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ones which are mentioned, but we doubt not that they are judiciously chosen. These are to be followed by the best English translations of Cicero, including those of Melmoth, Guthrie, Middleton, Jones, and M'Cartney. Melmoth is an excellent translator, and his notes are filled with agreeable scholarship. We have no acquaintance with any of the other translations, except that of Guthrie, which we recollect to have looked at three or four years ago, and then thought it feeble and inelegant. It is, however, faithful enough, and is, probably, the best English version of the orations.
The publication will be arranged and superintended by the Rev. Joseph M Kean, Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory in Harvard University, and will be comprised in fifteen or sixteen volumes 8vo. averaging from 400 to 500 pages each. The price to subscribers, two dollars and fifty cents a volume, in extra boards.
Boston edition of Dr. Reid's Works, with notes by American editors.-After a long delay the second volume of this edition has at length been published. It is a remarkable fact, and one which ought to be made known to the transatlantic despisers of American literature, that the first complete editions of the entire works of Reid, Paley, and Beattie, were collected and published in the United States. The notes of the American editors of Reid are very well, but we confess we could quite as well have spared them, and we can see no particular necessity for any of those yet published. Yet we must not pronounce judgment precipitately. The editors intimate that they reserve their remarks chiefly for Reid's last work on the active powers. We presume that they intend to combat his opinions on liberty and necessity. If this is well and simply done, by giving a concise statement of the opposite side of the argument, it will increase the value of the edition. But we earnestly exhort the editors to beware of defacing the pages of this profound and original thinker with empty declamation on the familiar, commonplace topics of metaphysical discussion.
Sermons by the late Rev. L S. Buckminster. 8vo. Boston.-In a literary point of view, this is one of the most valuable original publications which have for some years issued from the American press. Mr. Buckminster's religious opinions were of the same class with those which are now very prevalent in many parts of Massachusetts, and are denominated by their opponents Socinian, and termed by their friends Catholic or Liberal. There must, of course, exist a very wide difference of opinion as to the theological merit of this publication. But as the opinions of the author are rather to be inferred from what is passed over in silence, than from any thing actually expressed, whatever may be thought of these compositions as sermons, we have no hesitation to recommend them in the strongest manner as moral essays. We have not had leisure to read the volume with that deliberation and critical accuracy which we deem necessary to enable us to give a formal criticism on the character and style of such a work. It appears to us, however, that the distinguishing characteristics of Mr. Buckminster's writings are, great fertility and accuracy of thought, delicacy of taste, a certain calmness of manner, a little resembling that of Paley, but united with a more feminine elegance, and which, while it but seldom strongly excites the feelings, has an inexpressible power of engaging the attention-much felicity of illustration, and a considerable degree of ornament, but so far removed from every thing gaudy and florid that the first effect of his compositions upon a hasty reader is that of the utmost simplicity. His style is equable and flowing, and reminds us a good deal of that of Dugald Stewart, though it wants much of the richness and
magnificence of his smooth and full stream of expanded eloquence. When we say that Buckminster but seldom strongly excites the feelings, we must, at the same time, observe, that he has a remarkable power of impressing the mind with a tender solemnity, which has sometimes the effect of pathos, and now and then even approaches to sublimity. Some of the sermons on the internal evidences of christianity display much ingenuity of argument, and are in the best manner of Paley.
To the sermons is prefixed a short sketch of the life of their author, by one of his most intimate friends. We have seldom read a narrative of greater interest. The vivid picture which it displays of the life and study of a young scholar, ardent in the pursuit of knowledge, and most indefatigable in his application, struggling with infirm health, and weighed down by the dismal apprehension of the most awful of human calamities-the derangement of reason-is singularly interesting and pathetic. Mr. B. died before his 28th year, and we do not know of any man of our own times who had, at that early age, acquired a greater stock of various learning, or produced a more powerful impression upon the public mind. We cannot close this brief article without remarking the great accuracy of style which is discernible in this volume. This quality is so rare in posthumous publications, and, indeed, in all publications not revised in the proof by the author himself, or else carefully corrected by him after some interval had elapsed from the time of composition, that, if it is not owing in this instance (as we partly suspect it is) to the friendly care of the editor, it ought to be noted as a remarkable peculiarity in the literary character of Mr. Buckminster.
We are happy to observe that amidst the din of arms the interests of learning have not been forgotten. The munificence of the great states of New-York and Massachusetts to their several collegiate establishments are known to most of our readers. This has lately called forth two splendid instances of private liberality. The University of Cambridge, (Mass.) has received, from an unknown benefactor, the sum of 20,000 dollars towards founding a Greek professorship; and the Rev. Mr. Van Benschouten, of Ulster county, (N. Y.,) has lately presented 14,500 dollars to Queen's College, (New Jersey,) to be applied to the endowment of the theological faculty in that institution.
Life of Barlow. We have been asked how we defend the use of the phrase, incompatible with an enlightened philosopher, in the life of Barlow in the last number of this magazine. We do not defend it at all. It arises from a slight error of the press. The phrase intended to be used was, incompatible with an enlightened philosophy. The reader may also correct, in the same page, (144.,) the words sat off by substituting set off. We are not very studious of this minute accuracy, and should not have noticed this last error had we not remarked the confusion of the words sit and sef, as well as of lie and lay, to be of frequent occurrence among our writers or printers. Having corrected these verbal mistakes, it may be as well for the author to correct some others in facts.
Barlow's oration on the 4th of July, 1787, upon a second perusal, appears entitled to higher praise than was bestowed upon it. Another oration delivered by him at Washington, July 4, 1809, has been omitted in the list of his writings, a neglect which it by no means deserved, for it possesses a vein of original thinking very uncommon in productions of this class. Mr. Barlow did not build, but purchased the house at Washington, where he resided ;—and in saying that "Barlow was the first poetical ambassador since the days of Prior," the author did not recollect the Duke de Nivernois, Lord Strangford, and our own countryman, Colonel Humphreys.
FOREIGN PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE.
Preparation of the lately discovered new substance called IODE, which possesses the singular property of becoming converted into a beautiful violetcoloured gas by the mere application of heat. By Mr. FREDERICK ACCUM.
As this substance, to which the name of iode has been given, has within these few weeks arrested the attention of chymists, and as the mode of obtaining it has not yet been published in this country, I take this opportunity of stating, that it may be procured by distilling, with a very gentle heat, the uncrystallizable saline mass which is obtained, or left behind, after separating all the crystallizable salts from a lixivium or solution of kelp, or Spanish barilla of commerce.
For the purpose of experiment or exhibition in a lecture room, the following easy process answers exceedingly well:
Take a thin glass tube about ten or twelve inches long, and three eighths of an inch in the bore; put into it about one dram of the uncrystallizable residue before mentioned, previously fused for a few minutes, to free it as much as possible from water, and reduced to a coarse powder; add to it, without soiling the inside of the tube, about half its weight of concentrated sulphuric acid: shake the whole together, and apply a gentle heat, by means of a taper or lamp. This being done, a dense white vapour will make its appearance, and a black glistening powder, which is iode, become sublimed in the colder part of the tube. Then cut to a convenient length, with a file, that part of the tube which contains the iode, and seal the extremities of it by means of the blow pipe or spirit-lamp.
The preparation of iode upon a larger scale is equally simple and easy. Let a long slender-necked tubulated retort be placed in a sand-bath; surround the whole body of the retort up to the tubulure with sand, and adapt, without luting, to the beak of it, a wide-mouthed phial or receiver. This being done, introduce through the tubulure, first, one part of sulphuric acid, and then two parts of the saline mass before mentioned, broken into small pieces of the size of split pease, and distil for a few minutes with a gentle heat. The iode will become sublimed into the neck of the retort in a crystalline form, exhibiting a black shining crust. Cut off the neck of the retort with a file, and collect the iode by means of a feather or camel's hair brush.
If the whole of the saline mass of kelp or barilla, freed from carbonate of soda only, and which of course consists of muriate of soda, muriate of potash, sulphate of potash, hydrosulphuret of potash, &c. be treated with sulphuric acid, the preparation of iode becomes more embarrassing and difficult.
Roman Costume.-A work is announced, by subscription, in England, entitled Roman Costume, from the latter period of the republic to the close of the Empire in the East, by a Graduate of the University of Oxford, and F. S. A. The valuable discovery of paintings and bronzes, by the excavations at Herculaneam, afford authentic originals for the dress at the beginning of the empire The column of Trajan presents many specimens in the commencement of the following century, as does that of Antonine for the middle of it. The Arch of Severus begins the succeeding one; that of Constantine the next; and the column of Theodosius the middle of the following one. Other pieces of sculpture, dypties, and coins, fill up the intermediate times, and extend it to the end of the Empire of the West. That assiduous collector, Du Cange, and others, lend their able assistance towards the pursuit of costume in the Eastern Empire; and its latter periods have survived the ravages of time in illuminations on velluni, illustrating the literary productions of the age. The correct colours of the Roman dress are to be found, not only by a reference to the notices of their authors, but in the Herculaneum paintings, tesselated pavements, and Greek manuscripts.
This may be done conveniently, by sucking the acid up with the mouth into a long small glass tube drawn out to a capillary point, applying the finger to the upper orifice of it, and thus transferring by means of it the acid into the larger tube.
A Treatise on the defence of Fortified Places. Written under the direction, and published by command of Bonaparte, for i..e instruction and guidance of the officers of the French army. By M. Carnot. Translated from the French, by Lieut. Col. Baron de Montalembert. Octavo. pp. 254.
[From the Critical Review.]
THE French government, for the purpose of impressing the importance of their functions on the minds of military men entrusted with the defence of fortified places, employed M. Carnot to compose the present work. It is divided into eleven chapters; the eight first compose the first part, which is illustrative of the position that any officer, entrusted with the defence of a place, must resolve to perish rather than surrender. The remaining three chapters compose the second part, "on the means afforded by industry, to ensure the best method of defending fortified places." From the principles treated upon in the work, the conclusion is drawn that, in the defence of fortified places, valour, unsupported by industry, is insufficient; united they are invincible. Valour!-Industry! the whole defence of fortified places consists in these two words."-The title of this book, recon
VOL. IV. New Series.
mended by the French government to the use of its army, exeites strong interest at this time from the signal resistance of several fortresses held by French officers during the present hostilities. M. Carnot enables us to present the "lettres patentes" constituting General Colaud governor of Antwerp, containing instructions for his conduct in its defence; which, with variations adapted to the localities of other fortified places, may be considered as a precedent of the "lettres patentes" granted to all officers in the French service, commanding fortresses.
"NAPOLEON, by the Grace of God, &c. &c.
"The town of Antwerp being declared in a state of siege, we have resolved to nominate and appoint for its commander a distinguished officer, whose zeal and fidelity has been tried in many actions.
"We have taken into our consideration the services of the General of Division Senator COLAUD, and we have appointed him, and hereby do appoint him, commandant of the place of Antwerp,' now in a state of siege. Conformably to our decree of the 11th instant, by which he is appointed governor of the said place, we order him to be there by the and never to go beyond a musket shot of the ramparts of its advanced works; frequently to inspect and visit the provisions for the garrison, and the magazines for the artillery, and to take care that they are abundantly supplied, and secure from the attacks of the enemy as well as from the weather. We enjoin him, also, to ensure provisions for the inhabitants, even greater in proportion than those for the garrison. He will employ, within forty-eight hours after his arrival at Antwerp, commissioners, civil and military, to ascertain and certify that the said supplies are actually in the place: he will oblige the inhabitants to provide themselves with buckets, and to keep them constantly filled with water: three inspectors appointed to each street, will make domiciliary visits to see that this order is attended to; he will take care that the engines be in the best possible state; they will be stationed as a sort of reserve, and as much as possible sheltered from the enemy's fire. He will take the necessary measures to augment their number. He will give directions to collect a great quantity of fascines, palisades, and also all the timber for blindages,' that can possibly be procured.
"We order him to preserve the place, and never to think of sur rendering it on any pretence whatsoever: in case of its being invested and blockaded, he must be deaf to all reports from the enemy. He must equally resist insinuations and attacks, and never suffer his courage to droop. His constant rule must be to have as little communication with the enemy as possible. He will always bear in mind the dreadful and inevitable consequences of disobedience to our orders, or of neglect in the execution of his duties. He must never forget that, in losing our esteem, he incurs the severity of military law; and that this law condemns him, and his staff, to death, if he surrenders the place; even if two lunettes were taken, and a practicable breach made in the body of the place. In case the enemy should have blown up the counterscarp, he must prevent the consequences that might result from