our sorrow, so do you not disdain to receive their sympathy (§ 221, b; G. 376; H. 409, iii.). - et, even.

19. upilio (the second syllable of this word is probably long, and the io may be scanned as one syllable), sheep-tender; in the staff of farm laborers (Cato R. R. 10), an upilio is allowed for a farm of 240 jugera, about 150 acres. — subulci, swine-herds (the reading of all the Mss.), swine being very abundant in Arcadia. — tardi: the business of tending swine was a very weary one (compare Odys. xiv. 415, 416).

20. glande: acorns, soaked in water, were much used as winter food for hogs and cattle: the husbandman Menalcas is wet through in the task of gathering and soaking them.

22. tua cura, she for whom you pine.

23. per nives, i.e. over the Alps into Gaul. - horrida, contrasted with the softness of rural scenes.

24. Silvanus (sometimes confounded with Pan): originally a forest deity, but afterwards regarded as a god of gardens and plantations, and the special guardian of the boundaries of peasants' properties, a function indicated by the fennel and lilies.—agresti honore, with the rustic honor of his head.

25. quassans, shaking as he moved. For form see § 167, b; H. 336. 26. Pan: a formidable nature-divinity (Theocr. i. 16), the sudden sight of whom produced “panic "madness. The vision of him (quem vidimus ipsi) was a special boon vouchsafed the poet.

27. ebuli, elder, a plant of peculiar sacredness. — minio, vermilion (compare vi. 22). The details give reality to the vision. Images of the gods (especially the rustic deities) were often painted red.

29. nec lacrimis, i.e. Love is no more satiated with lovers' tears than grass with irrigating streams (iii. III, etc.). These rustic images are appropriate to the god Pan, who is doubtless thinking of his own lost love Syrinx. 31. at ille, Gallus, who rejects the offered comfort. — tamen, i.e. despite my woe.

32. cantare, see § 273, d.

33. quam molliter, how sweetly might my frame repose, if one day your pipe should sing my love.

35. utinam: a regret that he had not shared the humble life of shepherds. fuissem, see § 267, b; G. 254; H. 483, I.

37. certe... iaceret: the rustic maid or sun-burnt boy would prove a truer love. See § 308; G. 599; H. 510. — fuscus, sc. est.

39. nigrae, compare ii. 18.

40. salices, willows, on which vines were sometimes but rarely trained. The reading calices, cups, has been suggested; compare Hor. Od. i. 38, 39. 42. hic gelidi fontes in this calm sweet place, why might not Lycoris herself be content to abide with me? but my mad passion for war amor duri Martis) keeps me in arms, while she let me not believe it, etc. The shepherd-lover, the poet, and the man-at-arms are as rudely confused here as the two characters of Tityrus in the First Eclogue. these verses are said to be taken from Gallus's own compositions.


Some of

46. sit, equal to liceat. Let me not believe so cruel a thought. 47. Alpinas nives, mere images of horror to the Roman mind. Many things which we should call sublime in nature, the ancients seem to have thought of only as tedious or terrible, and did not enjoy. Thus Julius Cæsar whiled away his time among the Alps by composing an essay on Grammar. -dura, hardy as well as cruel.

48. me sine sola, alone without me, like Chaucer's "alone, withouten any company.” - .. laedant, perhaps as a caution, rather than as a prayer (cf. Ovid, Met. i. 508).

- ne...

50. Chalcidico versu, certain elegies (probably) imitated by Gallus from Euphorion, a poet of Chalcis (see Cic. Tusc. iii. 19). These were to be adapted to the pastoral verse (pastoris avena), and carved on the bark of trees.

52. spelaea, dens, a Greek word, of very rare use.

53. pati, endure hardship.- malle, i.e. rather than take any comfort. 54. crescent: as the trees grow, so his love shall expand, -- a pretty image, often illustrated in the unshapely letters cut in green bark. Amores is said to be the title of Gallus's elegies, making a mild play of words.

55. lustrabo, will range, as a hunter over Mænalus, attended by nymphs (see Georg. iii. 40).

56. Parthenios saltus: Mt. Parthenius is on the eastern border of Arcadia.

57. circumdare: the regular way of hunting was to surround the wood and so catch the game. - canibus, see § 225, d; G. 348; H. 384, 2. 58. iam, even now. — sonantis, echoing.

59. Cydonia: Cretan bowmen had the same fame among the Greeks as the Parthian among barbarians. - torquere, a word properly applied to the whirling of the sling; hence, commonly, to hurling the spear, and improperly, as here, to shooting the arrow. Like the vulgar "fire a stone.”

60. tamquam sit, see § 312; G. 604; H. 513, ii. — haec, agreeing with medicina (§ 195, d; G. 202, R.3; H. 445, 4). The poet here has a lucid interval and sees the uselessness of his acts.

61. deus ille, that merciless deity (Love). — mitescere, relent. 62. hamadryades, i.e. the nymphs of the forest, as in v. 55; strictly, those whose life is bound up with the single tree which is the dwelling of each. 63. rursus concedite, again farewell, — as if he wished them out of his sight (compare viii. 58).

64. illum, i.e. amor.— possunt, for tense see § 307, d.

65. frigoribus (compare Theocr. vii. 111), referring to the extremes of heat and cold.- mediis, see § 193; G. 287, R.; H. 440, N.2— Hebrum, Sithonias nives: for the horror with which the Romans regarded the Thracian winters see Ovid, Trist. iii. 3. - bibamus, see § 307, b; G. 598; H. 509. 66. aquosae, rainy, a general epithet of winter, true enough for Italy, but not so true for Thrace.

67. liber aret: so hot that the very inner bark withers and dies upon the elm. [It has been suggested to read aret Liber, which would mean the withering of the grape-vine in the extreme heat, as in vii. 58.]

68. versemus, tend, drive hither and thither, wandering wearily in the


- sub sidere, i.e. at the time of the summer solstice.

[ocr errors]

69. Amor, for quantity see § 359, f; § 375, 3; G. 715; H. 608, v. 70. divae, see note, v. 9.

71. hibisco: the basket of marsh-mallow was used for straining whey from cheese-curd (Tib. ii. 3, 15). For this occupation of spare hours, see i. 72.

72. maxima, of greatest worth.

73. cuius (obj. gen., § 217; H. 396, iii.), whose love so grows in me. in horas, from hour to hour.

74. se subicit, shoots up: notice the double force of sub in composition; here, up, elsewhere often, down.

75. gravis, oppressive, causing headache, says Lucretius (vi. 785).

76. iuniper: the juniper (which he is sitting under) has a wholesome aromatic odor, but its shade is thick and dark, and so is dangerous at nightfall. - frugibus: as if the crops suffered only from the shade of the tree, and not, also, in the "struggle for existence."

77. ite domum, compare i. 75, vi. 86, vii. 44.

[blocks in formation]
« ForrigeFortsæt »