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- Cassan

246. tunc etiam, then too (besides our other warnings). dra, daughter of Priam. She had been beloved by Apollo, and endowed by him with the gift of prophecy; but, as she rejected his suit, the gift was accompanied with the curse that no one should believe her inspired words. (See Fig. 66, where she appears on the walls in the act here described.)— fatis (abl. of manner).

247. non credita, [those lips] never believed, etc. - Teucris, dative (§ 232, a; G. 352; H. 388, 1).

248. quibus esset (§ 320, e; H. 515, iii.): though that day was our last (contrasting the signs of joy with their real fate). Notice how this idea is brought out by the position of miseri before quibus.

249. velamus, i.e. we deck the shrines (delubra) with festal wreaths: decking the houses with garlands had a religious as well as festival meaning. 250. ruit oceano, comes suddenly from the ocean: Night, like Day, is conceived as rising from the vast Ocean which encircles the earth.

251. involvens: the grave effect of the spondees in this verse is perhaps intentional.

252. dolos: the same shadow which makes them helpless aids the craft of their enemies. - fusi, compare i. 214.

253. conticuere, became silent, i.e. were hushed.

254. ibat, was already on its way, anticipating the success of Sinon's fraud.

255. Tenedo (§ 258, R.3; G. 411, R.1; H.412, N.). —per amica silentia lunae = by the still and friendly moonlight (compare v. 340).


256. flammas . extulerat, the royal ship had shown the signal light, as a sign to Sinon. (Compare vi. 518, where Helen is said to have held forth a lighted torch as a signal.) This clause should properly be the subordinate one, but, as often, is emphasized by its present form. See § 325, b; G. 581, R.; H. 521, ii. 1.

257. fatis deum, cf. vi. 376.

258. utero (loc. abl.). — Danaos... claustra, lets loose the Greeks from their pine-wood prison. As the verb laxat can apply in slightly different senses to both Danaos and claustra, the hendiadys, always a favorite form of expression, is preferred to the ablative of separation (claustris).

259. laxat is in the same construction as extulerat, but the action of the latter verb precedes and that of the former is brought forward to present time (hist. pres.); hence the great difference of tense. open air; compare iv. 388.


260. cavo robore promunt, compare Od. viii. 500-520; Bry. 613, where the story is told by Demodocus.

263. primus Machaon: Machaon, son of Esculapius, and the inspired Healer; the epithet may be a translation of apiσtevovтa (Il. xi. 506), or, perhaps, among the first, but the meaning is doubtful.

264. doli, i.e. the horse, which makes the ambuscade. Notice the variety of words Virgil uses to refer to the horse.

266. portis (ablative of means).

267. conscia, allied, knowing each other's plans.

268. tempus erat: this, with nox erat, has been observed to be a favorite form of transition with Virgil.

271. effundere fletus, compare the ghost of Patroclus, Il. xxiii. 65 ; Bry. 77.

273. pedes tumentes, see note, i. 484. — lora (Greek accusative). 275. redit = "as I seem to see him returning." The tense is used like the historical present; see Il. xvii. 188; Bry. 232.

277. squalentem: this word, which gives us a ludicrous impression, had different associations with the ancients as a sign of mourning. — concretos, matted.

278. volnera: apparently the honorable wounds which he is supposed to have received in battle, though Homer hardly speaks of any; less likely the hurts and bruises from being dragged at the car of Achilles. quae plurima, of which he had received so many (§ 200, d; G. 618; H. 453, 5). 279. ultro, first (without being spoken to).

281. O lux, etc., imitated from the address of Paris to Iector's dead body, in Ennius. Here Æneas forgets for the moment that he has been


285. ut, how, i.e. in how sad a plight.

287. quaerentem vana, making vain inquiry. — nec moratur, nor does he stay for (i.e. does not mind my inquiry).

289. his, with a gesture, the so-called deictic use of the pronoun.

291. sat... datum, a legal phrase: your debt to your king and country is fully paid. - si... possent . . . fuissent, if Troy could (at any time) be saved by human hand, it would have been saved (before) by mine. For tense see § 308, a; G. 599, R.1; H. 510, N.o

293. penates, associated here and elsewhere with Vesta, the goddess of the Home. This is Æneas' charge, to protect his home, not the vain effort to defend the city.

294. his, dative of reference (§ 235; H. 384, 4).

295. pererrato... ponto, which [mighty walls] thou shalt at last establish, when thou hast crossed the sea.

296. vittas Vestamque, i.e. the filleted image of Vesta.

297. ignem: the sacred fire, which was carried from the hearth of

Vesta, in the mother city, to kindle that of the new community. Colonies which - like the coloniae Romanae and the Greek cleruchiae — had no independent political existence, but ranked as still belonging to the mother city, retaining their share in its sacred hearth, took no fire with them. The gods and fire here referred to were supposed to be preserved in the temple of Vesta at Rome.

298. miscentur, etc., disturbed by various mingled sounds of grief, the regular word for any confusion.


299. secreta, retired (se-cerno). — secreta and obtecta are used as predicates with recessit, stood apart. 301. horror, the dread din of arms. 302. somno (probably ablative).

303. ascensu (§ 248; G.401; H.419, iii.) supero = mount to the top of. 304. veluti cum: compare Il. xi. 492–497; Bry. 599. The comparison is, I stand listening [to the roar of battle] just as, when the blaze driven by furious southern blasts falls upon the crops, or the hurrying torrent of a mountain flood overwhelms the fields, etc., the shepherd, ignorant of the cause, from the lofty summit of a rock, bewildered, hears (stupet accipiens) the roar.

309. manifesta fides, the truth is clear, i.e. belief is forced upon me of what would otherwise seem impossible.

310. Deiphobi (Od. viii. 517; Bry. 636). Deiphobus was the next of the sons of Priam after Hector and Paris, and had married Helen after Paris' death. His house was therefore the first destroyed. — dedit, as we say “gave a crash.” — ruina means both the fall and the consequences of it.

311. Volcano, not merely fire, but the god of fire in person. The Homeric fire-god, Hephaistos, with whom Vulcan was identified, is the favorite son of Juno (Hera).

312. Ucalegon (i.e. his house), one of the ancient counsellors who sat with Priam on the wall (Il. iii.` 148; Bry. 186). — Sigea freta: Sigeum is a port on the Trojan coast.

314. nec sat rationis, and yet (= though) there is no sense.

315. glomerare . . . animi, my soul burns to gather a troop for the fight, and to rush with my friends upon the citadel. Notice the common use of the plural in the sense of passion, while mentem is the intellect, or judgment.

317. succurrit, it comes [to my thought] that it is glorious to.die in arms. Compare the familiar sentiment from Horace, dulce et decorum est pro patria mori.

318. Achivom (§ 7; G. I, R.; H. 52, 1).

319. Panthus, another aged counsellor (Il. iii. 146). — arcis Phoebique (hendiadys), of Apollo in the citadel. Like the Capitol at Rome, the citadel of Troy is conceived as having shrines of several divinities.

321. ipse, i.e. he alone without attendants to bear the sacred burden. cursu (abl. of manner) ... tendit, comes running wildly to my door.


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322. quo... loco, where is the main struggle?· quam ... arcem, what stronghold shall we occupy? supposing the citadel to be already taken. This seems the best rendering of this much-vexed passage. Another meaning of the first question is, In what condition is the decisive struggle? For tense of prendimus, cf. Quid ago nunc? Ter. Heaut. 2, 3, 102; Juv. iii. 296, iv. 130. The answer of Panthus is, that all is lost; and Æneas accordingly rushes out in the general direction of the noise (v. 337). — Panthu, a form representing ou in Greek contracted from oë.

324. ineluctabile, inevitable (lit., that cannot be wrestled away.) 325. fuimus Troes, we Trojans are now no more. fuit, is no longer: "It was a common phrase with the Romans," says Appian (Syr. 37), "to say, Antiochus the great has been." See § 279, a; G. 228,1; H. 471, I, 2).

326. omnia . . . transtulit, Jupiter has carried over everything to Argos. According to the Greek legend, "the gods departed in a body from Troy on the night of its capture, bearing their images with them" (see v. 351). — ferus, not a general epithet, but indicating his present state of feeling.

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urbe, i.e. they have set fire to the city, and are

328. mediis in moenibus, i.e. in the very citadel. adstans, standing there, a vivid way of indicating its presence.

329. victor in his success.

and wide, cf. v. 298.


incendia miscet, spreads fire far

330. bipatentibus, i.e. thrown wide open (lit., with both folding-doors open).

331. quot, sc. tot milia in appos. with alii; see § 200, b.

332. angusta viarum (cf. i. 422), the narrow ways.

333. oppositi, on guard (to prevent flight).

334. primi vigiles, the foremost of the guards, i.e. there is scarcely a

show of resistance.

335. caeco, i.e. having no orders or plans, they fight wildly.

336. numine, the idea can only be general, i.e. that this, as all his ac

tions, is under the divine direction.

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