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the old myths seems to have been since Hesiod a favorite form of poetic composition. The philosophy of Empedocles was also in verse. - uti, how. magnum per inane, through the vast void (§ 188, a; H. 441, 2). This, with some of the succeeding expressions, is borrowed from Lucretius. 32. terrarum, etc., the four elements (see Ovid, Met. i. 22-27). The plural refers to the numerous worlds of Epicurus.

33. liquidi, subtile or transparent: so called because composed of the finest atoms. exordia, the beginnings of things.—his, ablative of origin, § 244; G. 396, 2; H. 415.

34. concreverit orbis, the unhardened circle of the universe began to gather almost a literal statement of the nebular theory of the solar system. 35. sŏlum, the solid ground. — discludere ponto, to shut off in the sea depth: Nereus, "the ancient of the sea,' was the deity who dwelt in the still depths, while Neptune ruled the stormy surface. ablative (§ 258, f; G. 384, k.; H. 425, N.").

ponto, locative

36. sumere, as every thing sprang from the earth, the earth is here said to put on the forms. - - rerum formas, the shapes of objects.

37. novum, for the first time. The earth (terrae) is poetically said to be amazed at the first appearance of the sun.- - stupeant: the subjunctives here are in the indirect question introduced by uti (how). — lucescere, an extended use of the indirect discourse construction, see § 330, e; G. 533; II. 535, iii.

38. altius, at first the elements being mixed, the clouds are supposed to be all about the earth, but they now begin to take their higher place and send down the rains.

39. incipiant, informal indirect discourse. See § 341, b; G. 666; H. 529, ii. Were not the main clause an indirect question, cum here would have the indicative; see § 325; G. 582; H. 521, 1.

40. ignaros, here passive, unknown.

41. hinc, next. - lapides Pyrrhae, from which the new race of men sprang, after the flood (Ovid, Met. i. 395-415). — Saturnia. Compare the preceding Eclogue.

42. Promethei: the Titan Pro

Fig. 25.

metheus stole fire from heaven as a gift to man; he was chained to a rock in the Caucasus, where his liver was perpetually torn by vultures (volucres). (See Fig. 25.)


43. Hylan: Hylas, who accompanied Hercules on the Argonautic expedition, and was borne away by fountain nymphs, enraptured by his beauty. Notice the peculiarity of the scanning: Hyla Hyla omně sõnaret. The first a is retained long, the second a is shortened in the Greek manner. See $359, e; G. 714, R.'; H. 608, ii. — quo (taken with fonte), at what spring, i.e. sings of the spring where, etc. Compare the other indirect questions in this Eclogue.

44. clamassent (§ 334; G. 469; H. 529, i.). — sonaret (§ 319; G. 554; H. 500).

45. fuissent. A protasis of which the conclusion is expressed in fortunatam, though not in the regular form, quae fortunata fuisset.

46. Pasiphaen: daughter of the Sun, and wife of Minos (son of Zeus and Europa, and king of Crete), said to have madly loved a bull, and to have given birth to the monster Minotaur. The tale perhaps is a myth of the light of early spring, when the sun enters the constellation Taurus: the name Pasiphaë means, " she that shineth upon all," i.e. the Dawn.solatur, he consoles, i.e. sings of the stratagem by which Daedalus consoles. 47. virgo, i.e. Pasiphaë.

48. Proctides, princesses of Argos, who were driven mad by Hera (Juno) because they despised her worship, and who imagined themselves converted into heifers. They however were not so mad as Pasiphaë. — falsis, imaginary.

49. turpis, acc. plural.

50. collo, see § 227, c; G. 343. — quamvis timuisset, however much she (any one of the daughters of Protus) feared the plough, and often felt for horns on her smooth (human) forehead. See § 313, a; G. 608; H. 515, iii. 51. levi, notice the quantity.

53. latus, see § 240, c; G. 332; H. 378. — fultus, lying (from fulcio). For quantity see § 359, f.- hyacintho, instrumental (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420). The learner should carefully distinguish between the Latin and the English constructions. We say, "lying on "; the Latin says, “supported by."

54. pallentis, pale-green, compared with the dark (nigra) foliage of the ilex (holm), a sort of Italian live-oak.

55. claudite nymphae: these lines

the wild and jealous cry of Pasiphaë.

to v. 60- - are supposed to be

56. Dictaeae, from Dicte, a mountain of Crete. — claudite saltus, close the glades of the woods (that I may find his haunts).

57. si qua


vestigia, if by chance the stray foot-prints of the bull may offer themselves to my eyes. See § 334, ƒ; G. 462, 2. (§ 228, b).


60. perducant, for subj. see § 311, a; H. 485. — Gortynia: Gortyna was the harboring-place of the cattle of the Sun: perhaps some kine may lead him thither, by the charm of green pasture, or in following the herd.

61. māla, notice the quantity. — puellam: Atalanta, who though fleet of foot, was beguiled by means of the golden apples of the Hesperides. (See Class. Dict.)

62. Phaethontiades, the sisters of Phaëthon (Þaέtov, the Sun), who were changed into poplars (see Ovid, Met. ii. 340–366). - musco (§ 225, d; G. 348; II. 384, 2). — circumdat, i.e. sings the story, compare solatur, v. 46.

63. solo, locative ablative.

65. Aonas, a local name in Boeotia. ut duxerit (§ 334; H. 529,i.). una sororum, i.e. the Muses: he sings how one of them met Gallus as ✓ he strayed by the streams of Permessus (near Helicon in Bootia), and led him to the sacred hill. The personal compliment comes in very abruptly among the wild tales of the old mythology.

66. viro (§ 228; G. 346; H. 386). — adsurrexerit, technical term for rising to greet.

67. divino carmine, of divine song (ablative of quality).

68. apio, parsley was used for garlands at convivial meetings. Here ✓ it is used because Linus was a lyric poet. — crinīs, accusative of specifi cation.

70. Ascraeo seni (sc. dederunt), Hesiod, the father of songs of husbandry, and the poet of the old cosmogony, and Ascra was near Helicon.- quos ante, as once, avoiding the repetition of relatives. Ie as well as Orpheus drew after him the listening woods. — quibus, instrumental; cantando, manner. Notice the two ablatives in two different relations depending on the same word.

72. his, instrumental. The pipe, however, is only to be the accompaniment to the song.— tibi, dative after dicatur (§ 232, b ; G. 352, R.; √ H. 388, 4). — Grynei nemoris, a grove of Æolia in Asia Minor, sacred to Apollo. It is said that Gallus had translated a Greek poem in praise of dicatur (§ 266; G. 256, 3; H. 483).

this grove.

73. sit (§ 317; G. 545, 3; II. 497).· quo se plus iactet, of which Apollo shall be more proud (quo, abl, of cause).—iactet (§ 320; G. 633 ; II. 503, i.).

74. quid loquar (§ 268; G. 468; H. referred to 485). A common form of transition, where the author pretends to omit a subject in order to refer to it informally. --Scyllam: Scylla, daughter of Nisus, king of Megara, betrayed her father to Minos, and was changed into a sea-mew

(ciris); Scylla, daughter of Phorcys, was transformed into the monster described in the text, "her white loins girt with barking monsters,” which occupied the rocks opposite Charybdis in the Sicilian strait. - For an ancient representation, see Fig. 26. — quam, object of secuta est, and subject of vexasse. See § 270, note.

Fig. 26.

76. Dulichias rates, the ships of Ulysses, from which Scylla snatched six of the crew.

Dulichium is a little island near Ithaca.

78. mutatos artus, the transformation of Tereus, changed to a hoopoe, while his wife Progne was changed to a swallow, and her sister Philomela (whom he had betrayed) to a nightingale (Ovid, Met. vi. 412). — ut, here the construction changes to the indirect question, which is retained in various forms through v. 81. Terei, see § 347, ; G. 721; H. 608, iii.


79. dapes, the banquet, i.e. the flesh of his child Itys which was served to Tereus; dona, the head and hands which were shown him after he had feasted on the flesh. - pararit (§ 334; G. 469; H. 529, i.).

So. ante, first.- quibus alis, with what wings she flew wretched above her own dwelling: the habit of the swallow rather than the night. ingale; though the song of the latter, "most musical, most melancholy," seems to have suggested the notion of the mother's grief.


81. tecta, see § 228, a; G. 330; H. 386, 3.

82. omnia, in fact every thing. The position of the word makes it refer with emphasis to what precedes.

83. Eurotas, the river of Sparta, blest in hearing the song of Apollo which he sang to Hyacinthus on its banks. —laurus, accusative plural, obj. of iussit and subj. of ediscere (§ 271, b, compare chap. iii., iv., note; G. 546, R.; H. 535, ii.).

84. ille, opposed to Apollo, he, as well.

86. iussit: the subject is Vesper, who bids them gather the sheep and recount their number. For mood see § 328; G. 573; II. 519, ii. / invito, reluctant to end the strain. — Olympo, ablative of separation, taken as meaning the mountain (§ 258, a; G. 388; H. 412, 2).


1. arguta, shrill rustling: referring as usual to the high pitch of a sound.

3. ovīs, acc. plural. · - distentas lacte, i.e. towards evening.

4. aetatibus, see § 75, 3, c; H. 130, 2. For case see § 253; G. 398; H. 424. — Arcades (compare x. 32): Arcadia, at a distance from the sea ✓ in central Peloponnesus, long retained the rustic and old-world simplicity, of which pastoral song is the natural expression; hence its inhabitants here give their name to pastoral singers.

5. pares, parati: well-matched in singing (cantare = cantando, § 273, d; G. 424, R.4; H. 533, ii., N.2), and ready in response (respondere ad respondendum, § 273, b; H. 533, ii. 3). Improvisation is a much-prized gift in Italy still.

6. mihi, dat. of reference, § 235, a; G. 343; H. 384, N.o. dum defendo: the tender myrtle had to be protected, in Italy, from the late frosts of spring. - defendo, present (§ 276, e; G. 572; 220, R.; H. 467, 4). 7. vir gregis, the father of the flock. deerraverat: observe the contraction of the two vowels. atque, and lo! This word always adds something with more emphasis than et (§ 156, a).

8. contra, in turn.- ocius, instantly, see § 93, a; G. 312; H. 444, I. 9. ades, be at hand, i.e. come.- caper... haedi, i.e. I have seen to their safety. tibi (§ 235).

10. si quid... potes, if you can linger awhile. — quid, see § 240, a; G. 331, R.; II. 378, 2. — - potes, see § 306; H. 508, 2.

11. ipsi, of themselves. - potum, supine of a lost verb of which poto is the frequentative, and potus the participle (§ 302; G. 436; H. 546).— juvenci, i.e. our cattle (so that we shall not have to look for them).

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