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68. crateras.

Large vases in which the wine and water were mixed.

(See Figs. 17 and 24.) See note Æn. i. 724.

Fig 17.

69. hilarans convivia, cheering the feast with abundant wine. 70. frigus, in early spring; messis, in late summer. Notice the inverted order of the two branches (§ 344, f; G. 684; H. 562). Compare

iii. 80.

71. vina Ariusia, Chian wine, from a district Ariusia in Chios. novum nectar, a new-found nectar, hitherto unknown to the Romans. Foreign wine was first imported about B.C. 50. - - calathis, bowls, apparently shaped like the basket in Fig. 7. See § 258, a; G. 388; H. 413. 73. saltantis, etc., i.e. the neighbors also shall join in the festivities.

Fig. 18.

These would include such dances as the satyrs and fauns perform in the processions of Bacchus. (See Fig. 18.)

75. Nymphis: the nymphs were favorite divinities with the herdsmen, and their worship was connected with that of Bacchus and Ceres, as well as that of Pan, but no particular festival is known at which they were worshipped. Virgil seems to have had in his mind some special rites that took place in summer (messis), but what is uncertain. Perhaps he has here mixed Sicilian and Roman rites. — lustrabimus agros, referring to the festival described in the note to iii. 77, which took place in early spring.

77. thymo, see § 248; G. 403; II.420. 79. Cereri: Ceres (root in creo) was

an Italian earth-goddess, of far less consequence in the old mythology than Pales; but, being taken to represent the Demeter of the Greeks, she became one of the chief members of the Roman Pantheon.

80. damnabis votis, like morte damnari (compare § 220, b;

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G. 377, R.1 ; H. 410, iii.), i.e. shall bind men to fulfil their vows, by bestowing the desired gifts.

81. reddam, see § 268; G. 468; H. referred to 486, ii.

84. flumina, in the relative clause (§ 200, b). 85. hac cicuta, this pipe; the name is given from the hollow stalk of the herb hemlock. For case see § 225, d; G. 348; H. 384, 2.

86. haec nos docuit, see Ecl. ii. 1 and iii. 1. The pipe is the teacher, and the clauses are the accusative of the thing (§ 239, c; G. 333; H. 374).

88. rogaret, with cum concessive, see § 326; G. 581, iii.; H. 515, iii. — pedum, see Fig. 19.

89. non tulit, could not get. — amari, see § 320, f.

Fig. 19.

90. nodis atque aere, brazen studs. The Latin likes to separate the noun and adjective into two nouns, thus emphasizing both (hendiadys). See A. & G. Gr., p. 298.

ECLOGUE VI.

Fig. 20.

1. prima... nostra Thalia, our earliest Muse, i.e. in his first efforts as a poet. Thalia was the muse of comic and idyllic verse; she was therefore represented with the mask and the pedum, or pastoral crook. (See Fig. 20.) — dignata est: deigned to sport in Sicilian verse, nor blushed to inhabit the woods. - Syracosio, i.e. Sicilian, alluding to Theocritus. - ludere, compl. inf. (§ 271; G. 424; H. 533).

2. habitare (§ 271; H. 533), compare note to ii. I.

3. canerem. The imperfect means, tried to sing or wanted to. For construction see § 325; G. 581, i.; H. referred to 521, ii. —reges

et proelia, i.e. heroic strains;

the verb canere is often transitive even in prose. — Cynthius, a name of ✓ Apollo from a mountain of Delos. — aurem vellit, plucked my ear, i.e. to

remind me. The ear was held to be the seat of memory; and touching it was part of the formality in summoning a witness. See Hor. Sat. i. 9, 77. The idea is symbolized in Fig. 21.

4. pastorem, i.e. being only a rustic and not an epic poet.

Fig. 21.

5. pascere (§ 270, b; G. 535; H. 538). deductum carmen, thin-spun verse = tenue, meaning plain, simple. His sheep, however, should be fat and flourishing.

6. nunc, opposed to cum canerem: ego, opposed to the poets referred to in the following paren. thesis. super erunt, there shall be more than enough. - tibi (§ 231, a; G. 346; H. 386).

7. cupiant, be eager. Notice that cupio is stronger than volo would be. For mood see § 320, a; G. 632; H. 503, i. - condere, compose (put together, con-DHA, § 132, 6).

8. tenui. There is here (compare i. 2) a suggestion of the char

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acter of the song as well as an epithet of the pipe. - arundine, abl. of

instr. (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420); compare i. 2, and note.

9. non, etc.

The same idea of refusing to sing in Epic strains is here repeated, hence the following tamen, still, (i.e. though I am forbidden to sing your warlike deeds) your name will be found in my humble strains. quoque, this also, as well as Epic poetry.

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10. nostrae myricae, in modest contrast to nemus omne. 11. canet, shall be heard to sing, the apodosis of si leget (§ 307, G. 597; H. referred to 508). nec gratior, etc., nor is any page more dear to Phabus, etc. Any thing, however humble, addressed to Varus is sure of Apollo's favor.

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12. praescripsit sibi, has wrillen upon it (§ 228; G. 346; H. 386). The page is poetically represented as doing its own writing.. (§ 200, b; G. 618).

13. Chromis, Mnasyllos: two young Satyrs. These were fabulous creatures, types of the wild life of the forest. They are represented with horns, pointed hairy ears, tails, goats' legs and feet. Such symbols were

held in great horror by the early Christians, and still figure in the popular pictures of devils. Compare note, v. 27. (See Fig. 22.)

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14. Silenum: Snus, one of the attendants of Bacchus, was repre

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✓ 16. procul, near by, i.e. at a distance, not necessarily far off. - tantum delapsa, only just fallen. - capiti (§ 229; G. 346; H. 385, 4).

pendebat, swung.

17. attrita, well worn by constant use. tharus, jug, a sort of cup with two handles. (See Fig. 24.)

G. 403; H. 420).

can

ansa (§ 248;

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19. luserat, had fooled. — vincula, bands made of wreaths, not to bind him forcibly; but the prophet or bard was held, by a sort of forfeit, to sing if caught and bound. — ipsis sertis, the very garlands which he had worn at the feast where he had taken the wine. The garland is a regular accompaniment to drinking. See Bacchus, Fig. 24. 20. timidis, i.e. as they were

343; II. 386).

alarmed at their temerity (§ 235; G.

21. Naiadum, a class of the nymphs corresponding to our water sprites. iam videnti (§ 235, a; G. 343, R.2; H. 384, 4), when now (awake) he sees them, she stains his brow and temples.

23. quo, why? to what end? (adverb, § 148, }).

24. satis est, etc., it is enough [for you] to seem to have been able, i.e. to have shown your power. — potuisse, for tense see § 288, c; H. 53725. cognoscite, learn hear. carmina, opposed to aliud. 26. huic, the nymph. — mercedis, see § 216, 3; G. 371, but the construction is Greek. — incipit ipse, i.e. he begins of himself, without further urging.

27. tum vero, this phrase regularly introduces the most important point of the narrative, as here it indicates the sudden and violent effect of the song. in numerum ludere, dance to the measure. — videres, you might have seen (§ 311, a ; G. 252; II. referred to 485, N.1). Faunos: Faunus (root in faveo) was a well-disposed god of nature, with prophetic powers (see Ovid, Fasti iii. 291). The popular mythology made, however, a race of fauns, - merry and roguish dwellers in the woods, having many of the features of Shakespeare's Puck. They were identified with the Greek satyrs as impersonations of nature, but have fewer animal characteristics. The whole description is a common sign of the power of music.

30. Rhodope, Ismarus (see Georg. iv. 461, ii. 37), local names of Thrace. — Orphea, here a dissyllable (synizesis).

31-40. These ten lines present the Epicurean view of the origin of things, almost exactly agreeing with the modern theories of development. At first all space was an empty void, and in it were the atoms of matter combining gradually in the four elemental forms, solid, liquid, gaseous, and ethereal, earth, water, air, fire. Virgil seems to have had a leaning towards philosophy, and began the study of Epicurean views under one Siron before he became a poet. Compare Georg. ii. 475; En. i. 740.

31. canebat: for the subject of the song, compare Ovid's Metamorphoses, and the Theogony of Hesiod. Such a semi-scientific treatment of

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