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722. resides, unmoved.

love.

animos, feelings. — desueta, disused to

723. postquam (sc. est or fuit; see note on pependit, v. 715): the wine was not brought in till after the feast.

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Fig. 61.

726. atria, see note, v. 638. — dependent, indicates that the night has come on before they finish. — laquearibus (see note on complexu, v. 715), panels: the sunken panels (lacus) between the cross-beams of the ceiling were decorated with gilding, an arrangement often imitated in modern buildings. — aureis, two syllables. -lychni (see Fig. 62).

727. funalia, links, i.e. torches in which a stout cord (funis) did service as wicking.

728. hic, hereupon.

729. pateram, a shallow bowl or

saucer used for libations, an heir-loom in

the royal house. (See Fig. 48.) Our card-receivers

and fruit-dishes are often made after the same pattern.

730. soliti (sc. implere).-silentia: the first introduction of the wine had a sacred character, and a small quan

tity was always first poured out as a libation.

Fig. 62.

731. Iuppiter, as the god of hospitality (hospitalis). — dare iura, define the rights of strangers: the term properly refers to the function of a judge, and hence here is equivalent to protect the rights.

732. Tyriis (dative after laetum).

733. velis, grant.—734. Iuno, as the tutelar divinity of Carthage.

735. coetum (con, eo), gathering, festive as well as political. celebrate, throng, or attend in large numbers; hence used in nearly the same signification as in our English word derived from it. - faventes, strictly, "speaking words of good omen”; hence, with expressions of joy, and without wrangling to disturb the hallowed rites. Ill-omened words, among which were reckoned all expressions of hatred or sorrow, were supposed to mar the effect of religious observances.

Fig. 63.

736. laticum honorem, i.e. the juice which pays honor to the divinity.

737. prima, she first, as first in rank. —libato, impersonal, when libation had been made (§ 255, b; G. 438, R.2; H. 431, N.2).—summo ore, with the tip of her lips: keeping the feminine proprieties, but formally drinking as hostess.

738. increpitans, with a challenge (to drink deep). — impiger, nothing loth, with no such scruple as Dido appears to have, as is indicated in summo ore. — hausit, drained.

740. cithara, harp (abl. of means, the usual way of expressing an accompanying musical instrument). (See Fig. 63.) — crinitus, with flowing locks so ancient bards are represented, as well as Apollo, the god of song. See Od. viii. 62; Bry. 86.

741. Atlas: the connection is ingenious. Atlas was fabled as having first studied astronomy, and was indentified with the mountain in Africa which bounded the western horizon of the ancients. So here, Iopas (the beautiful) coming from the same vicinity is represented as a Numidian taught by Atlas. At the same time the Sun and Moon are the two great Phoenician divinities Melkarth and Astarte, which latter is sometimes identified with Juno. Nor was this a rare subject for poetry. Hesiod and Aratus had also sung in this manner of astronomy; so Parmenides, Xenophanes, and Empedocles had treated their philosophy in verse. Compare also Ecl. vi. The Carthaginians seem to have had an astrological literature known to the Romans (Manilius, Astronomica, i. 293 et seq).

742. errantem, as the most wandering of all the heavenly bodies. — labores, eclipses.

743. unde (sc. sint), indirect interrogative. A cosmogony such as that of Empedocles is here indicated.

744. Hyadas, a group in the head of the Bul!. The time of their acronycal setting, early in November, was marked by severe storms (see

note, v. 535).—geminos Triones, the great and little Bear, called Triones, the plough-oxen; whence Septemtriones, the north.

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746. mora noctibus, i.e. in winter. — tardis, opposed to properent. Night has its heavenly course as well as day.

747. ingeminant plausu, redouble (with) their applause, i.e. receive the song with continued applause.

748. nec non et, so also, as another part of the entertainment.

749. longum amorem, long draughts of love.

750. multa: the particularity of her inquiries shows that her object is to prolong the interview. — Priamo (§ 260, c).

751. quibus armis, as coming from a different region from the rest of the forces (Ethiopia), his arms seem to have been described as famous in the Epic Cycle; cf. v. 489. — Aurorae filius: in Isaiah, xiv. 12, the monarch of the East is called "son of the morning."

752. quantus, how tall, or how mighty.

753. immo, nay rather (always with a negative force). Here it introduces the request for a complete narration from the beginning (a prima), as contrasted with the preceding separate details.

755. nam, introducing the reason for her asking an account of his wanderings.

BOOK II.

By the narrative of Æneas, Books ii. and iii., Virgil brings the story down to the point at which the opening of the poem begins. For a repre sentation of the sack of Troy see Fig. 64, p. 116.

1. conticuere (momentary act), were hushed; tenebant (imperf. of continued action), listening they held their peace.

2. toro, the couch on which he reclined at table.

3. infandum dolorem, a grief that may not be spoken, “too big for utterance." - iubes, bid, used alike of commands and requests.

4. ut eruerint (indir. quest. depending on the verb to tell implied in dolorem renovare), how the Greeks utterly destroyed the wealth of Troy, and the realm we must weep for.

5. miserrima, emphatic, from its position in the relative clause (§ 200, d; G. 618; H. 453, 5).

6. fando, in speaking; compare tuendo, i. 713.

7. Myrmidonum Dolopumve, the soldiers of Achilles, who was the fiercest, as Ulysses (Ulixes) was the wiliest of the Greeks. Being of the same class, they are connected with each other by -ve, and with the others by the disjunctive aut.

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8. temperet a lacrimis, could control his tears (§ 268; G. 251; H. 486, ii.): the verb is more commonly followed in this sense by the ablative alone or the dative. umida, more common in the Mss. than humida.

- caelo, from the sky.

9. praecipitat, sc. se: Night is regarded as running its course through the heaven in the same way as the day or the Sun. — cadentia sidera, i.e. the approach of morning. — suadent, counsel.

10. cognoscere = cognoscendi, the phrase amor est being equivalent to a verb of wishing.

II. supremum laborem, the last agony labor implies suffering as well as struggle.

12. meminisse horret, shudders to recall. Verbs of fearing regularly take the infinitive in this sense, though usually only vereor is in fact so used (§ 271; G. 552, R.1; H. 498, iii. N.3). — luctu refūgit, shrinks back from the grief. The perfect is used because the shrinking itself is complete, though the effect which is meant to be expressed still remains.

14. labentibus (abl. abs.), i.e. having passed and still continuing to glide away; compare note, i. 48.

15. instar (indecl. noun in appos. with equum), the image, i.e. something set up (sto). — Palladis: Minerva was the patroness of all kinds of handicraft. (See Fig. 91.)

16. aedificant, build, indicating the size by the very use of a word which is used of houses. - intexunt, line, i.e. with strips running across the ribs. — ābiětě, trisyllable (§ 347, d, R.; G. 717; H. 608, iii. N.o).

18. huc includunt, shut up in it (literally into it, on account of the motion implied). — delecta corpora, implying the selection of individuals; only the bravest chiefs were to dare the perilous ambuscade.

19. lateri, dat., in a sort of apposition with huc, but governed by includunt (§ 228; G. 346; H. 386). — penitus, deep within, hinting at the immense size.

21. est, there is (§ 343, b).

22. opum (§ 218, c; G. 373; H. 399, iii. 1). — manebant, for tense see § 276, e, N.; G. 571.

23. tantum sinus, a mere bay. - male fida, ill-faithful, i.e. treachWith words of evil meaning, male intensifies their force; with words of good, it contradicts it.

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25. abiisse rati (§ 336, a; G. 527, R.2; H. 523, i.), supposed they had gone. Mycenas, a very ancient city near Argos, and the home of Agamemnon. Its remains, in a very archaic style of art, are among the most interesting in Greece. Here used for Greece generally.

26. luctu, compare note, i. 463, and notice the different construction for the same idea.

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