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also to yield and pay yearly out of every house, a yearly pension of one penny to St. Peter, and besides also will defend and keep the rites of those churches whole and inviolate. We therefore, well allowing and favouring this your godly disposition and commendable affection, do accept, ratifie, and assent, unto this your petition, and do grant that you (for the dilating of God's church, the punishment of sin, the reforming of manners, the planting of virtue, and the encreasing of Christian religion) do enter to possess that land, and there to execute according to your wisdom, whatsoever shall be for the 'honour of God, and the safety of the realm. And further also we do strictly charge and require, that all the people of that land do with all humbleness, dutifulness, and honour, receive and accept you as their liege lord and sovereign, reserving and excepting the right of Holy Church to be inviolably preserved, as also the yearly pension of Peter pence out of every house, which we require to be truly answered to St. Peter and to the church of Rome. If therefore you do mind to bring your godly purpose to effect, endeavour to travail to reform the people to some better order and trade of life, and that also by yourself and by such others as you shall think meet, true and honest in their life, manners, and conversation, to the end the church of God may be beautified, the true Christian religion sowed and planted, and all other things done, that by any means shall or may be to God's honour and salvation of men's souls, whereby you may in the end receive of God's hands the reward of everlasting life, and also in the mean time, and in this life carry a glorious fame and an honourable report among all nations.
THE CONFIRMATION OF THE FORMER GRANT BY ALEXAN
ALEXANDER the bishop, the servant of the servants of God, to his dearly beloved son, the noble king of England, greeting, grace and apostolic benediction. Forasmuch as things given and granted upon good reason by our predecessors, are to be well allowed of, ratified and confirmed, we well considering and pondering the grant and privilege for, and concerning the dominion of the land of Ireland to us appertaining, and lately given by Adrian our pretdecessor, we following his steps, do in like manner confirm, ratifie, and allow the same ; reserving and saving to St. Peter, and to the church of Rome, the yearly pension of one penny out of every house, as well in England as in Ireland. Provided also, that the barbarous people of Ireland, by your means, be reformed and recovered from their filthy life and abominable conversation; that as in name, so in life and manners they may be Christians, and that as that rude and disordered church, being by you reformed, the whole nation may also with the possession of the name be in acts and deeds followers of the såme.
THE TREATY OR ARTICLES OF WINDSOR....PAGE 26.
HIC est finis et concordia quæ facta fuit apud Windesore, in Octabis Sancti Michaelis anno Gratiæ 1177, inter Dominum Regem Angliæ Henricum Secundum, et Rodericum Regem Conaciæ per Catholicum Tuamensem Archiepiscopum et Abbatem C. Sancti Brandani, et Magistrum Laurentium cancellarium Re Conaciæ.
1mo. Quod Rex Angliæ concedit prædicto Roderico, ligeo homini suo Regnum Conaciæ, quamdiu ei fideliter serviet, ut sit Rex sub eo, paratus ad servitium suum, sicut homo suus ; et ut teneat terram suam, ita bene, et in pace sicut tenuit antequam Dominus Rex Angliæ intravit Hiberniam, reddendo ei tributum: et totam illam terram et habitatores terræ habeat sub se ; et justitiæ ut tributum Regi Angliæ integre persolvant, et per manum ejus sua jura sibi conservent, et illi qui modo tenent, teneant in pace, quamdiu manserint in fidelitate Regis Angliæ ; et fideliter et integre persolverint tributum et alia jura sua, quæ ei debent per manum Regis Conaciæ; salyo in omnibus jure et honore Domini Regis Angliæ et suo.
2do. Et siqui ex eis Regi Angliæ, et ei rebelles fuerint, et tri. butum et alia
jura Regis Angliæ, per manum ejus solvere noluerint, et a fidelitate Regis Angliæ recesserint, ipse eos justitiet et amoveat, et si eos per se injustiare non poterit, Constabularius Regis Angliæ et familia sua de terrâ illâ juvabunt eum ad hoc faciendum, cum ab ipso fuerint requisiti, et ipsi viderint quod necesse fuerit, et propter hunc finem reddet prædictus Rex Conaciæ Domini Regi Angliæ tributum singulisannis, scilicet, de sin. gulis decem animalibus unum corium placabile mercatoribus, tam de totâ terrâ suâ, quam de alienâ.
30. Exceptò, quod de terris illis, quas Dominus Rex Angliæ retinuit in dominio suo, et in dominio Baronum suorum, nihil se intromittet; scilicet Durelina cum pertinentiis suis, sicut unquam Murchait, Wamai, Lethlachlin eam melius et plenius tenuit, aut aliqui qui eam de eo tenuerint. Et exceptâ Wexfordiâ, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis ; scilicet, cum totâ Lageniâ, et exceptâ Wa
terfordia usque ad Dungarvan, ita ut Dungarvan sit, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis infra terram illam.
4to. Et si Hibernensis illi qui aufugerint, redire voluerint ad terram Baronum Regis Angliæ, redeant in pace, reddendo tributum prædictum quod alii reddunt, vel faciendo antiqua servitia, qua facere solebant pro terris suis; et hoc sit in arbitrio Dominorum suorum ; et si aliqui eorum redire noluerint Domini eorum et Rex Conaciæ accipiat obsides, omnibus quos ei commisit Dominus rex Angliæ, ad voluntatem Domini Regis et suam, et ipse dabit obsides ad voluntatem Domini Regis Angliæ illos vel alios; et ipsi servient Domino de canibus et avibus suis singulis annis de pertinentiis suis, et nullum omnino de quâcumque terrâ Regis sit, retinebunt contra voluntatem Domini Regis. His testibus Richardo Episcopo Wintoniæ, Gaufrido Episcopo Eliensi, Laurentio Duveliensi Archiepiscopo, Gaufrido, Nicholao et Rogero Capellanis Regis, Gulielmo Comite Essexii, et aliis multis, etc,
EXTRACTS FROM THE 'IRISH REMONSTRANCE TO POPE JOHN
IT is extremely painful to us, that the viperous detractions of slanderous Englishmen, and their iniquitous suggestions against the defenders of our rights, should exasperate your holiness against the Irish nation. But alas, you know us only by the misrepresentation of our enemies, and you are exposed to the danger of adopting the infamous falsehoods, which they propagate, without hearing any thing of the detestable cruelties they have committed against our ancestors, and continue to commit even to this day against ourselves. Heaven forbid, that your
ess should be thus misguided ; and it is to protect our unfortunate people from such a calamity, that we have resolved here to give you a faithful account of the present state of our kingdom, if indeed a kingdom we can call the melancholy remains of a nation, that so long groans under the tyranny of the kings of England, and of their barons ; some of whom, though born among us, continue to practise the same rapine and cruelties against us, which their ancestors did against ours heretofore. We shall speak nothing but the truth, and we hope, that your holiness will not delay to inflict condign punishment on the aus thors and abettors of such inhuman calamities.
Know then, that our forefathers came from Spain, and our chief apostle St. Patrick, sent by your predecessor, Pope Celestine, in the year of our Lord 435, did by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, most effectually teach us the truth of the Holy Roman Catholic faith, and that ever since that, our kings well instructed in the faith, that was preached to them, have, in number sixty-one, without any mixture of foreign blood, reigned in Ircland to the year 1170. And those kings were not Englishmen, nor of any other nation but our own, who with pious liberality bestowed ample endowments in lands, and many immunities on the Irish church, though in modern times our churches are most barbarously plundered by the English, by whom they are almost despoiled. And though those our kings, so long and so strenuously defended, against the tyrants and kings of different regions the inheritance given them by God, preserving their innate liberty at all times inviolate; yet, Adrian IV. your predecessor, an Englishman, more even by affection and prejudice, than by birth, blinded by that affection and the false suggestions of Henry II. King of England, under whom, and perhaps by whom, St. Thomas of Canterbury was murdered, gave the dominion of this our kingdom by a certain form of words to that same Henry II. whom he ought rather to have stript of his own on account of the above crime.
Thus, omitting all legal and judicial order, and alas! his national prejudices and predilections blindfolding the discernment of the pontiff, without our being guilty of any crime, without any rational cause whatsoever, he gave us up to be mangled to pieces by the teeth of the most cruel and voracious of all monsters. And if sometimes nearly flayed alive, we escape from the deadly bite of these treacherous and greedy wolves, it is but to descend into the miserable abysses of slavery, and to drag on the doleful remains of a life more terrible than death itself. Ever since those English appeared first upon our coasts in virtue of the above surreptitious donation, they entered our territories under a certain specious pretext of piety and external hypocritical shew of religion; endeavouring in the mean time, by every artifice malice could suggest, to extirpate us root and branch, and without any other right, than that of the strongest, they have so far succeeded by base and fraudulent cunning, that they have forced us to quit our fair and ample habitations and paternal inheritances, and to take refuge, like wild beasts, in the mountains, the woods, and the morasses of the country; nor can even the caverns and dens protect us against their insatiable avarice. They pursue us even into these frightful abodes, endeavouring to dispossess us of the wild uncultivated rocks, and arrogating to themselves the property of every place, on which we can stamp the figure of our feet; and through an excess of the most profound ignorance, impudence, arrogance, or blind insanity scarce conceivable, they dare to assert, that not a single part of Ireland is ours, but by right entirely their own.
Hence the implacable animosities and exterminating carnage, which are perpetually carried on between us; hence our continual hostilities, our detestable treacheries, our bloody reprisals, our numberless massacres, in which since their invasion to this day, more than 50,000 men have perished on both sides : not to speak of those, who died by famine, despair, the rigours of captivity, nightly marauding, and a thousand other disorders, which it is impossible to remedy, on account of the anarchy in which we live ; an anarchy, which alas! is tremendous not only to the state, but also to the church of Ireland ; the ministers of which are daily exposed, not only to the loss of the frail and transitory things of this world, but also to the loss of those solid and substantial blessings, which are eternal and immutable.
Let those few particulars concerning our origin, and the deplorable state, to which we have been reduced by the above donation of Adrian IV. suffice for the present.
We have now to inform your holiness, that Henry, king of England, and the four kings his successors, have violated theconditions of the pontifical bull, by which they were impowered to invade this kingdom ; for the said Henry promised, as appears by the said bull, to extend the patrimony of the Irish church, and to pay to the apostolical see, annually one penny for each house; now this promise, both he and his successors above mentioned, and their iniquitous ministers, observed not at all with regard to Ireland. On the contrary, they have entirely and intentionally eluded them and endeavoured to force the reverse.
As to the church lands, so far from extending them, they have confined them, retrenched them, and invaded them on all sides, insomuch that some cathedral churches have been by open force, notoriously plundered of half their possessions: nor have the persons of our clergy been more respected; for in every part of the country, we find bishops and prelates cited, arrested, and imprisoned without distinction, and they are oppressed with such servile fear by those frequent and unparalleled injuries, that they have not even the courage to represent to your holiness the sufferings they are so wantonly condemned to undergo. But since they are so cowardly and so basely silent in their own cause, they deserve not that we should say a syllable in their favour. The English promised also to introduce a better code of laws and enforce better morals among the Irish people ; but instead of this they have so corrupted our morals, that the holy and dove-like simplicity of our nation is, on account of the flagitious example