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We meet the traveller in England, impart to him the information necessary for the purpose of preparation, directing him in reference to the management of his passport and luggage at home and on the Continent; we lead him by the most approved routes through his tour, and place before him every item of instruction useful to him in his journey. We do not, however, say that our work is faultless. Were it so, we should have achieved an impossibility, for we believe that Hand-Books are “like watches, the worst are better than none-the best cannot be expected to go quite true.” We know the severe ordeal a Hand-Book for travellers abroad has to pass through ; we can thoroughly appreciate the merciless criticism which will test its truth when weighing its accuracy on the very spot described, but, however, we fearlessly and confidingly launch it forth, trustful in the forbearance of all, whilst hopeful that those who make use of it will kindly favour us by forwarding to us corrections of any errors or inaccuracies they may discover in it.

In conclusion, we can only remark that in the editing of the present volume we have aimed at the medium between an useless repetition of detail, and the annoyance of a tasteless brevity of description ; and trust the traveller may find it not less useful than interesting.

INTRODUCTION.

PASSPORTS—MONEY-POSTING_DILIGENCES, HIRED CARRIAGES, BARRIERS, ROADS

–VIGILANTES-BELGIAN HOTELS-PRICES OF REFRESHMENT AT THE BELGIAN

RAILWAY STATIONS–GENERAL VIEW OF BELGIUM-RAILWAYS IN BELGIUM. *** See Bradshaw's Continental Guide, published monthly, for the latest particulars

respecting Hotels, Chaplains, Medical Men, Bankers, Population, Railways, Steamers, and other matters which are liable to change at different places.

PASSPORTS-CUSTOM HOUSE-MONEY-POSTING. PASSPORTS are not absolutely required by British subjects either for Belgium or Holland, but are quite indispensable for some of the large towns in Germany, but whether required or not, it is always useful for the traveller to have one to shew when called upon. The police take lists of persons staying at the Hotels and Cafés. A Passport may be obtained through our Agents, W. J. Adams and Sons, 59, Fleet Street. For Germany it is necessary to have the visa of the German Consul.

ROUTES.---London to Brussels, Cologne, and the Rhine, viâ the South Eastern or the London, Chatham, and Dover Railways; see Routes 1, 2 and 18. London to Rotterdam or Antwerp, viâ the Great Eastern Railway to Harwich. To Holland and the Rhine, viâ London, Chatham, and Dover Railway to Queenborough, and steamer to Flushing. London to Ostend or Antwerp by steamer direct. From the North of England, viâ Grimsby or Hull to Antwerp, Holland, &c.; and from Newcastle or Leith to Rotterdam. See the summary in Bradshaw's Continental Guide, pages i and 3, and 400 and 419 for further information.

CUSTOM HOUSĖ.— Travellers proceeding through Belgium to the Rhine should have their luggage registered for Cologne, where it is examined.

MONEY.-Circular notes are given by most of the principal London Bankers, and form a very safe and convenient kind of Letters of Credit. The arrangements for cashing them in the various countries through which the traveller may have to pass are very simple and efficient, precluding almost the possibility of fraud. As a letter of indication is given with them, we would caution tourists to keep the one in their pocket-book and the other in their baggage. French, Italian, and even Swiss silver money was formerly current, as well as Belgian, but owing to the collapse of the arrangement between the Latin nations, it is better not to accept any large

A l--(Belgium.)

payment in other than Belgian silver. The bronze money is not important, and French 5 and 10 centimes will be found everywhere. At all the large towns English sovereigns will be readily exchanged, and should command the full equivalent of 25 fr. 20 cts., or thereabouts, according to the rate of exchange. The Belgian bank issues notes of the value of 1,000, 500, 100, 50, and 20 francs.

BELGIAN AND FRENCH MONEY.

SILVER COIN.
1 Franc = 100 centimes = 20 sous.......
* Franc 50 centiines
5 Francs

ENGLISH.
s. d.
0 91
0 5
4 0

GOLD COIN,

Leopold d'or, or Twenty Franc Piece

16 0 Posting is now nearly obsolete, but a post is equivalent to five English, or about one German, mile, or to two Belgian or French leagues. The charge per post, for each horse, is 1 fr. 30 cts., and for each postilion that distance, 15 sous. A berlin or landau will take three or four horses ; a chariot, three; britzka, though carrying the same number of persons, two.

HIRED CARRIAGES-BARRIERS-ROADS. HIRED CARRIAGES.—A voiture, with two horses, can be engaged for about 30 fr. per day, including 5 fr. to the driver. 25 fr. a day, back fare, must be paid (making in all 60 fr, for carriage and horses).

BARRIERS.—There is a toll-gate each league, at which four-wheeled carriages are charged 10 cents., and each horse 20 cents., the return included.

ROADS.-In general the Belgian roads are paved, thus rendering travelling over them very fatiguing, especially to ladies.

CONVEYANCES.-One-horse cabs, called Monopoles, can be hired in Brussels as follows:-Between 6 a.m and 11 p.m.: For the course (anywhere within the town) 1 fr. for the first half-hour; every quarter of an hour after, 50 c. Per hour for twohorse Fiacres, the charge is 2 fr. first half-hour, every quarter of an hour after, 50 c.

Drive on the Boulevards and to the Bois, one-horse cab, 2 fr. per hour; twohorse cab, 3 fr.

BELGIAN HOTELS—BUFFETS—CARRIAGES, &c. HOTELS.—The following are the average charges :—From 15 to 2 fr. for bed ; table d'hôte, 2 to 3 fr.; dinner in a separate apartment, by one's self, 5 fr., supper at table d'hóte, 1 fr. 50 cents. to 2 fr.; a bottle of Bordeaux (claret), 3 fr.; breakfast with eggs and meat, 1 fr. 50 cents.; coffee, tea, and bread and butter, 1 to 1} fr.; servants, 50 cents. to 1 fr. each.

more.

TARIFF OF REFRESHMENTS AT THE BELGIAN RAILWAY STATIONS OR BUFFETS

AT THE LARGE Towns.

......

id.

Schiedam .......

id.

fr.cts.

fr.cts. Bouillon et pain avec beurre

050 Vin de Château-Margaux.........la bouteille 5 0 Bifteck aux pommes de terre, avec pain 1 20

Id. de Volnay

id. 5 0 Roastbeef aux pommes de terre, avec pain. 1 0 Id. de Pomard.

id.

0 Filet de boeuf rôti..... 1 20 Id. de Nuits

id. 3 0 Deux côtelettes de mouton ..................... 1 20 Id. de Châblis

id. 4 0 Veau chaud ou côtelettes avec pommes

Id. de Moselle

id. 3 50 1 0 de terre ..................

Id. de Grave, prem. qualité......

id. 3 50 Portion de poulet chaud... 1 20 Id. id. seconde id.

id. 3 0 Veau froid avec un petit pain 0 50 Id. de Tours ...

id. 2 50 Jambon id. id. 0 50 Id. de Rhin, prem. qualité

id.

4 0 Boeuf salé id. 0 50 Id. id. seconde id.

id. 3 50 Langue fumée id. id.

0 50 Champagne mousseux, la bouteille de 6fr. à 10fr, Poulet froid, la portion id.

1 20

LIQUEURS.
Fromage

id.
0 20

..le verre

0 15 Id. Anglais id.

0 30
Amer de Hollande

id. 0 10 Un petit pain beurré 0 15 Eau-de-Vie

id. 0 10
Id.
sans beurre

0 10
Cognac, Rhum, Kirsch

0 30 Id. avec beurre et fromage 0 30

Liqueurs fines de toute espèce

id. 0 30 Déjeuner (café ou thé, pain et beurre) 1 0 Marasquin

id. 0 40 Café la demi-tasse 0 30 Punch à l'eau chaude

id. 0 30 VINS.

RAFRAÎCHISSEMENTS.
Vin de Bordeaux ordinaire ......la bouteille 2 50

Sirop de fruits ou punch ............ le verre 0 35
Id.
id. ......laid. 1 50
Limonade ou orgeat

id. 0 35 Id. de St. Julien ....................la bouteille 3 50 Grog ou orgeat ........

id. 0 35 Id. id. .....................la i id. 1 75 Eau sucrée et fleur d'oranger

id. 025 Id. de St. Emilion ..................la bouteille 3 50 Id. de St. Estèphe

Cigares et tabacs....

0 25 id. 3 50 Chambre avec lit

buffet 2 0 Id. de Cabarus, long bouchon, première,

3 50
Service..........

d'Ostende 0 75 qualité ..........................la bouteilles

Au Au Madère ........................................le verre 0 60

BIÈRES.

Rest. Buffet. Malaga

id. 0 60 Une bouteille de Faro on de Diest 0 60 0 40 Muscat id. 0 60

0 20 0 15 Frontignan ou Lunel................... id. 0 60 Une bouteille ou cruchon lambic.. 0 70 0 50 Porto

id. 0 70 Une bouteille de Louvain ............ 0 40 0 30 Sherry (Xérès) ......................... id. 0 70

Le verre ........

0 15 0 12 Vin de Cabarus, long bouchon, seconde

Une bouteille de Bière de Bavière 0 70 0 50

3 0 qualité ........la bouteilles Bière de la localité, le verre........

0 15 0 12

Le verre ..........

NOTE. The prices quoted in the above table must not always be depended upon, the charges sometimes varying at the different stations.

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CARRIAGES.—Carriages of 2 wheels are charged 8 fr. from Quiévrain to Mons, and 32 fr. to Brussels, those of 4 wheels, 12 fr. from Quiévrain to Mons, and 48 fr. to Brussels; and of 2 wheels, 44 fr. from Mouscron to Brussels.

Dogs.--Dogs are charged at the rate of third class fare.

PRIVATE CARRIAGES.—Persons travelling in private carriages pay third class fare in addition to the charge for the carriage.

GENERAL VIEW OF BELGIUM. Belgium (La Belgique) is a modern name taken from the ancient Belgæ in Gallid Belgica, a tribe conquered by Cæsar, B.C. 51, some of whom emigrated to Britain. As part of the Netherlands, it came, in A.D. 877, under the Dukes of Burgundy, the last of whom was Charles the Bold, who reigned 1467–77. In 1477 the Netherlands were transferred to Maximilian, Emperor of Germany. His son, the Emperor Charles V., was born at Ghent. From 1598 they came under Spain, till 1714, when they reverted to Austria; and continued to be governed by the Archdukes of the Empire down to 1795, when they were conquered by the French. Between 1794 and 1815, Belgium made nine departments of France. With Holland, it formed the kingdom of the Netherlands from 1815 down to 1830; since which it has ranked as a separate and independent kingdom. In the August of 1830 the Belgian provinces revolted, and threw off the yoke of Holland. On the 4th of October following, the independence of the kingdom was proclaimed by the provisional government, and recognised in the month of December by the allied powers of Europe.

The National Congress assembled at Brussels in 1831, and offered the throne of the new kingdom to the Duke of Nemours, which, on the son's behalf, was refused by his father, the late Louis Philippe, then King of the French. The next choice of the National Representatives fell upon Prince Leopold of Saxe Coburg, widower of the Princess Charlotte of England, and uncle to Queen Victoria; who, as Leopold I., ascended the throne, and took the oaths prescribed by the constitution, on the 22nd July, 1831, in the presence of the assembled representatives of the nation. His son, the reigning king, Leopold II., born 9th April, 1835, ascended 10th December, 1865. He married the Archduchess Maria, 22nd August, 1853 (his Silver Wedding was celebrated 1878), and has two daughters. A son died 1869. The king's brother, the Count of Flanders, is present heir-apparent. He married, 1867, the Princess Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. The 50th anniversary of the separation from Holland was celebrated 1880.

The Belgian territory is small when compared with other European kingdoms, it being no more than one-eighth of the size of Great Britain, with a population of 5,655,197; yet the important position which it has occupied in the political, military, commercial, and agricultural history of Europe, its former celebrity in manufactures and the fine arts, and its present rapid progress in every industrial pursuit and social improvement, invest it with a peculiar interest for the historian, the traveller, and the student.

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