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12. praetexit, fringes.

13. examina (ex-agmen), i.e. the young swarms.

14. quid facerem, what was I to do? See § 268; G. 258. neque tamen, i.e. though I had no milkmaid (like my neighbors) to attend

to things at home, yet I could not miss this noble rivalry.

15. depulsos, etc., the regular expression for weaned.

see § 317; G. 632; II. 497, i.


16. et, and on the other hand (connecting the two arguments for staying and going). — Corydon, etc., a loose but not uncommon sort of apposition with certamen.

17. posthabui, I put off my serious cares for their sport. ludo (§ 228; G. 346; H. 386).


19. alternos. volebant, the Muses [that inspired them] chose to rehearse alternate strains. (For remarks on this style of responsive versification, see notes on Ecl. iii.)-meminisse, see § 143, , note; G. 228, R.; H. 297, 2.

20. referebat, brought out; contributed.

21. Libethrides, Libethra was the name of a fountain in Helicon, the seat of the Muses. aut... aut, see § 156, c; G. 495; H. 554, ii. 2. 22. Codro, sc. concessisti. The name of a shepherd poet, but who is meant, if any actual person, is unknown.

23. versibus, governed by proxima (carmina). For scanning see $359, f; G. 715; H. 608, v.

24. pendebit, etc., my whispering pipe shall hang on the sacred pine, as a sign that I abandon the vocation of song, according to a custom of the ancients, by which the instrument of an abandoned vocation was made a votive offering. Cf. Hor. Od. 1, 5, 13; iii. 26. The pine- into which the nymph Pitys was transformed — was sacred to Pan. — pinu, see § 258, a; G. 388; H. 414, N.' Compare introduction to notes. Notice how the prosody shows that arguta agrees with fistula, and sacra with pinu.

25. crescentem poetam, your poet now growing great. In this and the following verses (especially "vati futuro") observe the " arrogance and spleen of Thyrsis contrasted with the modesty of Corydon." He not only desires to rival Codrus, but claims already to excel him. — hedera: the ivy was sacred to Bacchus, and so connected with lyric poetry.

26. Arcades: the epithet is here meaningless, but a conventional one. invidia rumpantur, burst with jealousy (§ 317; G. 632; II. 497, ii.). - Codro, see § 235, a; G. 343, R.*


27. ultra placitum, beyond what the gods approve. Extravagant praise or boasting was thought to incur the jealous resentment of the gods, -a feeling very strong in pagan antiquity. Hence the charm (baccare)

against the "evil tongue." - laudarit, future condition (§ 307, c and d; H. referred to 508). The subject is Codrus, and his praise would, no doubt, be intended to injure.

28. noceat, see § 317; G. 632; II. 497, ii.


29. caput, sc. dat. The verb is very often omitted in votive inscripDelia, Diana, the goddess of the chase. (See Class. Dict.) 30. Micon, a young hunter. - vivacis, long lived, or rather tenacious of life.

31. proprium, his constant fortune. - hoc, his luck in hunting, as indicated by the game mentioned. fuerit, see § 307, c.-lēvi de marmore, of polished marble. - tota, at full length, not a mere bust. 32. evincta, etc., thy ankles laced with purple buskin: a common representation of Diana. (See Fig. 27.) (Compare Æn. i. 337.)

33. sinum, a bowl, deeper than the poculum.- Priape: Priapus was a god of gardens, whose rude wooden image, emblematic of fertility, was set in gardens, half god and half scarecrow. (Comp. Hor. Sat. i. 8.) This strain of Thyrsis is, therefore, in a manner a travesty of the preceding, the extravagance of a marble and gold image of Priapus (offered to insult the promises of Micon), contrasted with the homely gifts of cakes and milk. The ingredients of the cake were flour, cheese, and an egg.

35. pro tempore, according to my present means.

36. suppleverit, i.e. if my flock is prosperous, so as to increase my means.

37. Hyblae, see note, Ecl. i. 55.

Fig. 27.

Nerine, daughter of Nereus: the name (Galatea) and the compliments are taken from Polyphemus in Theocr. xi.

40. Corydonis, see § 217; G. 361; H. 396, iii.

41. immo, nay, in answer to some supposed complaint of the maid. The word always contradicts what precedes, oftentimes, however, to add a still stronger statement. See derivation in Dict. - Sardoniis herbis, a sort of crowfoot of Sardinia, intensely bitter, which twisted the faces of those

who tasted it into the "Sardonic laugh." By this odd imprecation Thyrsis seeks to express a more violent longing for his love, in whose absence the day is "longer than a whole year."

44. si quis pudor: the beasts ought to be ashamed of feeding with such an appetite, while their keeper is impatient for the evening.

45. muscosi, mossy, i.e. among cool and moss-grown rocks. 46. arbutus, the arbute, or "strawberry-tree," affords a berry used as food by the poor: its leaves are scanty, and its shadow thin (rara).

47. solstitium, midsummer heat (midwinter is bruma).— pecori, dative of reference (§ 229, c; G. 344, R.*; H. 385, 4, 2)). — iam venit, is just coming; iam is continuous, and refers to the present as following the past, and so with the present tense (věnit) expresses the beginning of an action.

48. gemmae: the buds upon the vine-branch show the beauty as well as the heat of summer; here again Corydon is the truer poet.

50. postes the picture of the well-blackened door-posts of the poor hut, which was the earliest style of habitation, corresponds to the later atrium (ater), or main hall of the Roman house (see Ecl. i. 83, note). Thyrsis matches the preceding midsummer picture by a suggestion of winter.


51. tantum: we heed no more the wintry blast than the wolf cares, numerum, the number of the flock, the usual rendering, seems forced as well as insipid. Why not music? Compare Theocr. ix. 20, from which this is freely imitated. - ripas, the swift, cold streams that flow from the Alps are liable to violent freshets, which make a frequent image in Virgil.

53-60. Here is described the double sympathy of Nature in the presence and the absence of the loved one. For scanning see §§ 359, f and e; G. 714, R.'

54. strata: under every tree its fruit lies strown. — sua, see § 196, c; G. 295, R.'; H. 449, 2. — quâque, compare note to ii. 65. Munro reads


56. abeat, see § 307, b; G. 598; H. 509.

57. vitio aeris, compare Æn. iii. 138, “corrupto caeli tractu," (§ 245; G. 407; H. 416).

58. Liber: Bacchus himself grudges to yield the shade of vines to the hillsides. Liber was an old Italian god of fertility, identified in later time, without any special cause, with the Grecian Bacchus, god of wine, inspiration, and dramatic poetry.-collibus (§ 225, c; G. 347; H. 384, ii.).

60. Iuppiter: the primitive name of this deity (Dyaus = Zevç) signified the clear vault of the sky; and his traditionary function continued to

be the disposal of the weather: thunder was the special symbol of his power. The rain-fall is often figured as the espousal of sky and earth (compare Georg. i. 418, ii. 419). Here Jupiter is, in a manner, confounded with the rain itself, as the gods often are with the thing which is their charge. Cf. i. 2, and note. imbri (§ 248; G. 401; H. 419, iii.). 61. populus, the poplar, said to have been the transmuted form of the nymph Leuke who was borne away by Pluto. Its leaves were gathered by Hercules for a wreath on his return from the infernal regions.

62. myrtus: the myrtle loves the sea-shore, which was Venus' birthplace, and is her favorite plant. sua, for use of reflexive, see § 196, c; H. 449, 2. - laurea: Daphne, a nymph beloved of Apollo, was changed into a laurel which was sacred to him.

63. illas: the hazel.

68. pinus: see note, Ecl. i. 39.

69. contendere, for tense see § 288, b; G.

277, K.

70. ex illo, etc., i.e. ever since this match, Corydon has his true value as a singer.


1. Musam, the song (obj. of dicemus).

2. quos est mirata, at whom the heifer gazed with surprises they strove (certantis, acc.). The charm of song is constantly represented as powerful over the lower animals. Naturalists give authentic instances, in the case of birds, mice, and even (it is said) spiders, as well as animals nearer to man; but none of the somewhat grotesque character described by the ancients. This particular animal, the lynx, belongs to the fable of Orpheus, not to any Italian scene.

4. mutata, i.e. in direction. — requierunt cursus, stayed their The verb becomes transitive by a stretch of its meaning.


6. tu, is the subj. of superas; mihi depends on liceat, though it is repeated in v. 8. The two are put together from the Latin fondness for contrasting persons. — Timavi: this was a stream flowing into the Adriatic near Trieste (cf. En. i. 245). The expedition of Pollio was against the Parthini, an Illyrian tribe, and he is supposed to be on his return to Rome. — superas, pass beyond; iam gives the idea of at last or by this time. Compare note, Ecl. vii. 47.


7. legis oram, skirt the shore. Compare ecquis; see also Ecl. i. 68.

en gives force to the question.

8. cum liceat (§ 322, R. cf. § 320, a; G. 582, R.'; H. 521, 2, (2)).

9. ut liceat, result-clause (§ 332, a; G. 558, 3; H. 501, i. 1).—ferre, etc., i.e. spread the fame of, etc.

10. Sophocleo, i.e. tragedy worthy of Sophocles. tua carmina : see note to iii. 86. The sock (soccus) and buskin (coturnus) are still emblems of comedy and tragedy respectively, originally so on account of the persons that wore them on the stage. Compare Milton's L'Allegro, v. 121. The tragic buskin had high heels to increase the stature of the wearer.

II. a te, i.e. from Pollio came the first incentive to song. (Supply erat.) Which Eclogue is meant as the first is uncertain, and again on the other hand this one is not the last, although it has every appearance of an Epilogue. It has been supposed, not improbably, that this was the close of the first edition of the Eclogues. — desinam (preserved from elision by the pause; most editions have desinet): to thee I will cease.

12. sine... serpere (§ 331, c; G. 532; H. 535, ii.), suffer this ivy (referring to the humble pastoral song, cf. vii. 25) to twine about your temples amid the laurels of victory.

14. caelo, ablative of separation.

15. cum, the time when.

16. tereti olivae, on the rounded olive, i.e. the polished staff of olivewood (teres, cylindrical, is round like a staff; rotundus, like a ball). For case see § 228; G. 346; H. 386.

17. age, lead in. — Lucifer, morning star. almum, kindly (root in alo). - prae... veniens: the prepositions in composition were still loosely connected, and hence are easily separated. - diem really belongs in sense both to age and prae.

18. deceptus, deceived by the love of my betrothed, which she merits not (indigno).


19. divos, obj. of adloquor.- nil . . . profeci, i.e. it is of no avail that they have been called to witness our vows. - testibus, abl. of means. 20. tamen opposed to quamquam.

21. Maenalios, Arcadian. Such epithets as this are meaningless


22. Maenalus, a mountain of Arcadia. tibia, pipe, or flageolet (see Fig. 1), sometimes made double, and so with two registers. These lines are a kind of excuse for singing.


24. Pana, object of audit, i.e. hears him play the pipe. — calamos, see note, i. 2. - inertis: the reeds were not left to whisper idly, but were fashioned to the uses of song.

25. quid non speremus, what have we not to look for? what may we not expect (if such matches as this occur)? This verb is often used of evils as well as things desirable.

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