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ye, ex*“ The hanging up and adoring of the Host was but lately set up,” says Cranmer, “ by Pope Innocent and Honorius.” Burnett's Hist.' &c. vol. ii. p. 116. Many circumstances connected with the worship of the Host were the suggestions of the very dregs of society. Jortin says, (Rem. vol. v. p. 472)“ This was the case with both the procession and the festival of the Holy Sacrament."
sible way to incite people to faith, love, and repentance-to make satisfaction for sin, and to obtain all necessary blessings ! Let us see if we cannot produce from the scriptures more clearly-defined evidences as to the necessity of the service of the CHURCH of Christ being performed in the vulgar tongues of all nations :-with the church of Popery we should not have interfered, did she not insist that she was Christian whilst opposing her own tenets, with all her power, to the doctrines of Christ. We quote from the 1st Cor. ch. xiv., which treats of the gift of prophecy, and of religious worship, in a known language; “He that speaketh in an unknown tongue speaketh not unto men bat unto God, for no man understandeth him. He that speaketh in an unknown tongue edifieth himself. For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle? So likewise cept ye utter by the tongue words easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is spoken? If I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian; and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me. If I pray in an unknown tongue my spirit prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful. What is it then? I will pray with the spirit, and I will pray with the understanding also; I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also : else, when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say AMEN ! at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest? In the CHURCH I had rather speak five words with my understanding, that by my voice I might teach others also, than ten thousand words in an UNKNOWN TONGUE. Brethren, be not children in understanding ; howbeit, in malice be ye children, but in understanding be ye men. If, therefore, the whole Church be come together into one place, and all speak with tongues, [i. e. with foreign tongues,] and there come in those that are unlearned, or unbelievers, will they not say that ye are mad? Let all things be done to edifying; for God is not the author of confusion but of peace, as in all Churches of the Saints.”
Are not these passages of Scripture as clear and explicit as the "mysteries” of Popery?--we ask the question of Roman Catholics only. Would we could persuade them to consult the Scriptures with their “understanding," as the Apostle teaches!
Owing to the corruption of language it was that rendered it doubly necessary to have given the forms of worship of all Christian churches in the vulgar tongue, reasonable as it is to imagine that no honest profession of religious faith would have deemed it contrary to its interests to do so. When the Italian, French, Spanish, and other languages, were mingled with the Latin, and the Latin itself thus became corrupted, instead of adapting the forms of worship to the understanding of the people, it was the policy of the Vatican to keep the Romish laity in as gross ignorance as possible; and of which nothing can be so great a proof as the denial of the
very scriptures which Popery herself obliges them to profess to believe in (without seeing them) as “ the infallible word of God.” “ The Latin form of worship,” says Mosheim, (v. ii. p. 573,) " which had for many ages before been strongly recommended by the Popes, was at length enforced in all the western churches by Gregory VII.” (in the eleventh century.) “ So early as the fourth century,” the author above quoted assures us, (v. č. p. 292, Eng. Trans.) “it would seem as if all possible means had been industriously used to give an air of folly and extravagance to the Christian assemblies *."
CHAP. VII.-OF PURGATORY.
We constantly hold that there is a Purgatory; and that the souls therein detained are helped by the suffrages of the faithful: that is, by the prayers and alms offered for them, and principally by the holy sacrifice of the mass*.
What do you mean by Purgatory?
A middle state of souls which depart this life in God's grace, yet not without some lesser stains or guilt of punishment, which retards them from entering heaven. But as to the particular place where these souls suffer, or the quality of the torments which they suffer, the Church has decided nothing.
What sort of Christians then go to Purgatory?
1st. Such as die guilty of lesser sins, which we commonly call venial ; as many christians do, who, either by sudden death or otherwise, are taken out of this life before they have repented for these ordinary failings. 2dly. Such as having been formerly guilty of greater sins, have not made full satisfaction for them to the divine justice.
Why do you say that those who die guilty of lesser sins go to Purgatory
Because such as depart this life before they have repented of these venial frailties and imperfections, cannot be supposed to be condemned to the eternal torments of hell, since the sins of which they are guilty are but small, which even God's best servants are more or less liable to. Nor can they go straight to heaven in this state, because the scriptures assures us, Rev. xxi. 27, “ There shall in no wise enter thither anything that defileth.” Now, every sin, be it ever
* As the enormities which Popery is pleased to denominate “ venial errors," and which she professes to remit, after death, is a doctrine which Protestants condemn as contrary to the express word of God, it is rather surprising (as in her profession of faith she so often urges what proceeds from “Protestant mouths," See p. 125.) that neither the Pope nor the Doctor should have mis-stated that Protestants" seem to agree with them " in praying for the dead, since Protestants do pray for the dead, although they deny the existence of the Pope's Purgatory. In their burial service they pray,
that they, “ with all those that are departed in the true Faith of God's holy name, may have their perfect consummation,” &c. Also, in their Communion office, they bless HIM " for all his servants departed this life in his faith and fear;” and pray that “ with them" they “ may be partakers of his heavenly kingdom.” We thus pray for ourselves, and for that which we know must happen, namely, that those who have died in the true faith and fear of God may have “ their perfect consummation of bliss." Christ himself has taught us thus to pray :-when we pray, thy kingdom come, thy will be done,” we know that these things must be accomplished; but by this language of our Saviour, we are taught to express our anxious wish for their completion. Protestants, however, know that their Church has no power either to give or to sell them indulgences, pardons, or remissions, here or hereafter ; and that their salvation, through Christ, must depend upon their own faith, repentance,
nd works: they dare not, therefore, rely upon the merits of others, nor trust to a superstitious ceremony of a solitary mass which money can always purchase—to release them hereafter from whatsoever torments their crimes may subject them to,
so small, certainly defileth the soul. Hence our Saviour assures us, that we are to render an account " even for every idle word,” Matt. xii. 36,
Upon what then do you ground your belief of Purgatory?
Because the scripture in many places assures us, that “God will render to every one according to his works,” Ps. lxii. 12., Matt. xvi. 27., Rom. ii. 6., Revel. xxii. 12. Now, this would not be true, if there were no such thing as purgatory; for how would God render to every one according to his works, if such as die in the guilt of any, even the least sin, which they have not taken care to blot out by repentance, would nevertheless go straight to heaven ? .
Have you any texts which the Fathers and ecclesiastical writers interpret of Purgatory?
Yes, 1 Cor. iii, 13, 14, 15. “ Every man's work shall be made manifest. For the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire. And the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it is. If any man's work abide which he hath built thereupon,” (that is, upon the foundation, which is Jesus Christ, ver. 11.) “ he shall receive a reward. If any man's works shall be burnt, he shall suffer loss : BUT HE HIMSELF SHALL BE SAVED, YET SO AS BY FIRE." From which text it appears, that such as both in their faith, and in the practice of their lives, have stuck to the foundation, which is Jesus Christ, so as not to forfeit his grace by mortal sin; though they have otherwise been guilty of great imperfections, by building wood, hay, and stubble (ver. 12), upon this foundation; it appears, I say, that such as these, according to the apostle, must pass through a fiery trial, at the time that “ every man's work shall be made manifest:" which is not till the next life; and that they shall be“ saved.” indeed, " yet so as by fire," that is, by passing first through Purgatory.
2dly. Matt. v. 25. “ Agree with thine adversary quickly, whilst thou art in the way with him : lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily, I say unto thee, thou shalt by no means come out thence till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing." Which text St. Cyprian, one of the most ancient Fathers, understands of the prison of Purgatory. Epistle 52, ad Antonianum.
3dly. Matt. xii. 32. “Whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come.” Which last words plainly imply, that some sins, which are not forgiven in this world, may be forgiven in the world to come; otherwise, why should our Saviour make any mention of forgiveness in the world to come ? Now, if there may be forgiveness of sins in the world to come, there must be a purgatory; for in hell there is no forgiveness, and in heaven no sin.
Besides, a middle place is also implied, 1 Pet. iii. 18, 19, 20, where Christ is said by his spirit to have gone and “preached to the spirits in prison which some time were disobedient.” Which prison could be no other than Purgatory; for, as to the spirits that were in the prison of hell, Christ did certainly not go to preach to them.
How do you ground the belief of Purgatory upon tradition?
Because both the Jewish Church, long before our Saviour's coming, and the Christian Church from the very beginning in all ages and all nations, have offered prayers and sacrifice for the repose and relief of the faithful departed : as appears in regard to the Jews from 2 Machab. xii, where this practice is approved of, which books of Machabees, the church, says St. Augustine, 1. 18. de Civ. Dei, e. 36, accounts canonical, though the Jews do not. And in regard to the Christian Church, the same is evident from all the Fathers, and the most ancient liturgies. Now, such prayers as these evidently imply the belief of a purgatory: for souls in heaven stand in no need of our prayers, and those in hell cannot be bettered by them.
How do you ground the belief of Purgatory upon reason ?
Because reason clearly teaches these two things : 1st. That all and every sin, how small soever, deserves punishment, 2dly, That some sins are so small, either through the levity of the matter, or for want of full deliberation in the action, as not to deserve eternal punishment. From whence it is plain, that besides the place of eternal punishment, which we call hell, there must be also a place of temporal punishment for such as die in lesser sins, and this we call purgatory.
The late Father O'Leary, who is spoken of by many of the Popish Church as a great wit, when opposed as to the belief of a Purgatory, once told an antagonist that he “ might go farther and fare worse," although those for whose especial accommodation it was invented were of a far different opinion, as we shall show presently. By the present chapter, Roman Catholics are taught that their friends in Purgatory are
helped” by“ prayers and alms;” or rather by alms and prayers, since, in a Romish country, at least, the prayers would be of little service until the work of alms had been first duly performed by the “ faithful.” We are then told that, although Popery found the invention of Purgatory to be a most valuable source of her revenue,-she has not yet “ decided” as to the “ particular place," “or the quality of the torments” where the souls suffer. We will only say, in charity,