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formed,” but the “ Gospel" of Christ) has produced, every reader can judge. It has produced that which is best calculated to exalt our nature--the knowledge of divine truth; it has produced liberty of conscience and of expression, blessings of which the Doctor has amply availed himself in the publication before us. In what country, we ask, subject to Papal authority, though Massacre had gauntly stalked forth in open day, would he have dared to assert that its CONSTITUTION was WICKED, founded in SACRILEGE, and upheld by ROBBERY? Further comment we deem unnecessary; the above paragraphs are, we repeat, cut out of the printed text, and therefore stand as the Doctor himself corrected them. Those referring to Heylin and Fuller are not correctly quoted ; but we would not have quarrelled with the Doctor had he confined his expressions of disapprobation to any specific acts of injustice which accompanied the great national change in question, and which are too often attendant on great national changes; but we must ever condemn the Englishman who, under the guise of religion, would seek to instil into the minds of his fellow-subjects, that the 6 authority," which protects his person and property, is “unjustifiable,” because it restored* that independence to a groaning kingdom which Popery too long had trampled under foot, by assisting in the work of what he, in the meekness of Priestly hope, may be pleased to distinguish as a “pretended Reformation.” The vulgarity of some of Dr. Challoner's expressions we shall not stop to notice; we deem it unworthy of a “ Gospeller," and a gentleman.
lay Deism, Latitudinarianism, and bare-faced impiety: in fine, à visible change in manners for the worse, as many of their own writers freely acknowledge, and old Erasmus long ago objected to them, Ep. ad Vultur., where he defies them to show him one who had been reclaimed from vice by going over to their religion; and declares he never yet met with one who did not seem changed for the worse.
66 9. The fruits of the Reformation were such as could not spring from a good tree. 1. An innumerable spawn of heresies. 2. Endless dissensions. 3. A perpetual itch of changing, and inconstancy in their doctrine. 4. Atheism,
* Our William I. denied the right of Papal authority in England, permitting Pope Gregory VII's. Legate to sit in Council, acting, at the same time, according to his own will; he exerted the right of investiture, and actually decided on all matters relating to the Church. His successor (William II.) also maintained his preroga tives to which Popery was forced to submit. Henry 1. was joined by all his Bishops and Nobles in opposing the encroachments of Pope Urban II. whose Legate (Anselm) he told, that he would not permit any persons to enjoy estates in his kingdom, who refused him the securities of a subject. He gave up the right of investiture, and the Pope consented that the Bishops shouid do him homage. -See Rapin, or any other credible Historian.
66 10. That religion is the best to live in which is the safest to die in, and that in the judgment of dying men, who are not like to be biassed at that time by interest, humour, or passion. Now it is certain, that thousands, who have lived Protestants, have desired to die Catholics, and never yet one that had lived a Catholic desired to die a Protestant; therefore it must be safest for us to stay where we are.
“11. That religion is preferable to all others, the doctrine and preaching of which is, and always has been, more forcible and efficacious in order to the taking off men's minds from the perishable goods of this world, and fixing them wholly on the great business of eternity ; but such is the doctrine and preaching of the Catholic Church, as appears from those multitudes of holy solitaries in our Church that have retired themselves from all the advantages to which their birth or fortune entitled them, and abandoned all earthly hopes for the love of heaven. Whereas the Reformation has never yet produced any such fruits.
“ 12. There was a true saving faith in the days of our forefathers before the pretended Reformation, by which great numbers are certainly arrived at the happy port of eternal felicity. Our histories are full of instances of the charity, piety, and devotion, of kings, bishops, &c. of the old religion. Therefore it is safer to follow their faith than venture our souls in a new raised communion."
We are content to let the fruits of the Reformation decide the virtue of the tree itself, even though the hand that planted it had been as deeply soiled as the Doctor has declared it to be. But we are not quite sure that he is correct in stating who it was that first most forcibly attacked Popery in her strong hold of superstition, by which it was caused;
or that it is not attributable to the exertions of one whom all learned Papists eagerly claim as the brightest ornament of their Church of this presently.
Four evils are expressly pointed out as the consequences of our escape from Papal thraldom; but the innumerable spawn: of heresies," as the Doctor has elegantly expressed it, float in their own streams at their own peril, without the apprehension of being fried alive, as in “ the good old ” Papal times; and if their " dissensions be endless," although the evil is undeniably a Popish relic, intolerant Protestantism is a stranger to the merits of“ conviction, enforced by the rack or a pile of faggots.":
“ The itch of changing ” we do not think so prevalent as in Popish days, not being aware of any new articles of Faith having been introduced since Protestantism was established, which mankind must either believe or be condemned to eternal perdition for disputing, as the five new Papal sucraments, &c. Neither do we see the “ bare-faced impiety shipping God alone, rather than in dividing our adoration of Him with his creatures and their relics and images—in seeking pardon of God rather than by applying to a Popish priest -in preferring Scripture to the unsubstantiated traditions of superstitious ages--in hearing our Church service, and joining in prayer in our vulgar tongue, to hearing it in a lan- , guage we are ignorant of-nor in preferring marriage to a less honourable state of life. We may also add, that upon strong minds the consequent effect of superstition is infidelity; since he who becomes disgusted with what he (then) terms Priest-craft, deems all professions of Christianity alike; and thus, whilst the Papal multitude believe the Scriptures and Legends upon the same authority (the Church of Rome), the sceptic and the philosopher too often vainly deny both.
Of “ old Erasmus” we have a few words to say, since it is he to whom we have alluded above. He died in July 1536, at the age of seventy. Romanists are determined to have Erasmus a Papist, a point indeed which we are not now about to dispute, but will merely show that Doctors differ on this subject, whilst we leave it to our readers to form their own conclusions from the language of Erasmus himself :
“ If anything seemed proper to destroy the gloomy empire
of superstition, and to alarm the security of the lordly Pontiffs, it was the restoration of learning in Europe, and the number of men of genius that arose of a sudden, under the benign influence of that auspicious revolution. ... : Erasmus and others pointed the delicacy of their wit, or levelled the fury of their indignation at the superstitions of the times, the corruptions of the priesthood, the abuses that reigned in the Court of Rome, and the brutish manners of the monastic orders." -Mosheim.
" It was not Luther nor Zuinglius that contributed so much to the Reformation as Erasmus, especially among us in England; for Erasmus was the man who awakened men's understandings, and brought them from the Friar's divinity to a relish of general learning."-Stillingfleet.
“He [Erasmus) as was commonly said of the Reformation, laid the egg, and Luther hatched it.”—Eveleigh.
“ As soon as Bologna surrendered to the arms of Pope Julius II.-['To whose odious list of vices,' says Mosheim,
we may add the most savage ferocity, the most audacious arrogance, the most despotic vehemence of temper, and the most extravagant and frenetic passion for war and bloodshed !']-Erasmus returned, and beheld the Pope's magnificent entry into the conquered town. The spectacle did not greatly edify him; he compared—contrasted, we suppose, Mr. Charles Butler's means ?)—as he informs us, the Pontiff's martial character with the spirit of charity inculcated in every page of the Gospel *; his lofty and imperious demeanour, with Christian humility ; and the costly magnificence which environed him, with the lowly circumstances and manners of Him who was meek and humble of heart; and who himself preached these meek and humble virtues to his followers. These reflections gave rise to the celebrated Dialogue, Julius Exclusus ;' or, Julius shut out from Heaven, an admirable satire. It imports to be a dialogue between St. Peter and Julius. With an equal mixture of bit
* The somewhat gerous admissions to Romanism will occasionally slip from the pens of the most liberal and learned of Romanists themselves. If " the spirit of charity” be • inculcated in every page of the Gospel,” how uncharitable is Popery to withhold it from general perusal! Protestants rely upon it as their guide to salvation; and “ old Erasmus” was also of the same opinion. He published his Greek Testament in 1516, the year preceding the Reformation, previous to which (Jortin, quoting Stillingfleet, says) there was but one in all Germany!
terness and pleasantry (we should suppose Popery would feel the pleasantry the most bitter of the two ?] the pilot of the Galilæan lake reproaches Julius with his unchristian conduct; laughs at his deeds of arms, exposes the folly of his pompous magnificence, and finally shuts the door of heaven upon him.”-Mr. C. Butler.
Erasmus was, undoubtedly, one of the most learned men of any age ; yet, must not Romanists think him very foolish to shut the man out of heaven, when he (they say) knew that the Pope himself must always possess the key of it? We think it unnecessary to make any further quotations in proof of Erasmus being a Papist it is admitted, on all sides, that there was an epistolary correspondence between him and Henry VIII. (the latter writing to him with his own hand)that he visited England five times (the last in 1517, the
year of the Reformation), and that his motive for quitting it was the fear of the plague to which this country was then subject. We will now see what Erasmus himself says of Luther and the Reformation.
As Councillor of Charles V., Emperor of Germany, Erasmus was at the Diet of Cologne, A.D. 1520, at which Frederick, Elector of Saxony, was present also. The latter was a warm supporter of the Reformation, and, of course, a great admirer of Luther. Wishing much to have the candid opinion of Erasmus on this important subject, he sent his almoner, Spalatinus, with an invitation, that he would wait upon him, which he did (on the 5th of December). The conversation that followed, between Frederick, Erasmus, and Spalatinus, is thus related by the latter :
6 The Elector then desired Erasmus freely to give him his opinion concerning Luther? Erasmus, pressing his lips close together, stood musing, and delaying to give an answer; whilst Frederick, as it was his way when he was discoursing earnestly with any one, fixed his eyes steadily upon him, and stared him full in the face. At last, Erasmus brake out into these words :46 Luther hath been guilty of two crimes : he hath touched the Pope upon the crown, and the Monks upon the belly.'
Erasmus at that time (full three years after the Reformation had commenced] judged so favourably of Luther's doctrine, that