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The line passes a cutting between the Meuse and dral of Cologne, &c. J. J. Niessen, 4, Domhof, the Rhine, terminating a little way short of Book and Map Seller. BRADSHAW's Guides and
Buir (Station), from which it proceeds by a Hand-Books on sale. high embankment, over the lowlands of the valley of RESIDENT ENGLISH and AMERICAN CONSULS. the Erft, crossing that river by three bridges before ENGLISH CHURCH, 3, Bischofsgartenstrasse. reaching
Droschkies, or cabs. From the station to any Horrem (Station), which is near the fine old place in the town; one person, 60 pf., two persons, Castle of Fronz. Passing from the Erft into the 75 pf., three persons, 1 mark. Cologne to Deutz, Valley of the Rhine, through Königsdorf tunnel, including toll, one or two persons, 1 mark 75 pf. a mile long, carried through a hill of sand i 36
For a half hour's drive, with one or two persons, feet below the summit, we arrive at Königsdorf; 1 mark; with three or four, 1 mark 50 pf. From from here we proceed to
10-0 p.m. to 7-0 a.m. double fare. Omnibus from
Station, Müngersdorf, crossing the road from Cologne to Jülich. Here a very fine view can be had of
Cologne is a fortified town, situated on the left
bank of the Rhine, and having the populous Cologne, with its myriad towers and steeples. COLOGNE (Station)-German, Köln; Dutch,
suburb of Deutz (Hotel de Belle Vue) on the
rightsbank. A bridge of boats, 400 ft. long, connects Keulen. Population, 161,260. Hotels :
the town and suburbs. The new railway bridge Hotel du Nord.—Excellent hotel, near the Central Station, the Cathedral, the Rhine, &c.
across the Rhine is a very fine structure. There
is a way for foot passengers. Several new streets Hotel Disch, in Bridge Street; centrally situated, and frequented by English families and single and squares of handsome houses have been built, gentlemen, who experience equal attention and
and other improvements made.
This remarkable city owes its origin to the civility.
Hotel de Hollande, a first-rate establishment, camp that Marcus Agrippa pitched on the skirts of facing the quay.
the hill that now occupies the central portion of Hotel Ernst, first-class, five minutes' from the the modern town. That camp was afterwards the station.
considerably increased by the removal of the Ubii, Grand Hotel Victoria, situated in the Haymarket, about 38 B.C., from the east bank of the Rhine, close to the Rhine.
on which they had previously lived, to the right Hotel du Dome, first-class hotel on the Dome bank, on the spot where Cologne now stands. Square, opposite the Cathedral, two minutes' walk About 50 A.D., this original city, called Oppidum from the Central Station, a good hotel.
Ubiorum, was enlarged by a Roman colony of Hotel Drei Könige, opposite the landing place of veterans, sent hither by Agrippina, the wife of the Saloon Steamers.
Claudius and mother of Nero, who was born here Pfalzerhof, opposite the Dom-good second-class in the camp of her father, Germanicus. It was hotel.
called after the Emperor and her, Colonia Wienerhof; Hotel Weber; de l'Europe; Main- Claudia Augusta Agrippinensis, from which arises zerhof ; Kölnischerhof; Union, &c.
its modern appellation. Cafés, Restaurants: Heuser; Johnen; Berzdorf. Cologne is interesting in its historical remi
EAU DE COLOGNE.—Travellers are frequently niscences, as well as from its chequered destiny importuned by officious persons offering to direct traced on many a page of overflowing prosperity. or accompany them to this or that vendor of the At one time prostrate and at another flourishing, this celebrated perfume; there are upwards of thirty- town passed through epochs different in their charthree manufacturers of this article, nearly all of acter as they were disastrous or beneficial in their them having the legal right to use the namo of consequences. At this distant and remote period, Johann Maria Farina.
when cycles of centuries have rolled over smce F. C. Eyssen, 13, Domhof, Foreign Book, Print, the mail-clad Roman swayed his delegated impeand Map Seller; photographic views of the Cathe- rialism in this city, we can trace monudients of
his sovereignty in the fragmental atoms of broken In the middle ages, Cologne was a powerful walls dispersed throughout the city buildings, in and flourishing city, and one of the most important the antiquities of Roman origin dug up daily from
members of the Hanseatic League, and the embeneath its surface, as well as in the marked porium of the trade of Eastern Europe, being the
central medium from whence were transported outline, classical features, and aquiline noses of
the arts and products of the east to the west of the population, whose physiognomy indicates
Europe, and maintaining an incessant communitheir hereditary descent, and distinctly marks
cation with Italy. Nor is it at all improbable them as of a different race from their German
that the southern school of painting received neighbours. The distinctive mark of their Roman
many of its perfections and improvements at the origiu has not seemed otherwise than as a boast
hands of northern artists; at all events, it is certain and an honour to the people of this city, who, in that we can trace an intimate connection between the enthusiasm of their pride, designated them- the Rhenish and Italian schools; whilst the selves Patricians. The consular toga adorned their southern style of architecture is seen in many of chief magistrates, who, like the Roman consals the oldest churches. And to-day, when, after the and triumvirs, were preceded by lictors, and had lapse of so many centuries, we should expect to inscribed on their banners “S.P.Q.C." The anti
see all traditional observances of mediæval custom quarian disposed to rigidly scan the outline and departed, we behold, in Cologne, the celebration extent of the ancient city, will trace it through of the Carnival after the same style, and with as the Bargmauer, by the Zeughaus, by the Römer or
much spirit, as in Rome-an inheritance and a
legacy bequeathed by the early connection of the Klarenthurm, erected on the Roman walls by the
inhabitants with Italy. Very many associations of Franks, thence to the Lach, where appears another Roman tower, and to the Marsilstein; and thence object of deep interest to English travellers, not
bygone years, and their events, render Cologne an again eastward to the church of St. Maria-im
the least of which is that it was some time the Capitol, on the site of the capitol, and thence by residence of Caxton, and the place where he the Rathhaus, the site of the Roman Prætorium, learned the art of printing, which he introduced to the cathedral; the foundations of the Roman into England a short time afterwards, and thereby walls, found here and there, having clearly marked laid the foundation of that mighty power which out the limits of the Colonia Agrippinensis.
has contributed so much to her greatness and It was at Cologne that Vitellius and Sylvanus, prosperity. the latter of whom was assassinated here in the In 1259 Cologne obtained for itself the “Stapelcapitol, had themselves proclaimed emperors; and,
recht" (staple laws), whereby all goods arriving at at a later period, in 500, Clovis was proclaimed this port were transferred to Cologne vessels, and
made to pay a high rate of duty for further transit. King of the Franks. The Emperor Constantine built a bridge over
The dignity and importance of this city had by
this time become acknowledged over all Europe; the Rhine; the ruins of which, after its destruc
and it was called the “heilige Stadt," or holy city. tion by the Normans, were used by Archbishop
Its merchants were highly privileged in England Bruno in the 10th century for building the old
by Henry VI., who allowed them the sole occupaChurch of St. Pantaleon, of which only the under
tion of the Guild Hall. It numbered within its portion of the tower remains in the later erection.
walls 365 churches, and could send into the field The see was raised to an Archbishopric by Charle- 80,000 fighting men. But the hour of desolation was magne, and the Ecclesiastics soon claimed and
at hand—the day of its decline was approaching. obtained enormous political power and privileges, Commerce departed from its port, and sought a which they retained amid continual sanguinary new road across the European Continent, whilst conflicts with the citizens, until 1288, when the Cologne itself bent in craven subserviency and battle of Worringen finally established the supre- monial subjection to the blighting despotism and macy of the civil power. The Archbishops removed withering tyranny of ecclesiastical bigotry, which to Brühl, but they long continued to exercise very on three consecutive occasions trampled out its tyrannical authority in the city as will be seen in prosperity, annihilated its commercial and social the next paragraphs,
independence, and finally completed downfall. The first edict issued by the persecuting church- Its objects of attraction are numerous, and lie men within its sanctuary was against the Jews, wide apart, but the tourist will find his visits who were hunted like wild beasts, and expelled much facilitated by making them in the following without mercy. The second act of intolerance
order : and persecution was the banishment of the weavers;
The Cathedral (Domkirche) is one of the purest and the third the exiling of the Protestants in
monuments of Gothic architecture in Europe. 1608. In the case of the weavers, 1,700 looms were
The edifice was begun 814, but most of it was burned, and theowners emigrated to Verviers, Elber
burnt 1248. The name of the architect who defeld, and Aix-la-Chapelle, whither they transferred signed the plan is lost. The first builder was Master their industry from an ungrateful city, and where Gerhard, who was still living about 1252, but of they established the celebrated cloth manufactories, whom nothing further is known. The building was still flourishing and enriching these towns. The projected by the Archbishop Engelbert Von Berg. expelled Protestants settled at Mülheim, Düsseldorf, and commenced by his successor, Conrad Von Elberfeld, Crefeld, Solingen, and other places, Hochstaden, in 1248. The edifice is but a fragment where, as exiles and victims of persecuting bigotry, of the proportions designed, which, if carried out, they raised establishments and promoted the arts would have made it the St. Peter of Gothic archi. of peace and industry-so true is it that persecu- tecture. It is cross-shaped, on the plan of that at tion fails to effect its purpose, whilst it ever gives Amiens, viz., a nave with double aisles of 5 bays; new strength and energy to the emancipated and an apse of 7 bays with 7 chapels, each of 5 victims of its cruelties. In this period the church, apses. It is supported by flying buttresses; these, or rather ecclesiastical body, reigned paramount, with the south transept, west door, and clustered until the French Revolution destroyed its sinister spires, deserve especial notice. The whole length influence, and laughed at its censures; whilst its of the building is 496 feet. The Nave and aisles well-filled coffers were being emptied, its ill- are 144 feet wide; the nave is 160 feet high and gotten revenues seized upon, its churches and the aisles are 80 feet high; the arches are supported convents plunderod, secularised, and converted into by four rows of 64 columns, which, together with stables and warehouses, and the city itself was the half columns and the pillars of the porticoes, even finally incorporated with France, October amount to 100. The four central ones measure 17th, 1797. In 1815 it passed under Prussian rule. about 30 feet in circumference; each terminates in
a capital, ornamented in a peculiar manner. The The closing of the navigation of the Rhine by
south transept is 240 feet wide by 130 feet high. the Dutch, in the sixteenth century, was a great blow to the prosperity of Cologne. The removal Height to the ridge of the roof about 200 feet. of this impediment, in 1837, greatly tended to The two west Towers or steeples are each 515 give a new stimulus to commercial enterprise and feet high; one stands on the north side, and the industrial development. Vessels now throng her other, at present used as a belfry, has the large harbour, along which new quays and bonding Fire bell, weighing 25,000 lbs., and the Emperor's warehouses have been érected, a foreign communi- bell, weighing 56,000 lbs.
The central Tower is cation by sea is carried on and extending, whilst 350 feet high. the daily increasing prosperity of the city is being The Kaiserglocke (Emperor's bell) was solemnly added to, and strengthened by, the railway commu- inaugurated, July, 1887. It was made from 22 nication with Paris, Antwerp, and Berlin, the lines guns taken from the French, with the addition of from which converge at this point; and, with the 5,000 kilos. of tin. On one side is a figure of St. immense Rhenish trade passing through, Cologne Peter, with some verses, on the other the German bids fair some day to rival the Cologne of the Arms, with the sestet:twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth cen
Die Kaiserglocke heiss' ich,
Des Kaisers Ehre preis' ich. turies, and again have her empty warehouses and
Auf heil'ger Warte steh' ich, stores filled with the results of industry, whilst her
Dem deutschen Reich erfleh' ich,
Dass Fried und Wehr population increases in prosperity and happiness,
Ihm Gott bescheer!
The majestic Choir, of unusual height, together, art. The beautifully stained windows bave been with the surrounding chapels, constitutes one of refreshed and repaired, and the frescoes redecothe most striking portions of this immense edifice. rated by Steinli, an artist of the Düsseldorf school. Beautiful in the extreme are the graceful groups The colossal coloured and gilt statues of the Twelve of tall columns, like the trees of an ancient forest, Apostles standing against the columns are fine ending at the culminating points in a crown of specimens of the antique German statuary of the branches, and terminating in a pointed arch, almost fourteenth century, of which date also are the inaccessible to the eye that would trace them. superbly carved stalls and seats.
The two last Kings of Prussia expended in In the Chapel of the Three Kings behind the high the space of eighteen years a large sum on the altar is the monument of the Three Kings, or Magi, repair and preservation of the building rendered who came from the East to worship the Saviour, almost a ruin by long ages of neglect. The res- and present him with gifts. Melchior, who is toration was effected in a masterly style, the Drach- usually represented as an old man, and descended enfels stone of the exterior being replaced by a from Shem, gave gold. Balthazar, a man of middle species of volcanic origin, brought from Trèves age, descended from Japheth, gave incense. Casand Andernach. In 1842 the then king laid the par, a youth, descended from Ham, gave myrrh. foundation-stone of the new transept, and an This chapel was built by the Elector Maximilian association was established, with branches all Henry of Bavaria, and the bodies of the three through Europe, for the purpose of collecting sub- Oriental Kings, or Wise Men of the East, were scriptions for the completion of the edifice after presented to it by Frederick the First, also called the original design; a million dollars were collected Barbarossa, who carried them off from St. Eusfrom 1812 to 1851. The aisle, nave, and transept torgio, after he had taken and plundered Milan, were opened in September, 1848, the two latter giving them to Rainald, Archbishop of Cologue, portions being covered in by a temporary wooden who accompanied him, and had them conveyed to roofing; and in the autumn of 1852, the five that city in 1170. The coffer in which they repose, windows of stained glass, presented by the late which originally stood in this chapel, has been King of Bavaria, were placed in the south aisle of removed to the Treasury. It is composed of plate, the nave, and the one executed in 1508 in the gold and silver, exquisitely engraved, with an north aisle. The other windows, mostly donc at encircling of small arcades supported by pillars; Munich, were filled in; and the Cathedral being however, the rich treasures and exquisite decat length finished, at a total cost of two millions orations of this shrine were carried off and much sterling, was opened by the German Emperor, injured during the fury of the Frencb revolution, William I., on the 14th August, 1880.
at which period it was transferred for safety to The new Bell, (the Kaiserglocke, see page 83), Amsberg, in Westphalia, and several of the jewels 14 feet high, was cast out of French cannon taken sold, which were replaced by paste or glass counterin the war. Other bells have been added, with feits. a new Clock by Mannhardt.
The coffer has two partitions, the lower one The Presbytery, in the choir, and the high altar, of which has on either side a half-roofing, while are works of a modern date, and we think accord the upper one has a whole one. The lower but ill with the antique majesty and solemn and broader division contains the bones of grandeur of the rest. Among the columns at the the three kings whose heads appear ranged entrance there are two very fine marble statues, in front, between the half-roofing upon which representing the Virgin and St. Peter, exquisitely you see, in rubies, the names Caspar, Melsculptured in the Italian style. The two tombs, chior, Balthazar ; these skulls are adorned with in the choir, of the brothers Adolphus and Anthony costly crowns of gold, diamonds, and pearls, von Schauenberg (both of them Archbishops of of six pounds weight each, which present a Cologne), are fine statues of white marble, adorned ghastly contrast to the decayed and mouldering with elegantly arranged foliage, and deserving of fragments of humanity they encircle. In 1804, considerable attention, as rich specimens of high | when the shrine was brought back from Amsberg,