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his race, and ruin to his country. Again he tried to find favour, by messages and rich gifts, in the eyes

of the Pacha and his son Toussoun ; again was he repulsed in haughty scorn, and commanded to yield obedience to the mandate from Cairo. Abdallah then buckled on his sword, called his chiefs around him, and led them and their followers into the field.

Ibrahim, Mahomed's eldest son, and who, shortly after his arrival in Arabia, was appointed Pacha of three Tails, departed with an army, and disembarked at the Port of Yanbo. The general's forces seem not to have exceeded three thousand men. After some partial successes, Ibrahim laid siege to El Rass; but, though reinforced by fresh supplies, he wasted time, and every effort on his part was unavailing. Abdallah's courage, however, was short-lived, for notwithstanding that he could have driven the Turks in ignominious flight from the country, bis craven spirit condescended to negotiate with the invaders. His terms were rejected, and the siege pressed forward. But Ibrahim, after nearly four months' attempt, and a frightful loss of men, was obliged to desist and depart. Better success awaited him in other quarters: El Kabrah, Anahse, Boureydeh, Chakrah, and Doramah, fell successively into his power, and he laid siege to Derayeh, the Wahab's capital. Here the Turkish forces were again delayed for nearly three months. But, at length, the place capitulated, and Abdallah, being taken prisoner, was sent to Cairo. There he arrived in November 1818, and had an interview with the Viceroy, and continuing his journey, presented himself finally before the Divan at Constantinople. He was then arrested, bound, carried for three days about the public streets, and beheaded. Thus died the last of the successors of the redoubted Sehood.

Ibrahim Pacha is remembered as the scourge of Arabia, and the curse of Derayeh. Mahomed, in his moment of passion against Abdallah, had threatened to destroy the city, so that one stone should not be left upon another ; Ibrahim was the unrelenting executor of his father's menaces. The Wahab capital was entirely destroyed, and the inhabitants thrust forth into the desolate wilderness, to starve and die, or obtain refuge where they best could. The family of Abdallah followed captives in the train of Ibrahim, and the Pacha returned in triumph to the Egyptian metropolis. The greatest joy prevailed among the inhabitants of Cairo, and for seven days subsequently to his arrival, festivities prevailed in every part of the city.



Ismael Pacha appointed General of the Army of Nubia and Sennaar

-Death of Toussoun Pacha — Ismael's Army - Dongola — the Sheygya-Berber— Shendy-Nimir Malek – The White RiverDissensions in Sennaar-Submission of King Mahomed-Rebels impaled—Turks excite the Disgust of the People of SennaarThe Cruelty of the Turks to the Negroes of the White River-Sennaar ruined-Negro Population driven to Syene-Epidemic in the Turkish Army-Ismael's Fears—Joined by Ibrahim Pacha— Their Progress-Fazogeh-Cruel Death of Ismael-Reflections.

MAHOMED Ali had now a short interval of peace, which he employed most usefully in effecting improvements. These improvements will be given in due time; for the present, we will confine ourselves to the course of his martial achievements. In order to ensure his own independence, Mahomed Ali, on principle, could never allow of an independent power in anything like approximation to himself. It might become an instrument in the hands of the Sultan ; it might work him much mischief on its own independent score; at all events, such a thing was not to be endured. He, therefore, determined on the conquest of Nubia and Sennaar. For this purpose, Ismael Pacha, the Viceroy's youngest son, was appointed general. This nomination must be explained by mentioning the death of Toussoun in Lower Egypt. From being a hardy soldier, he had sunk into the lowest debauchery, and died an early victim to his excesses. Some assert that he was poisoned by a favourite Georgian slave.

Ismael's army consisted of nearly four thousand men, fifteen hundred horse, besides about a thousand Arab auxiliaries. His train of artillery numbered twelve pieces. His army was of the oddest compound; a more motley group was never before visible, not even in the ranks of the old Moorish invaders of Spain, which, in the graphic language of Mr. Southey, were

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The leader was only twenty-two years of age, and as raw as any recruit in the service of the field. The expedition, however, was undertaken, and was successful, though it cost Ismael his life.

In the autumn of 1810, Ismael passed with his forces the second cataract of the Nile, and took possession of Dongola without opposition. He next acted against the Sheygya, a bold, independent race of Arabs, who were the dread of the whole country between the Cataracts and Sennaar.

Their custom was to attack caravans, and take the inhabitants of the country into slavery. They were as intrepid as the Norman pirates are represented to have been, for they were gay in the moment of danger, and sang songs of gladness while engaged in the conflict. When called

upon by the young Pacha to yield, they laughed him to scorn; but, after two severe encounters, their numbers were broken, and their forces dispersed ; they were overcome, and their country was subjugated.

Ismael next proceeded to Berber, which he reached through the desert, with his cavalry only. The infantry followed slowly and in detachments. At Berber Ismael's army recruited its strength, and rested two months. This delay was necessary, for Ismael wisely determined to wait for his boats and artillery ; at the same time he treated for the submission of the Malek of Shendy, by name Nimir. This chief yielded to the Turkish Pacha with the greatest reluctance; he would have resisted, but resistance was in vain. On the 9th of May, 1821, Ismael Pacha entered the city of Shendy. Here the chief of Sheygya, who, with fifty of his fol. lowers, had taken refuge at the court of Nimir Malek, proffered his services to the Viceroy's son, and, from an active foe, became one of the most faithful adherents of the Egyptian Viceroy. Ismael remained only five days at Shendy, and then proceeded towards the White River. There they encamped, rested themselves, and continued

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