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antient Syene, and went over to the island of Elphantina. The ruins of this island are now but few. The principal, are a granite gateway, a statue, and a few sand-stone columns, of indifferent workmanship. We descended the river about two leagues below Assuan : on the west bank, we found the remains of a terrace, about one hundred and twenty feet long, which may have been used as a landing place, but there was nothing in the character of the ruins, to indicate precisely to what purpose they could have been formerly applied. In the evening we arrived at Koum Ombos.

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CHAPTER XI.

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Koum Ombos—Ruins-Gebel el Silcily-Edfou-Tombs at El Hegges

- Esneh — Thebes--Memnonium — Carnac- Ghenny- Dendera - Siout—Til El-Armarne - Excavations–Eraramoum - Sugar Manufactory-Sheik-a-badeh-Return to Cairo.

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On Wednesday the 27th, we landed at Koum Ombos, which overhangs the river on the east bank. The steep bank is overspread with ruins, rolled down to the water's edge,-huge masses, parts of columns, entablatures, &c. On the south height is a propyleon, ruined at the top; on the north, rising from extensive foundations, is a single capital, with the head of Isis. The terrace rose about fifty feet above the water. It is now a flat, covered with sand. On this, about eighty paces from the bank, is the great portico and temple, the most picturesque among the Egyptian ruins,—for this reason, that it has not withstood the ravages of time. Entablatures and pillars are thrown down, and encumber the angles of the portico. Out of eighteen columns thirteen are entire, but buried in sand to near the height of the gateway in the middle of the intercolumniation. The columns are in three lines, of six each. There are cartouches on entablatures above the entrance, or inner wall, of the great portico.

There is a Greek inscription over the door of the inner chamber : the one of the left entrance, that of the right corresponding, has no inscription. This temple was built by one of the Ptolomies, as appears

from the inscriptions. On a small doorway of stone, to the east of the temple, behind the great tower, is a cartouche. The architrave of this contains the prefix of Toth

mos III.

While we were remaining at Koum Ombos, our stock of bread being exhausted, we sent our boat

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