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108. credimus, equal to shall I believe: the indicative is often used in this sense equivalent to the more common subjunctive. — qui, see § 359, e; G. 714, R.; H. 608, ii., N.3

109. parcite, cease, Daphnis comes. The charm is now unnecessary. The barking dog indicates the arrival of the truant.


1. quo te pedes: the verb understood is ducunt, suggested by ducit. The feet are supposed to guide the man. — an, or is it? The question is not strictly a double one (§ 211), because the first part does not correspond to the second, nor is the first part strictly omitted (§ 211, b; H. 353, N.), but the sentence begins in one form and ends in another (G. 459). quo via ducit, the same way the road leads? 2. vivi pervenimus, i.e. we have lived to see. broken, and as it were gasping expression of these lines.

Observe the hurried,

3. ut... diceret, a clause of result as if after ad eum finem (§ 332, a; G. 558; H. 501, i. 1).

6. quod nec vertat bene (preferred to nec bene vertat, on account of the cæsura), and may they (lit., the act of sending) be his ruin, the negative of the ordinary wish.

7. certe equidem, etc., why, I am sure I had heard, indicating Lycidas' surprise at the state of things. — qua se, indicating the limits of the property. These carefully described landmarks though in themselves imaginary reflect Virgil's jealous interest in the lands restored to


8. molli clivo, by a smooth slope, ablative of manner (§ 248; G. 401; H. 419, iii.).

9. cacumina, in apposition with veteres fagos.

10. omnia, the land.

- vestrum, i.e. your master.

11. audieras, emphatic, true you had. fama, the story.

13. Chaonias columbas, the prophetic doves of Dodona. This name is a local name in Epirus, and hence applied to Dodona and the shrine of Jupiter there. veniente, see § 87, a.

14. quod, in fact, see § 240, b; G. 612, R.'; H. 453, 6.—me: that is, it was Moris, not his master Menalcas (Virgil), who first noticed the evil omen. - novas incidere (§ 331, α) lites, unless the crow had warned me to cut short these new disputes in any way whatever. quacumque,

i.e. at any sacrifice.

15. monuisset, see § 308; G. 599; II. 510.- sinistra, ill boding,

compare i. 15, et seq. The bird appearing on the left should be of good v omen, according to Roman augury; but here Virgil follows the Greek usage, which interpreted the right as the favorable side. The difference arose from the fact that the Greek observer faced the north, the Latin the south, so that in each case the east was the favorable side. Cf. Cic. de Div. xxxix. 82.

16. hic, pronoun, but translated here. nec viveret: it is said that Virgil once had to throw himself into the Mincius to escape the violence of Arrius; and at another time to hide in the hut of a charcoal-burner, who helped him off.

17. cadit, occur to.

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quemquam on account of the implied idea that it seemed impossible. — tua solatia, i.e. your sweet songs, which had thus been nearly torn from us. nobis, see § 229, c; H. 385, 4.

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19. caneret nymphas, compare v. 20 (i.e. if you had been driven away). See § 311; G. 602.- - herbis (§ 225, d; G. 348; H. 384, 2). 20. induceret umbra, compare preceding notes.

21. quae, supply caneret.—sublegi tibi, caught by stealth from you, i.e. Menalcas: sub indicates secrecy (comp. subducitur, Ecl. iii. 6. § 229, c; G. 344, R.2; H. 385, 4).

22. delicias nostras, i.e the darling of the shepherds.

23. dum redeo, while I am on my way back. See § 328; G. 572; H. 519, i. In these lines, translated from Theoc. iii. 3-5, Virgil "must be understood as indirectly praising himself, not only as the rustic poet who sings to his friend, but as the Roman Theocritus."

24. potum, see note vii. 11.

pastas, see § 292; G. 668; H. 549, 1.

inter agendum, see § 300; G. 433.

25. capro, see § 228; G. 346; H. 386.— caveto, see § 269, d; G. 262.

26. immo, nay, rather. -Varo: see introd. Ecl. vi. He succeeded Pollio as governor of Cisalpine Gaul. - canebat: the song was apparently never finished (compare vi. 10). - necdum, not yet; dum with

negatives means yet.

27. superet = supersit, only let Mantua be spared to us. See § 314; G. 575; H. 513, i.

28. Cremonae: Cremona had supported the cause of Brutus and Cassius in the civil war, and had been punished by the triumvirs by confiscation of its territory. As this was not enough for the greedy soldiery, fifteen miles' breadth of the adjoining Mantuan territory was added. The towns themselves were forty miles apart. For case see § 234, a; G. 356; H. 391, i.

29. cycni, see note viii. 55.

30. sie: a comm›n form of aburati n. “So may, etc, as you do what I desire." Compare Hor. Od 1. 3. 1. So also

Tell me, kin! seer, I pray thee,

So may the stars Joey thee.

-Cyrneas taxos, jetes of Cruce from Kits Greek name). Corsican honey had an inane from its litter favor, which was ascribed to the box-trees on the San 1: taxos may possibly be an error for buxos. The yew, however (Ge.rg. iv. 471, was held Fjurious to bees.— cytiso (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420).

32. incipe: these verses are taken fr m Theocr. vii. 37, 38. — poëtam, a MAKER of verses -; vatem, an inspired and chebag . Hence vatem is used with pastores. The ign.rant shepher is looked up to him as an inspired bard. He himself only claims to be a versemaker. 34. illis (§ 234; G. 356; H. 391

35. Vario, Cinna: L. Varias Kufas, a favorite tragic and epic poet of the time, editor of the Eneil (Her. O1. i, 6; Sat. i. 10, 51'; Helvius Cinna, an epic poet of no great merit (seende, t. 30. For case see § 245, a; G. 398, R.; H. 421, iii.

36. argutos...olores, ?? cackle like a genre among the tungʻul swans. — anser : said to be a punning allusion to a poet of unclean reputation, a friend of Mark Antony (ie. Phil. xiii. 5), censured by Ovid (Tristia ii. 435): “Cinna ue prcacior Anser."

37. id ago, that is just quidem that I am trying to do (referring to incipe, . 32). tacitus voluto, I in fimbing it over to myself. 38. si valeam, to see if I can, etc. § 334, f; G. 402, 2; H. 529, ñi. 1, N.'`. 39. huc ades, etc., a free imitation of The ver. xi 42-4), the song of the Cyclops to Galatea (see introd. to Ecl. ii., and Ovid, Met. xiii. 789869).

40. ver purpureum, 725p ring, Flashing with young flowers.

43 insani... fluctus, iz?i, malternes lash the shore, contrasting the calm beauty of the meadows. — feriant, see 331, R.; G. 540, R.3; H. 499, 2.

44. quid, hoe with? compare quid quod.—pura, cloudless; as sailors say "dry weather," ie. clly.

45. numeros, etc., I remem'er the tune vor meisure), if only I could retain the wort:e. I could sing if, etc.; § 308; G.603; H. 510). [The conclusion is inghelin memini.]

45. antiquos ortus, L.e. antiquorum signorum.— Daphni: addressed as the led Ser

47. Dionaei astrum, fie dir of Ozzar, Venus' son: a remarkable

comet appeared during the year after Cæsar's death, and was thought to signify his apotheosis. Dione was the mother of Venus, from whom, through Iulus, the Julian house claimed descent.

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48. quo, under which (abl. of cause, § 245; G. 407; H. 416, but com-, pare iv. 8). segetes is the field of standing grain. gauderent, subj. of purpose, § 317; G. 632; H. 497, i. - frugibus, the crop itself. 50. insere piros, graft the pear-trees: under so auspicious a star, they will yield fruit to the third generation, a sign of continued peace.

51. omnia fert actas, age takes away every thing: Moeris suddenly forgets his song. — animum, the general word for soul, used here for memory. longos condere soles, spent long days: lit., laid the suns to rest, i.e. watched their going down. ("See the Sun to bed and to arise.") The idea is that he had songs enough to last the whole day. For tense see § 288, b; G. 277, R.; H. 537, I.

53. oblita, here passive. Most deponents have had an active form at some period of the language, and hence the participles are often found passive. See § 135, 6; H. 231, 2.

54. iam fugit, is beginning to fail.

lupi videre priores: it was

an old superstition that to meet a wolf, and not catch his eye first, struck a man dumb. So Socrates in Plato's Republic, speaking of the glaring eyes of an eager opponent, says, "If I had not caught his eye first, I verily believe I should have lost my voice."

55. satis saepe, Menalcas himself will repeat it as often as you wish. - tamen, though I have forgotten it.

56. causando, by making excuses you delay my eager wishes. Nature herself is hushed, listening for his song.

57. tibi, see § 236; G. 351; H. 389. aequor, apparently loosely used in imitation of some other poet. It seems hardly possible that there should be any proper stratum aequor in the place.

58. aspice, hark! the breath of the murmuring wind (lit. breezes of windy murmur) has ceased.

59. adeo, just. hine, by the same idiom as a parte dextra, etc. See § 260, b.-nobis, see § 235; G. 343; II. 384, 4.

60. Bianoris, the mythical founder of Mantua, fabled to be the son of the river-god Tiber and Manto, daughter of the seer Teiresias.

61. stringunt frondes, see note i. 57.

62. tamen, for all that, i.e. though we rest awhile. Mantua was about a mile and a half away: so there was no need of haste. — usque, all the


64. cantantes, i.e. we can sing as we go. G. 546, R.; H. 499, 2.

camus, see § 331, R.2;

65. hoc fasce (§ 243, a; G. 388; H. 414): apparently, the kids, which Moeris is carrying: compare depone, v. 62.

66. desine plura: no, we cannot even stop to sing.—puer, see $ 359, f. — quod instat nunc, what presses now.

67. cum venerit ipse: when Menalcas himself shall come. Compare iii. 3, and note. — venerit, see § 281, R.; H. 473, I.


"THE structure of this poem is taken from the latter part of Theocr., Idyl i., the dying Daphnis supplying the model for Gallus, whose despair, however, does not in our poet bring him to death. Virgil is supposed to narrate the story in a song as he is tending his goats, and in rising to go home for the evening he gracefully intimates that he is closing the volume of pastoral poetry." The scenery (purely conventional) is in Arcadia. Milton's Lycidas may be compared with profit.

1. Arethusa: conventionally, the nymph of pastoral verse. The Arethusa is a fresh fountain which rises in the little island Ortygia, the heart of Syracuse. To account for it, the fable was invented of a nymph in Elis, who, being pursued by the river-god Alpheus, was changed into a brook, which disappeared in the earth, and after flowing beneath the sea reappeared in this sacred isle of Diana (Ovid, Met. v. 572–641; Æn. iii. 694). The allusion is of course to Sicily, the country of Theocritus.

2. quae legat, such that Lycoris may read; “the antithesis to pauca : though few, they must be such as may attract even her scornful eye." legat, subj. of purpose (§ 317; G. 632; H. 497, i.; cf. note on iv. 33). 3. neget, dubitative subj. (§ 268; G. 251; H. referred to 485). 4. sic tibi (dat. after intermisceat, § 248, a, R.; G. 346, R.2; H. 385, 3): compare ix. 30, and note, and Comus, 924, 925 : —

"May thy brimmed waves for this

Their full tribute never miss."

cum subterlabere, when thou shalt glide beneath. In Moschus (Id. vii.), the Alpheus is represented, " taught by Love, the mischief-making boy, to dive," as flowing beneath the sea to visit his love. Here Arethusa appears, perhaps according to the more common form of the myth, as flying from his pursuit under the sea to Sicily, where she arrived without having her current mixed with the salt water. The myth is here regarded as a continuing phenomenon. Virgil prays her "to assist his tale of love, as she would wish to be undisturbed in her passage."


5. Doris the sea.

She was the wife of Nereus and mother of the

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