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the oppressed people of the Netherlands, then if hoth with arms and advice; and none of your the case had been reversed, that the people of coat ever told me, that any scrupled about it in England had been illegally and cruelly op- her reign. Upon my coming to England, you pressed, it furnished the princes of those pro- may know it came from some of yourvinces with as good a reason for assisting them. selves to raise scruples about this matter; yet In this assistance given the states, the queen I never took any notice of these scruples, till persisted till the end of her reign ; nor was tbe affairs of Spain and Holland forced me to this only done by the court, but both parlia- it. I called my clergy together, to satisfy not ments and convocations granted her several aids so much me, as the world about us, of the justto maintain these wars : And in the preambles ness of my owning the Hollanders at this time. of those subsidy-acts, the queen's proceedings This I needed not to have done, and you have in those particulars were highly approved and forced me to say, I wish I had not.” He remagnified. Bilson, bishop of Winchester, and flects on those who had a great aversion to the several other writers in that time, justitied what notion of God's being the author of sin, which she did; and not one that I never heard of cen- plainly points at Dr. Overhall, who was the sured or condemned it.
first man of pote among us, that opposed the Upon king James's coming to the crown, Calvinists' doctrine of predestination ; yet be the first great negociation was for a peace be says, “ They had gone to the threshold of it, tween Spain and the United Provinces ; which by saying, that even tyranny was God's aulasted several years. The States insisted on a thority, and should be reverenced as such.” preliminary, that they should be acknowledged He concludes, " These were edged tools, and free, sovereign and independent States; the that therefore they were to let them rest.” Spaniards would not yield to this, nor would Here is a full account of King James's thoughts the States recede from it. Some here in Eng- of this matter, which was then the chief subland began to say, they were formed in rebel- ject of discourse all Europe over. He had lion, and ought not to carry their pretensions too twelve years before this shewed, on an eminent far. Upon that, king James suffered a convo. occasion, that he owned the states, when he incation to meet; and a Book of Canons, with vited them in the year 1593, to christen his relation to the supreme authority, was prepar- eldest son, prince Henry. They were sensible ed; in which, though the authority of the of the great honour done thein by it; and prince, even when he becomes a tyrant, is car. though ihey were then but low, they sent an ried very far; yet the case of the Maccabees embassy, with a noble present of gold plate, to is stated ; and, it was determined, that when a assist on that occasion. This negociation stuck new government, though begun in a revolt, is for several years, the Spaniards refusing to come to a thorough settlement, it may be own- own them in express words : The temper found ed as lawful. King James, who was jealous was, they were treated with (tanquam) as with enough of the regal authority, yet did not like free staies ; and the matter went no further at their carrying these matters so far: He or that time, than a truce for some years, which dered the whole matter to be let fall so entirely, was concluded in the year 1609. This lets us that there is not a word of it in the Books of see, that the words in King James's speech that Convocation : But archbishop Sancroft found year to his parliament, were not chance words this collection of Canons at Durham, under Dr. ihat fell carelessly from him, " A king leaves Overball's hand, wbich be copied out, and li- to be a king, and degenerates into a tyrant, as censed the book a few days before he tell under soon as he leaves off to govern by law: In his suspension. I soon saw that it bad a rela- wbich case the king's conscience may speak to tion to the affairs in Holland: For the Dutch him, as the poor woman to Philip of Macedon, delighted to compare their first beginnings to Either govern by law, or cease to be a king.” that of the Jews in Antiochus's time: They There is apoiher eminent instance towards compared king Philip to Antiochus Epiphanes, the end of that reign, that shews what the and the prince of Orange to Judas Maccabeus. sense of our best divines was in this matter: But I saw much clearer into the matter by au When the archbishop of York's son and Mr. original letter of king James, which a worthy Wadsworth had changed their religion in Spain, gentleman sent me. I knew his hand well, the Wadsworth writ over a bold defence of that ; letter is in print ; but I will read some particu- and among other things, charged the Reforma. lars out of it. It is directed to Dr. Abbot, af- tion with rebellion. This was answered by terwards archbishop of Canterbury. It begun one of the best books of that time, writ by Dr. with censuring some positions concerning a Bedell
, dedicated to the prince of Wales, who king in possession, the same with our modern afterwards promoted him to a bishopric. His term of a king de facto : He goes on in these words on this head are full: I will read some words, “ My reason of calling you together, of them. “Do you think subjects are bound was to give your judgments, how far a Chris. to give their
throats to be cut by their fellowtian and a Protestant king, may concur to as subjects, or to their prince, at their mere wills, sist his neighbours to shake off their obedience against their own laws and edicts? You would to their own sovereign, upon the account of know quo jure the Protestant wars in France oppression, tyranny, or what else you like to and Holland are justified. First, the law of name it. la the late queen's time, this king nature, which not only alloweth, but inclineth dom was very free in assisting the Hollanders and inforcell every living thing to defend itself
froin violence. Secondly, that of nations, which , and had a severe sentence passed on him for permittetl those who are in the protection of it. So I have now made it out, beyond, I hope, others, to whom they owe no more than an the possibility of contradiction, that for seventy honourable acknowledgment, in case they go years together, from 1558, to 1628, the law. about to make themselves absolute sovereigos, fuluess of self-defence in the case of illegal and to usurp their liberty, to resist and stand and violent cruelty, was the public and confor the same. And if a lawful prioce, who is stant doctrine of this Church. not yet lord of his subjects' lives and goods, These were the best and happiest times of shall attempt to despoil them of the same, our Church, as is often repeated by the earl of under colour of reducing them to his own reli- Clarendon : From these we ought to take the giou, after all humble remonstrances, they may standard of our doctrine. stand upon their own guard, and being assailed, I go next to shew what was the common resist force with force, as did the Maccabees doctrine for the next sixty years, from 1628, under Antiochus. In which case notwithstand to 1688. 1 must yield up the first twelve ing, the person of the prince himself ought al- years: For upon the unhappy misunderstandways to be sacred and inviolable, as was Saul to ing between the king and that parliament, there David.” No commentary is wanted here. was a long discontinuance of parliaments, then
My lords, you see how this matter stood the lately condemned doctrine was again in during king James's reign. In the first year vogue; and nothing was so much heard of, as of king Charles's reign, Grotius's book • de Jure the law of government that was from God, an• Belli et Pacis,' was published at Paris, dedi- tecedent to all human laws: Out of this sprung cated to the king of France, while France was illegal imprisonments, illegal monopolies, seunder the administration of the wisest and most vere proceedings in the Star-Chamber, but jealous minister of the last age, cardinal Rich- above all, the Ship-money. These things put lieu. In that book, in which he asserts the the nation in an universal disjointing and feerights of prioces with great zeal, yet be enu- bleness, and wben an unavoidable necessity merates many cases, in which it is lawful to furced that king to call a parliament, the fatal resist, particularly that of a total subversion : effects of those counsels broke out terribly. I And that book is now all Europe over in the know many fancy, that the war is to be charged highest reputation of any book that the modern on the principles of self defence : They are ages have produced. In the beginning of king much mistaken. l had occasion to see a great Charles's reign, a war broke out in France way into the secret of that time, wben 1 exa. against the Protestants; upon which he sent mived the papers relating to the two dukes of over ambassadors, by wbose mediation a peace
Hamilton. I know a great deal more since was concluded; but that being ill kept, the war from two persons of unquestionable integrity, broke ont again; and the king thought himself who knew the secrets of that time, the lord bound by his inediation to protect the Protes- Hollis, and sir Hardbottle Grimstone; but all tants. So in the second session of the parlia- received a confirmation, when I found it agreed ment, 1621, in the demand of a Supply that perfectly with the noble account given by the the lord keeper Coventry made in the king's earl of Clarendon. name, these words are to be found: “ France Nobody dreamt of a war, nor had they any is swayed by the Popish faction ; and though priociples leading to it. But there was an unby bis majesty's mediation, there were Articles happy train of accidents that bindered matters of Agreement between that king and his sub- from being brought to a settlement, even while jects, that treaty bath been broke, and those of the king was granting all they could desire. the reformed religion will be ruined without Stories were carried by persons about both the present help.” Upon this the Commons peti- king and queen, or words let fall, tbat made them tioned the king for a fast, and desired the con- conclude, there were still ill designs on foot currence of the Lords, who joined with them against the laws that were then passed. But in it. The king granted it, and an office was that which brought all to a crisis, was the discomposed suitable to the occasion; in which, covery of a negociation to engage the army among other devotions, the nation was directed to declare against the parliament. Whosoever to pray for all those, who bere or elsewhere compares the depositions in Rushworth, with were fighting God's battles and defending his the account given of that matter by the earl altars.". Thus the whole body of the legisla- of Clarendon, will see there is a great deal more ture did concur for a fast for that, which, if this in the one, than the other is willing to believe; doctrine is true, was no better than rebellion; though he acknowledges they had botb Guand yet the whole nation, clergy, and laity, ring's evidence, and Piercy's letter with them. were required to pray for success in it.
I will not take it upon me to determine, wheBut to complete this view of the doctrine of ther they believed too much, or the earl of Claour Church, it is to be considered, That when rendon ioo little. It is certain they believed a year before this, while the loan or benevo- all that was in the depositions, and a great deal lence were carried on, some officious divines more: For Goring being continued in the gomade use of those expressions of kings having vernment of Portsmouth, and bis father being their power from God, as importing an autho- advanced from being a baron to be an earl, and rity of a nature superior to the laws of the land. Piercy's being made a lord and master of the One of these, Dr. Manwaring, was impeached, horse to the prince of Wales, made them conclude they had suppressed a great deal, in- | ing the sense of both Houses, it would be soon stead of saying more than was true. This spread and known over the nation. In this sense, stuck deep in their hearts, and at last fatally it is certain, that it is not lawful to take arms broke out in the demand of the militia, that against any so commissioned by the king: for brougbt on the war, which I do own was plain- that were to take arms agaiost the king's comly a rebellion ; because a force was offered to mission in the execution of the law, which is the king, not to defend themselves from an un- certainly a resisting the ordinance of God, just invasion, or illegal grievances, but to ex- which whosoever do, they shall receive to tort a new law from him.
themselves damnation. Thus the true occasion of the war was a jea- It was no wonder, if after such a war the lousy, that a conduct of fifteen years had giren doctrine of Non-Resistance was preached and too much ground for : and that was still un- | pressed with more than ordinary warmth, and happily kept up by a fatal train of errors, in without any exceptions ; yet some still kept every step that was made. The great concus. these in view: So did both Dr. Falkner and sion that the war gave the nation, and the barmyself;, and I know many others bad them barous effusion of so much blood, especially of always in their thoughts, though they did not the royal blood of that blessed king, had at think it necessary to mention them. last a happy, though a late conclusion in the I found the ill effects that the carrying this Restoration : And it is no wonder, if such a matter so far had on the mind of that unfortunate series of tragical events begot a general borror prince king James; for in the year 1673, at the occasion of them. But then it was, that when he was pleased to admit me to much free had it not been for the firmness of the earl of conversation with him, among many other Clarendon to bis English principles, the liberties things, I told him it was impossible for him to of the nation had been delivered op.
reigo in quiet in this nation, being of that reIt is to his memory that we owe our being a ligion: he answered me quick, Does not the free people ; for be, with his two great friends, Church of England maintain the Doctrine of the duke of Ormond and the earl of South- | Non-Resistance and Passive Obedience ? I ampton, checked the forwardness of some who begged bim not to depend on that; for there were desirous to load the crown with prero. was a distinction in that matter, that would be gative and rerenue. He stopt all this, which found out when men thought they needed it. being afterwards odiously represented, brought I now come to tell your lordships how right I on him that great and lasting, but honourable judged. disgrace. The earl of Southampton, whose It is true, they passed a very pompous decree death went a little before his fall, and perhaps at Oxford in 1683 ; but you shall bear how hastened it the sooner, said to many about him, long they stood to it. In summer, 1686, the that he was a true Protestant, and an honest Priuce of Orange was pleased to receive me Englishman; and that the nation would feel into his service with a particular contidence. the effects of his being removed, whensoever Soon after the ecclesiastical commission was it might happen.
set up, and upon some proceedings before that That lord, in the great settlement after the board, he was desired from England to break Restoration, would carry things no farther than with king James upon that head. I opposed to repeal what had been extorted by the tu- this, and sajd, I was convinced that commission mults; and in the matter of the Militia-act, was against law, and would have ill effects; but and the oaths relating to it, all was more cau- it did not strike at the whole. This was more tiously worded than is commonly understood. warmly pressed upon the proceedings against To the word commissioned by the king,' some Magdalen College. I still stood to my ground; indeed moved, that the word lawfully might be and told both prince and princess, that if a added to make all plain. This was pressed in the breach should follow on these matters, I could Commons by Vaughan, afterwards Lord Chief not serve. When, indeed, the Declaration was Justice of the Common Pleas. The Attorney published a second time, with a resolution to General
, afterwards Lord Chancellor Notting. have it carried through; and that many laws ham, answered, that was not necessary, for the were dispensed with at pleasure ; and persons word. commission'imported it; since it was not who were under legal disabilities, were made Jawfully issued out to lawful persons, and for judges, sheriffs, and magistrates; all whose a lawful reason, it was no commission; and actings were so many nullities: then I thought the whole House assented to this: Yet in the there was a total subversion of our constitution; House of Lords, the same word • lawfully' was which from being a legal one, was made prepressed to be added by the earl of Southampton, carious, subject to mere will and pleasure. So who was answered by the earl of Anglesey, to I was ready to serve in the Revolution. the same purpose with what had been said in Some days after we came to Exeter, sir the House of Commons. He indeed insisted Edward Seymour came thither, and be preto have the word added, because it would clear sently sent for me: when I came to him, he all difficulties with many, who not having asked me, why were we a rope of sand, and heard of the sense given in both Houses,
might had not an association ? 1 said, because we had fancy, that any sort of commission being grant- not yet a man of bis weight to begin the ed, it would not be lawful to resist it. He did not motion : he said, if we had not one by toprevai): For it was said that this explanation be- morrow, he would leave us before night. I
presently saw a noble duke, now in my eye, , always in view. The clergy were in many and acquainted bim with this: he went to places drawn into subscriptions for this paper
. the prince, who approving of it, an Associa- This looked like a design long connived at, tion was prepared, and laid on the table next to have the queen's title undermined : besides morning; and was after that signed by all this, we had a swarm of pamphlets every year who came to wait on the Prince. Three days to the same purpose, and, as was believed, writ after we left Exeter, a head of tbe College by the same hand. One sold at the door of the came to the Prince, to invite him to come to House, with the title of King William's ExorOxford, assuring him, that the university bitant Grants,' did plainly call bim an usurper: would declare for him. He went as near it and starting an objection against the queen's as Abingdon; but then the sudden turn of possessing the throne, gave it this answer, that affairs at London obliged him to haste up, the she did well to keep it till she could deliver it Association was sent thither, and was signed by up to the righteous beir. At that time there the heads of the colleges, and many others was a quick prosecution of a paper, published, there; some doing it in a particular warmth with the title of the Shortest Way with the Disof expression, and saying, that their bearts as senters;' and upon that, I brought that pamphlet well as their bands went with it. Upon what to a great minister, and offered to shew him disappointments or other views, I cannot tell, this passage in it, to see if there should be a this contradiction to their famed Decree, five prosecution of this ordered. He turned from years after it was made, seemed to take another me; so whether he heard me or not, I cannot turn back to it again ; and the notion of a tell; I am sure if he says be did not, I will be king de facto, which is but a softer word for lieve bim. No prosecution followed, and tbe an usurper, came in vogue.
Rehearsal went on. The clergy in many places The parliament, to prevent the ill effects of met at a coffee-house on Saturdays, to read the that, studied to secure the government, first, Rehearsals of the week, which had very iH by an Association, and then by an Abjuration effects in most places. I know it may be said, 1, who was always against every thing that that the queen’s learned counsel ought to have might break in upon conscience, was fos mak- looked after these things : but we all know, ing these only voluntary; but they were that they stay till they receive orders from the enacted, and they were generally taken. A ministry. The course of that treasonable noble lord on the earls' bench procured me the paper has been now for some time stopt, so we sight of a letter, that went about to persuade see there is some change in tbe ministry. the taking the Abjuration, that he had from But to complete the insolence of the enemies a place where he believed it had its effect; of the queen and of the Protestant Succession, where I found this distinction, that the abjuring they had the impudence to give it out, that any right whatsoever that the Pretender might the queen secretly favoured them. And as claim, was only meant of a legal right, and this, we all know, has been long whispered that it had no relation to birth-right, or to about among us, so it was more boldly given divine right. This agreed with a report that out in Scotland; which obliged one of the went then current. That a person, in a great queen's ministers in that parliament, in a post, sent a message to an honourable gentleman speech that was printed, to contradict this who would not take the Abjuration, that if he treasonable and dishonourable suggestion, that hail an balf hour's discourse with bim, he as some divines would bave it, that there was doubted not to be able to convince him, that he in God a secret as well as revealed will, and might take the Abjuration without departing that these might be contrary to one another ; from any of his principles. Towards the end so they would fasten an imputation on the of the last reign, a bold attempt was made on queen, that while she revealed her will one the king's supremacy, by an incendiary, who way, she had a secret will another way; is supposed to have no small share in this matter wbich be solemnly affirmed to be false, and now before your lordships : but the attack on highly injurious to the queen. the supremacy being liable to a præmunire, it While the pamphlets and these reports were was turned with much malice, and managed thus set about, Mr. Aoadly thougbt ibat it be with great prevarication against the bishops, came him to assert the queen's title, by justiwho adhered firmly to their duty to the king. fying the Revolution, out of which it rises.
How great a disjointing that has brought on But what an out-cry was raised on this, that this Church, is too visible all the nation over ; one durst disturb the progress of a wicked and it tends to carry on the wicked design of opinion, that was visibly designed to overturn distracting the Church, and undermining the the government ? And yet be asserted nothing government.
but what the counsel for the prisoner did all By the time the queen was on the throne, or fully and plainly own, that in the cases of exsoon after, the Rehearsal began to be spread treme pecessity, an exception to the doctrine over the nation, two of them a week, wbich was to be admitted, and that that was the case continued for several years together, to be pub at the Revolution. Jished without check or controul. It was all But as these notions have been long let run through one argument against the queen's among us, so they have appeared in a most right to the crown : that, though it was diver. violent and unguarded manner, ever since the sified with incidents and digressions, was kept attempt of the Pretender; and more of late,
since the preliminaries upon the overtures for any pretence whatsoever. For these reasons, a peace, seem to extinguish their hopes. What I think the first Article of this Impeachment sermons on this head are preached in this is both well grounded, and fully made out. eity, at assizes, at Bath, and at many cathedrals ? Furious men fit themselves with some hot sermons, which they carry about from The Bishop of OXFORD's* SPEECH IN place to place, to poison the nation. This has THÉ House OF LORDS, ON not ouly the visible effect designed by it, of FIRST ARTICLE OF THE IMPEACHshaking many in their allegiance to
OF DR. HENRY SACHEVEqueen, and in their adhering to the Protestant
RELL. Succession; but it has a cursed effect on many others, on whom this their design does not My lords ; some of this bench are necessucceed.
sarily called up, by words which fell from the I am very sensible there is a great deal of noble lord who spake third in tbis debate, who impiety and infidelity now spread through the was pleased to mention, among other strange nation: this gives every good mind all possible things, bishops voting contrary to their dochorror; but I must tell your lordships, on trines. The opinions of several of the reverend what a great part of it is founded : for since prelates have been read before your lordships my conversation with Wilmot, earl of Ro- in Westminster-ball: they were first quoted chester, I have bad many occasions to discourse by the counsel for the defendant, and by their with persons
tainted with those wicked princi- order read in such a partial and unfair manner, ples; and I do affirm it, that the greatest pre- that if I may be allowed to use any other judice ibese persons bave at religion, at the author after the same way, to take a naked clergy, and at the public worship of God, is proposition out of his book, and not consider this, that they say they see clergymen take the coherence or dependance of the words, how oaths, and nse ají prayers, both ordinary and it may be explained or limited in other places, extraordinary, for the government, and yet in to read just so far as may serve my purpose, their actiogs and discourses, and of late in their and stop when any thing follows that may set sermons, they shew visibly that they Jook the matter in a just light, I dare undertake another way: from whence they conclude, to make any author speak on whichever side they are a mercenary sort of people without of the question I please. conscience.
But the managers for the honourable House I hope there are not many that are so cor- of Commons did justice to those reverend prerupted and so scandalous: I am sure I know lates, by obliging the clerk to read other pasa great many that are far otherwise, who sages in their books, which clearly explained preach, speak and act as they swear and pray; their opinions; and so the only purpose that but those who act in another way, are noisy was eventually served by producing those quoand impudent, and so bring an imputation on tations, was that which, I fear, was not inthe whole body. And unless an effectual stop tended; the vindicating those reverend preis pat to this distemper, it is not possible to lates from the uncharitable imputation of foresee all the ill consequences that may follow having asserted a doctrine in their writings, upon it.
which they bad contradicted by their practices, I have, I am afraid, wearied your lordships ; in relation to the Revolution, and the governbut I thought it was necessary, once for all, ment founded upon it
. to enlarge copiously on this argument. And I hope to be able to reconcile the vote now to come close to the Article, and the which I shall give, with the opinion which I Sermon, for I meddle not at all with the person have always been of, and which baving pot of the man, whatever general expressions been produced below, I stand up to give it might very well have been used, in setting your lordships here; being far from censuring, forih Passive Obedience and Non-Resistance far from entertaining the least disrespectful before the Revolution ; because odious cases thought of any that shall differ in opinion ought not to be supposed, and therefore are
from me. not to be named, yet since Resistance was used I own the subject pow in debate is a matter in the Revolution, and that the late king in of great consequence, and of great nicety and vited all the subjects to join with him, which tenderness ; and that be, who should presume was in them certainly Resistance; and since to entertain your lordships upon it, ou to the lawfulness of the Revolution is so much be better qualified, and better prepared than I controverted, the condemning all Resistance in am in other respects ; but I will give place to such crude and general terms, is certainly a none in those that follow, viz. in delivering condemning the Revolution. And this is fúr- myself with that respect and deference which iber aggravated from those limitations on our is due to this House, that bumble diffidence obedience, in an Act passed soon after the Re- which becomes a just consciousness of my volation, by wbich, in case our princes turn own weakness, and that plainvess and sincePapists, or marry Papists, the subjects are in rity which becomes that character, which, express words discharged from their allegiance bowever unworthy of it, I have the honour to them. Certainly this puts an end to the notion of Non-Resistance in any case, or on
* Dr. William Talbot,