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many of the jewels and enamels had disappeared, The Church of St. Peter. Rubens, who was together with their valuable crowns; they were baptised in this church, in the brazen font still replaced by metal neatly wrought and gilt, partly existing there, painted for it its celebrated altarby antiques, precious stones, enamels, and other piece-the Crucifixion of the Apostle, with his head ornaments, given by the people of Cologne, and the downwards. This painting is reckoned as one of shrine, without the value, has much of its original his masterpieces. The picture generally exposed appearance. The front of the shrine has inscribed

is merely a copy, but a fee of 1 mark 50 pf. for a on its surface the following inscription :

party, will induce the sacristan to reverse it, and at "Corpora sanctorum recubant hic terna Majorum the back is displayed the original. Ex his sublatum nihil est, alibiive locatum.

The Church of St. Ursula, famous for the legend This reliquary, a very highly ornamental piece

of the 11,000 Virgins, was erected partly in of Romanesque work, probably dates from the end

the twelfth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. of the 12th century.

The singularity of its architecture is well worth On Sundays and holidays the Shrine is open to attention, and the entire church is nearly filled the public; but Visitors desiring a close examina- with bones. On the right hand near the entrance tion of it had better take a ticket of the sacristan, is the golden chamber, in which St. Ursula and a to admit self and friends. Tickets for the Cathe- few of her favoured associates lie in repose in dral, lm. each. Choir and Treasury, lm. 50pf., coffins behind the altar. The bones are encased in or 2m. 50pf. to see everything and ascend the silver; and among the relics pointed out in this galleries. Between the high altar and the shrine chamber, is one of the stone vessels used at the of the Three Kings, under a slab in the flooring, marriage feast in Cana. Fee for admission, 1$ is buried the heart of Mary of Medicis; and before mark for 1 to 3 persons. The relics in this church the chapel the tombstones and epitaphs of the are hideous, bones everywhere meet the eye, and Archbishops of Cologne may be seen on the marble are disposed in ghastly array in glass cases. walls, the most remarkable of which are those of The history of this monkish legend is painted in Philip of Heinberg, surrounded by a mural the choir, and represents the saint as the daughter parapet, and of Conrad of Hochstaden in bronze. of an English king, who, on her return from Rome,

Particularly worthy of notice, is the celebrated was murdered at Cologne, together with her 11,000 Dombild, a beautiful old picture of 1410, representing companions. the patrons of the city, and the Three Kings ador

The Church of St. Maria im Capitol, is, with ing the Divine Babe in the centre; with St. Ursula

the exception of St. Cecilia, the oldest in Cologne. and her companions, the 11,000 Virgins, St. Gereon Plectrudis, the consort of Pepin, of Heristal, who and his Theban legion on the sides. This paint- / separated from her husband, founded this estabing was removed from the Hôtel de Ville in 1816, lishment, and built the original church. Her and placed in its present position in the Chapel of stone statue is behind the choir, in

street; St. Agnes, on the right of the Magi. The artist but her tomb is in the church before the choir, is not known, but he is surmised to have been

and has a long Latin inscription. Over against Master Stephan, a pupil of William of Cologne.

this tomb is that of St. Ida, who'was a relation of The Sacristy contains some interesting antiqui- Plectrudis, and the first abbess of the establishties, and splendid specimens of art and workman- ment. The present church, of peculiar shape, ship, in the shape of church plate, shrines, a sword dates from 1050. The upper part of the choir, of justice used at the coronation of the emperors, with the round arched colonnades, is of the twelfth carvings in ivory, an archiepiscopal cross 7 feet century; the principal vault of the nave was high, and several other objects of interest.

built later, having been damaged considerably by The visitor will be well repaid by ascending the the Normans. Several paintings were removed to gallery of the triforium to see the stained glass, this church from that of St. Martin, of which and should also go out on the roof, from which that by Augustin Braun, an excellent painter of he will have a magnificent prospect.

Cologne, and contemporary of Rubens, is highls deserving of being noticed. This church also. The Church of St. Maria Ascension, sometime the possesses a large and excellent organ by the elder church of the Jesuits, though built in a mixed style, Kønig, the celebrated artist of Cologne, who also half ancient German, and half modern, has many built the organ of Nimwegen.

ornaments in the inside, especially a splendid com. The Church of Sta. Maria is a handsome specimen munion pew, with arabesques and bas-reliefs of of transition romance style, with painted windows white marble. There are some paintings by Schuett of the 16th century. On the west portal is a mark on the high altar. The walls of the choirare adorned showing the height of the inundation of 1784. with landscapes. The marble flooring, the pulpit, Statue of the Virgin, 15th century.

and the organ are handsome. Contiguous to the St. Martin's Church, or Gross St. Martin, is a large

church stands the late College of the Jesuits, in building of the 12th century, with a tower of 270ft. which there were a valuable library and rich The Church of St. Gereon, a remarkable edifice, was

cabinets of artificial curiosities. The French built by Archbishop Anno, in 1066, on the ruins of

carried off the most valuable articles; among that built by St. Helena, of which there are

others, a volume of letters, in Leibnitz's own remains. Later, a boldly-executed cupola with handwriting, to the Jesuit Brosses ; the most three galleries was added, and it is one of the best

valuable minerals; about 1,400 pieces of Greek and most conspicuous churches in Cologne. St.

and Roman coins; a pretty complete collection of Gereon lies buried here, along with his 318

silver and copper coins of the middle ages; a warriors. The skulls of these martyrs are ex

number of antique bowls, vases, urns, images, hibited in the church. In the crypt, or vault, | &c.; an invaluable collection of more than 6,000 there are two chapels, on whose floor is an ancient original drawings of the most celebrated artists of mosaic pavement. The altars at the entrance of the

all schools; and a similar collection of ancient church are adorned with two good paintings by engravings. There exists a printed catalogue of Schuett and Geldorf, artists of Cologne. It should

the latter collection which was sent to Paris, and be visited before 9 a.m., 1 mark for 1 or 2 persons,

returned in a very defective state. afterwards 50 pf. each.

There are some of the other churches and The Church of St. Cunibert, near the Rhine, is chapels (not mentioned here) that may have been spacious, and beautiful, and has a fine perspective. built at the time when the Christian religion was The altar is constructed after the pattern of that

introduced on the banks of the Rhine, and furnish of St. Peter's at Rome. The gate has a fine frame fine materials for a history of ancient German in the last style of the 12th century. The Tumba

architecture. Others there are that are remarkable of St. Cunibert, which was once so remarkable, in other respects. In the Church of St. Pantaleon was scandalously mutilated during the French (13th century) there is the tomb of the Empress occupation. In 1830 the steeple fell down. It has Theophania, the consort of Emperor Otho II. They since been rebuilt. The fine glass paintings in the also preserve in this church the uncorrupted body choir are well worth seeing. The Church of The of the martyr, Albinus. The body of the famous Apostles, near the new market, is likewise a Duns Scotus, who died at Cologne, in 1308, whose beautiful old German building of the 13th century. manuscripts, in 14 folio volumes, were in the An Ascension of the Holy Virgin by Hulsmann, and possession of the Minorites, is buried in the church the martyrdom of St. Catharina by Pottgiesser,

of that name behind the Museum. The churches deserve to be noticed; in connection with this of St. Severin and St. George are very old, but church is told a very interesting story, dating defaced by many coloured paintings. Both have from 1357, the time of the plague, about Lady recently been restored. The former consecrated in Richmodis, wife of Mengis von Adocht, of the 1067, contains a very ancient wooden Romanesque family of the Lyskirschen, who was buried alive Cross; and, connected with the latter, is a tower of here, and by a peculiar accident saved herself enormous thickness, which an Archbishop placed from her coffin, and afterwards lived many years right in front of the upper and older town gate, to with her consort very happily.

keep in awe the citizens of Cologne, who were disaffected to him. St. Cæcilia, a very old church, | Darmstadt for a pattern). It was finished in 1872. was restored “in full ancient splendour" by The company act at Cologne only in winter; in Archbishop Wichfried. A portion of this was left summer, alternately at Bonn and Coblenz. after a second restoration. There is a picce of

The Palace of Justice the foundation of which remarkable old Romanesque Sculpture over the

was laid in 1824. The town has built it at its Northern Portal.

own expense. It contains the court of appeal, the The remains of the famous Albertus Magnus were court of province, and the board of trade. The deposited in the church of the Dominicans, which Government Buildings lie not far from it. The has been pulled down since. Spacious barracks Archiepiscopal Palace stands in the Gereonsstrasse, for the artillery now occupy the ground on which and in front of it is the Mariensäule, a fine monuit stood.

ment to commemorate the promulgation of the All the religious corporations in Cologne were

dogma of the Immaculate Conception. secularised by the first revolutionary French govern

The site of the old Exchange is occupied by a ment; many parish churches went to decay; others

Statue of the late King Frederick William III., were joined to finer churches, formerly belonging

with 16 life-size figures of statesmen and soldiers to cloisters or other pious foundations ; some also

in the base; the whole 48 feet high, were turned into manufactories and magazines, or demolished. The handsome, though plain church Strangers may further notice the Work and of the Antonites, was given to the Lutheran and Charity-house, in the later cloister of the Minorireformed congregations.

ties; the Military Hospital, in the cloister of Town Hall, or Rathhaus.-It has a fine marble

the Carthusians, for 300 patients, in twentyportal, or double arcade, one placed over the other;

four roomy saloons; the Hospital for Citizens, in the upper one being in the Italian-Roman, and the

the cloister of Cæcilia and Michael, in which 800

poor persons, belonging to the town, are admitted lower one in the Corinthian style. Handsome bas

and taken care of, amongst whom are a certain reliefs adorn the interstices. The other parts of

number of incurable lunaties (such as are prothe buildings are less deserving of praise. From the steeple, the shape of which is rather singular, nounced curable are sent to Siegburg). This you have a charming view of the town and its

establishment can be visited at any time in the

afternoon. environs. One pair of stairs high, on your right

The guide expects Trinkgeld, and

some contribution must be made to the poor-box. hand, you enter the spacious hall of the once

The institution is exceedingly well-arranged, and powerful Hansa, with ancient German stone

worth inspection. The Orphan House in the figures. The hall is 90ft. long by 25ft. broad, and

Waisenhausgasse (Orphan Houses Street, No. 38, 32ft. high, and is beautifully decorated with

at the end of the Blaubach), for 200 orphans armorial bearings of the nobility, and arms of the

and foundlings, who are brought up and educated various guilds.

here from 6 to 16 or 17 years of age. A work school The Emperor Maximilian gave several enter

has also been established here. The House of tainments in this hall which of late years bas

Correction (near the New Market, commonly served for a ball-room at the conclusion of the

called in der Blechen Buets) can, in 80 small and splendid carnival. On the ground floor there larger apartments, receive 320 prisoners. The is a spacious hall called the Muschel (shell), Barracks, in the cloisters of the Dominicans and with fine Gobelins tapestry, in which many | Observants, in the Weidenbach and the Abbey of landscapes by Wouvermann are ingeniously St. Pantaleon. In the Sternengasse is the introduced. The whole produces a striking effect. so-called Rubens House, in which Catherine de

Statues of Bismarck and Moltke; the former Médicis died, 1612. It is a mistake to suppose in Augustiner Platz, the latter in Laurent Platz. that Rubens was born here. That event took

The Theatre.—The inner arrangement is taste- place at Siegen, 29th June, 1577. No. 23 is the ful (having the playhouse of the Grand Duke of house of Jabach, a great lover of the arts and a

88

BRADSHAW'S HAND-BOOK TO BELGIUM AND THE RAINE. [Route 18. collector.-Le Brun painted him and his family Deutz (Station), across the river, connected in a large picture.

with the city by a viaduct 1,352 ft. long, begun 1855, The Gürzenich, in the Martinsstrasse, a fine

completed 1862, deserves notice.

The Emperor building erected 1441-52 for civic festivities. The

Constantine built a castle here in the fourth cenlower portion has been used since 1875 as an

tury, which is described in ancient documents Exchange. The Börse is held from 12 to 1 p.m.

under the name of Monumentum Dutienza Deutz The handsome Banqueting and other Halls, lately

and Cologne were at that time connected by a renovated, deserve a visit. Entrance, 50 pf. This

bridge, which was demolished by the Archbishop s the finest building in Cologne except the Dom.

Bruno in the tenth century, along with the castle. First class concerts are given here in winter,

The works around Deutz were, at a later period, under the direction of Dr. Ferd. Hiller. Seats

rebuilt several times, and for the last time de41 to 2 marks. The former are to be preferred.

molished by the Austrians in 1673. Since Deutz Museums. The Archiepiscopal Diocesan Museum,

came into the possession of Prussia, it has been in the Cathedral Place, (open 9 to 12 and 3 to 6,

strongly fortified. There are four large work50 pf.) contains chiefly, objects of mediæval

shops of the artillery, that are worth the notice of ecclesiastical art. A few minutes walk from the

military men, but admission is not easily granted.

The old Benedictine abbey lies on the Rhine, principal portal of the Cathedral, in a south-west

and has a charming aspect. It was founded in 1001, direction, is the Wallraf-Richartz Museum ; a fine Gothic building, erected from funds presented by

by the elector Heribert, a count of Rothenburg.

The little town prospered by carrying on a a merchant, J. H. Richartz, about 1850, to contain the collection of Prof. Richartz. One of the

smuggling trade to the left bank of the Rhine, principal features is a remarkable set of paintings Palatine chateau, lies 3 leagues from Deutz.

under the French dominion. Bensberg, the former

t of the early Cologne School, which should be seen

has beautiful allegorical and mythological platby all interested in the historical study of art. There are also works of the early Saxon, Swabian, forms, painted by eminent masters; the views

from the window and the cupola are particularly and Franconian Schools, and frescoes showing the

charming, and the horizon extends to 18 to 20 development of art in Cologne. Open 9 to 6,75 pf.;

German miles. Wednesday and Sunday gratis. General cata

A trip from Cologne to the Cistercian abbey of logue, 1 mark; Pictures, 50 pf.; Antiquities, 75 pf. Altenberg will be found interesting. It is 24

The House of the Templars, No. 8, Rheingasse, leagues distant from it, in the direction beyond is used as a Baptist chapel. The Casino is close to

Mueheldeim in a beautiful solitary valley, on the the Theatre, and has ball and reading rooms

banks of the Duehn, a considerable mountain attached to it.

torrent. A pleasant excursion may also be made Zoological Gardens, at the North end of the town,

from Cologne to Bruehl. Concerts, Sunday, Wednesday, and Saturday

Express trains from Cologne to Paris, morning afternoons, 1 mark, Sundays, 50 pf. Fine collec

and night, in 11 hours. Railway to Düsseldorf, tion of animals.

Hamm, Minden, and Berlin; to Paderborn, Cassel, Botanical Gardens (close by), with Aquarium, &c.; to Marburg, Giessen, and Frankfort; to Bonn, (50 pf. extra); same admission as the Zoological Coblenz, and Mayence; to Paris, Aix-la-Chapelle, Gardens. Frequent concerts. Fine view of

and Belgium. For information respecting the Cologne and environs.

Rhine Steamers see advertisements in Bradshaw's The Stādtische Garten, on the west side, is Continental Guide. The description of the journey a favourite promenade.

from Cologne up theRhinc is continued in Route 21.

SECTION

11.

THE RHINE.

THE RHINE RIVER.

There are rivers whose course is longer, and whose volume of water is greater, but none around which are grouped such associations of romance and historical interest, joined to the advantages of natural beauty as the Rhine (ancient, Rhenus). As it flows down from the distant ridges of the Alps, through fertile regions into the open sea, so it comes down from remote antiquity, associated in every age with momentous events, in the history of the neighbouring nations. It is formed in the Swiss Canton of Grisons, by the junction, at Reichenau, of two streams called the Hinter and Vorder Rhein; the former having its source in the Rheinwald glacier, the latter rising on the north side of Mont St. Gothard. After passing Mayenfeld the river enters Lake Constance (also called the Boden-see) at Rheineck. It again leaves the lake at Stein, which stands at its western extremity. It then flows past Schaffhausen, where it produces the celebrated cataract called the Falls of Schaffhausen. After passing Basle, where the Upper Rhine terminates, it flows past Breisach, Strassburg, Speyer, Mannheim, Worms, Mayence, Coblentz, Bonn, Cologne, Düsseldorf, Wesel, and Emmerich, where it enters the Netherlands, and reaches the North Sea by several mouths--the Waal to Rotterdam; the Yssel, to the Zuyder Zee; the Old Rhine, to Leyden. In its course it passes through the following territories, viz.:-Switzerland, Baden, Bavaria, HesseDarmstadt, Prussia, and Holland. Its principal affluents on the right bank are the Kinzig, the Neckar, the Main, the Lahn, the Ruhr, and the Lippe; and on the left the Thur, the Aare, the Ill, and the Moselle. From the source to the mouth, allowing for windings, the distance is 600 miles; the direct distance is about 360 miles. Vessels of from 300 to 450 tons go up the river to Cologne; those of 125 to 200 to Mayence; and those of 100 to 125 as far as Strassburg. It is navigable by steamers from Rotterdam to Basle, but at present steamers only run as far as Mannheim. The beauties of the river lie between Remagen (a little beyond Bonn) and Bingen, on this side of Mayence. The finest part of the river is, without doubt, that between Coblentz and Bingen. It was frozen over at Mayence and at the Ruhr, 1879.

Passports are still occasionally demanded in Prussia, Bavaria, and other parts of Germany, especially in Berlin and Frankfort; and the visa is again necessary, for all parts. The passport is likewise of use in cases of identification, and perhaps, sometimes, for admission into public buildings, and the traveller is advised never to be without one. A Foreign Office passport is always desirable, and may be obtained at a trifling cost. Innkeepers are bound to submit the names, professions, age, religion, and motives for travelling, &c., of all the visitors who may arrive at or depart from their hotels. And the better to ensure attention to this rule, a strangers' book, called "das Fremden-Buch," is kept at each hotel, in which the traveller is requested to enter all the necessary particulars.

Money.-1 German mark (or 100 pfennige) = ls. = 11 franc = 60 Dutch cents. = 24 American cents. A Thaler = 2s. 11d.; Dutch or Austrian Florin = ls. 8d.

Wines.- The best wines of the Rheingau are those called Johannisberger, Steinberger, Rüdesheimer, Assmannshauser, Marcobrunner, Gräfenberger, Hochheimer, Geisenheimer, Hattenheimer, Rauenthaler, Winkel, and Bodenthaler; those of Rhenish Bavaria are Ruppertsberger, Deidesheimer, Forst, and Königsbacher. Those of Rhenish Prussia include Engehöller and Steeg; those of Rhenish

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