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Government, some of which may be denoted by the cruix, situated three leagues east of Mons. Near mythological devices on the monument.

Bracquegnies the railway, after repeatedly passing Karthaus (Station). Here the line crosses the Haine, crosses it for the last time. From this the Moselle, and the Saarbrück line, in the valley place onwards, the soil, less level, is diversified by of the Sarre,

several hills, between which lie narrow valleys. Löwenbrücken (Station). 1} mile from On the right and left of the road are numerous Trèves (Station), see Route 25.

coal works, established in carboniferous strata

connected with the basin of the east of Mons. ROUTE 14. Mons to Manage.

Bois-du-Luc (Station) the great coal works Mons (Station), as in Route 7.

of that name, consisting of five pits. The colThe railway starts from the Government Station,

lieries of La Paix, on the territory of the parish

of St. Vaast forms the sixth intermediate station. where it joins the line from Brussels to the frontier of France.

These coal pits present a most picturesque aspect,

situated in Nlmy (Station), near a small village containing graceful curve by a road, which disappears in

a woody hollow, penetrated in a a population of 2,000 souls. It is remarkable for

the shade. an earthenware manufactory, that at one time employed three hundred men, which number has La Louvière (Station), the last stop between fallen below fifty since the introduction of English Mons and Manage, is the principal station on the potteries. The ware made at Nimy is composed line. It is one of the most important coal districts of clay and silex, and is susceptible of receiving on the territory of St. Vaast, where the new quays the most graceful forms, and has the advantage, have been established along the branch of the canal from its cheapness, of being within the reach of from Charleroi to Brussels. At this station the all classes of purchasers. Nimy, through which Branch Rail towards L'Olive and Bascoup begins. the high road from Mons to Brussels passes, is Between La Louvière and L'Olive there are five much frequented during the fine season, and is stations, Housseau, Beaume, La Verrière, considered a pleasant residence.

St. Adolphe, and Mariemont. This branch Obourg (Station) is 14 league from Mons, at

traverses the centre of the richest coal region. the confluence of the Haine and Aubechuelle, sur

The tourist will do well to visit this vast workrounded by pasture land and meadows, from shop, which employs a numerous and intelligent which it derives its chief riches. It contains a population. The country besides offers more than population of 4,000 inhabitants. The line of wood one site worthy of attention. One view in parwhich bounds the horizon on the left, beyond ticular, of the most charming character, is to be Obourg, contains the old Castle of Rocult, one of

found at Marieront, where the magnificent the most remarkable in Belgium. It is built on a

residence of M. Warocque contrasts in its hill, sloped by a magnificent park, spreading from modern luxury with the highly picturesque grove to grove and lawn to lawn, with incom- ruins of the residence of the Archdukes of Austria. parable grace.

Leaving the station of La Louvière the main line Havre (Station), near Harre-Ville, which is

crosses the branches of the Charleroi canal, on a situated in the vicinity of Obourg, and possesses a

fixed and a swing bridge. Numerous industrial Gothic castle, built in 1603. It is seen to the right establishments continue to appear on both sides of of the railway, in the midst of a park. The wood

the railway, which passes through a well cultiof Havre and the castle of the Duke of Croy, are

vated country, with some orchards, whose aspect favourite country walks with the inhabitants of

relieves the monotony of the landscape. Finally, Mons.

on the high road from Nivelles to Mons, the railBracquegnies (Station). The place is a mere way enters the station at Manage, which it shares dependency of Strepy, a village of the canton of Re- in common with the government railway.

.

Manage (Station), a few years ago, was close minutes. Passing several picturesque villas and to an insignificant hamlet, forming a part of the chateaux we perceive, about 3 miles below Dinant, village of Leneffe. The place is now daily rising in the ruins of the Castle of Poilvache, taken and desimportance since the building of the Government troyed, by Bishop Jean de Heynsberg. and Namur and Liége railway stations there. Rail To the left, on the summit of a rock, half a mile to Braine-le-Comte. Charleroi, and Nivelles, towards before reaching Dinant, is seen the ruined castle of Brussels and Louvain, see page 49,

Bouvignes or Crèveccur. A thrilling tale of female ROUTE 15.

heroism is connected with the history of this

castle, and tradition does not fail to perpetuate Charleroi to Morialmé and Givet.

and hand it down to each succeeding generation. Between Charleroi and Marchienne-au-Pont,

The French, under the Duke de Nevers, besieged this railway turns off from the Brussels and Namur

this castle in 1554, and three beautiful women, line, and passes through a district rich in minerals,

with their husbands, took refuge in the tower of and having an extensive trade in iron, coke, Crevecøur, designing to aid the garrison by their and coal. It strikes the valleys of the Sambre

succour and presence. The besieged were all and Meuse a few miles above Givet, and likewise

slain save the three females. who, rather than at Charleroi and Mézières. Starting from the

submit to the brutality of their conquerors, threw government station at Charleroi, the train passes

themselves from the top of the battlements, and La Sambre, Montigny-le-Tilleul, Bomerée,

were dashed into atoms on the rocks beneath. Jamioulx, Ham-sur-Heure, and arrives at Berzée, where a branch railway leads by Thyle

Dinant (Station).--Hotels: Château to Laneffe. Another short branch to

Tête D'Or, good and reasonable; recommended, Thuillies.

good trout fishing.

Des Postes. Thence 2 miles to Walcourt, where there is again a branch to Yves, where one line runs off

Population, 6,485. It is situated in a romantic to Morialme, while others proceed to Florenne position at the base of limestone cliffs, with the and Philippeville.

citadel and church crowning their summits. The Charleroi-Vireux line is continued from

The Bouvignese and people of Dinant were

rivals in the manufacture of copper, and from this Walcourt to Mariembourg, whence it is 10 miles (across the frontier) to Vireux, which is close to

arose a hostile animus on both sides, which led to

the most cruel and sanguinary encounters. The Givet. At Mariembourg, there is a short branch

two parties fought constantly against each other.

The castles of Crèvecour and Montorgueil were (4 miles) to Couvin. For Givet see next page.

built, the former by the Bouvignese, and the latter

by the Dinantese, for the purpose of mutual ROUTE 16.

annoyance. In 1467 Dinant was besieged by Philip Namur to Dinant and Givet, up the Meuse,

the Good, with an army of 30,000 men. On being in 13 hour.

summoned to surrender, they hung the mesNamur (Station), as in Route 8.

sengers sent with the terms of capitulation, which Though the Meuse above Namur is less visited,

so enraged the duke that, on the town being forced it is not less interestingly attractive there than

to surrender, he gave it up to pillage for three below it. Escarpments of limestone, magnificent days, and then burned it to the ground, ordering in their lofty outline and bold projecting heights, eight hundred of the inhabitants, bound two and hem in the river as it flows gently along its pebbly two, to be thrown into the Meuse. The town was bed, the entire landscape forming a tout ensemble

rebuilt by his son, Charles the Bold, but was again resembling the vales of Derbyshire. At Dinant pillaged and sacked, in 1554, by the French, under the road crosses the river by a stone bridge, and the Duke de Nevers, who, history tells us, was at Yvoir, 4 miles below, are some intermittent provoked to this cruel act by the answer of the springs, rising and sinking regularly, every seven townspeople to his summons to surrender. They

replied that if the King of France and the Duke Givet (Station). fell into their hands they would roast their hearts Inn:- Le Mont d'Or. and livers for breakfast. The treaty of Ryswick A small but prettily situated town, on the right gave Dinant to the Prince-Bishop. Attacked and bank of the Meuse, opposite Charlemont, witli taken during the first French revolution, it be- which it is connected by a bridge. Here is the came the chief town of a French department, and French douane. Both places belong to France. so remained until 1813, when it was retaken by Givet has a population of about 5,000, and is a the allies, and definitely joined to the royalty of fortress. The fortifications of Charlemont stand the Netherlands, together with the ancient dis- on the left bank, on a rock of limestone. There trict of Liége.

is a statue to Méhul, the composer. Rail to The church of Notre Dame is a massive struc-Mézières, Mariembourg, Morialmé, Charleroi, &c. ture, of a cruciform shape, built in the Gothic

ROUTE 17. style. It contains nothing particularly interesting, Landen to St. Trond, Hasselt, Maastricht, and is only remarkable for its portal and a tower

and Aix-la-Chapelle. 210 feet high.

Leaving Landen (Station)-Route 18—the railExcursions from Dinant to the Grotto of Han

road passes Attenhoven, a commune of 700 inhabisur-Lesse (see page 60), Castle of Montaigle, the

tants, and soon after leaves the province of Liége, finest ruin of the kind in Belgium, and to Château

and enters that of Limburg, and shortly arrives at de Wabzins.

Velm (Station), in a commune of Limburg, in Above Dinant the line leads us through a the district of Hasselt, crossed by a Roman causespecies of natural portal, abruptly terminated by

way. a wall of rock shot out from the precipitous St. Trond (Station), near the chief place of a cliffs on the left, and on the right by the Roche canton of the district of Hasselt, in the province of à Bayard, an isolated mass of rock; close by here Limburg, situated upon the Cicindria. There are quarries of black marble are to be found; also several fine old Churches, the best is in a vast immediately above is the pretty little town of square; in which is also the Town Hall, worthy Anseremme. The valley is very picturesque, and of notice. The manufacture of lace is the principal well deserves to be explored. This is best done occupation of the inhabitants. Population, 12,000. on foot. At this spot, the Lesse falls into the Cortenbosch (Station) and Alken (Station) Meuse.

followed by Three miles above Dinant is the Château of Freyer, Hasselt (Station). Hotel: De Limbourg; de situated at the base of luxuriantly-clothed hills, Bois-le-Duc. Capital of Belgian Limbourg. Popuon the left bank of the river. It is a country seat lation, 12,470. Its two good Churches, containing of the Duchess of Beaufort-Fontin, and has many pictures and good carving, are worth within its grounds a beautiful grotto. Opposite visiting. A rail to Utrecht and Amsterdam via here the scenery is very picturesque. Forms and Eindhoven, Boxtel, and Bois-le-Duc. Past several outlines of the most singular caste and character unimportant places to are shadowed forth by the broken masses of lime- Maastricht (Station), in Holland. Population, stone, rising like so many giants out of the Meuse. | 29,210. As far as Flamignoul the scenery partakes of Hotels: Du Casque; Du Levrier (Greyhound). quite a romantic aspect. Close by is Heer, a red The capital of Dutch Limburg, on the Meuse, marble quarry. The road is enlivened by chaste Maas, or Maes, from which, and the old Roman and beautiful scenery, and from the top of the hill

ferry, or trajectum, it derives its name. It has a we have a magnificent view of Givet on French

strong fortress (taken after a long siege by the territory

Spaniards 1579) and a six-arch bridge tothe suburb The Stations of Hastière and Agimont are of Wyck. The Town Hall (1664), in the Market Place passed; then comes

has pictures and good tapestry. The Collegiate Church of St. Servais is a fine edifice with 5 towers a holiday, and the people were dancing under the and a splendid portal; the square in which this trees. Van Dyck delayed, and danced with the church stands was the spot where William de la most beautiful girl in the village, and before the Marck was beheaded, in 1485. Notre Dame has a ball was over, found himself deeply in love with good tower; St. John (Protestant) has a tower

her. He was then twenty-four years of age, and lantern 180 feet high. The most remarkable Rome was forgotten. Days, weeks, and months things near Maastricht, are the subterranean rolled by; his money was all gone. Van Dyck's Quarries, under the hill called the Pietersberg; they passion being now calmed, and his resources wind in and out for 10 to 12 miles; and can only be exhausted, he found that his interest and fame safely visited with an experienced guide.

called him to Rome; but what was he to do, not From here past Meerssen, Faquemont, having a florin to take him there. Happily bis (French, Fauquemont,) to Aix-la-Chapelle, and

courage sustained him. He presented himself to

the curé, and proposed to paint an altar-piece for thence to Cologne, as on pages 76 to 81.

his church. The subject was agreed on, and the ROUTE 18.

price fixed at 100 florins. The painting was Brussels to Cologne, by Louvain, Liége, finished in five days. Van Dyck himself and his and Aix-la-Chapelle.

horse served as models for the horse and saint, Brussels (Station), see Route 6.

and the beadle of the church for the poor man.

The rail quits the Rue Neuve, traverses the Senne, and

The curé was, by chance, a judge of painting; rejoins the old line of railway leading to the

he paid the demand without murmuring, and station d'Allée Verte. To the left we see the

Van Dyck set out for Rome. This circumstance proRoyal Palace of Laeken, on a height, from which

vided the poor village church with a chef d'oeuvre. by far the best and most comprehensive view of

This picture was a reproduction of Rubens' pic

ture. Brussels is obtained.

It was stolen by the French, and given The Château of Laeken dates no further back

back in 1817. Van Dyck also painted another picthan 1782. It was built after a design of the

ture for this church, the Holy Family, in which Archduke Charles Albert, Governor of the Nether

he introduced the portrait of Anna van Ophen, the lands, and is erected in a charming position. The

girl of whom he was enamoured. park surrounding it contains an orangery, a theatre,

This is the only station of interest between

Brussels and Louvain, which is reached after pavilions, and beautiful trees. It was in this château that Napoleon signed the celebrated de- passing through Cortenbergh, Velthem, and claration of war against Russia. The palace is Herent. The scenery is thoroughly Datch. now the property of the crown, and favourite resi- LOUVAIN (Station); Leuven, in Flemish; dence of the Royal Family (see page 16).

Löwen, in German. Population (1884), 37,490. The first station passed is Schaerbeek, where the

Hotels: De Suède, good; de la Cour de Mons du line to Malines diverges. Next Dieghem, and then

Nouveau Monde; de l'Industrie; du Nord. Saventhem (Station), 12 miles from Brussels, Resident English Vice-Consul. a commune of the district of Brussels, with 1,200 A large, irregularly-built town, of a circular inhabitants. The Church will well repay a visit form, situated on the Dyle, which passes through it. to the amateur in painting, who will see there a

Facing the station is a pedestal Statue of Van de magnificent picture by Van Dyck, representing St. Weyer, the statesman, 36 feet high, which was Martin on bis horse, giving a portion of his cloak uncovered by the King, 1876. to a poor man. The history of this painting is

The foundation of Louvain has been attriinteresting, and deserves relating:

buted to Cæsar; but nothing certain is known Van Dyck, on his way to bid farewell to his of the history of the place until the year 888, when illustrious master, previous to his departure for the Emperor Arnold, in order to protect the country Rome, was mounted on a superb horse, a gift from the predatory incursions of the Normans, from Rubens, and passed by Saventhom. It was built in the place of Louvain a castle, which has been long improperly called Château César The principal productions of Louvain are (Cæsar's Castle). The Dukes of Brabant resided | woollen stuffs and dimities, with the various articles many years in the castle, and Henry, the first proceeding from the salt-works, sugar refineries, Count of Louvain, was assassinated there in 1308. manufactories of potash and starch, bottle works, It was rebuilt at the expense of the magistrates in window-glass manufactories, potteries, brandy and 1375, and was the winter residence of Edward III. gin distilleries, and establishments for extracting of England, and his Queen, in 1485. At a later oil from rape-seed and colza. There are also a period it was selected as the place of abode of the number of cotton-printing establishments and illustrious Charles V. during his youth. The ruins several printing offices. The White Beer of Louvain of the castle are still remaining. Till the year is in great repute, and exported to all parts of 1792, when the revolutionary troops, under General Belgium; besides which, another kind of malt Kleber, made themselves masters of the town, liquor, called peterman, is the common table beer Louvain could boast of never having been taken of the higher classes. The town contains upby an enemy, though it had been repeatedly wards of forty breweries, producing, annually, besieged during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and above 200,000 barrels of malt liquor. eighteenth centuries.

The Hôtel de Ville, is one of the most perfect In the beginning of the fourteenth century specimens of later Gothic architecture extant, Louvain was a large, populous, and rich city, in

and the innumerable carved figures which enrich which the manufacture of woollen stuffs was so

the front exhibit indubitable traces, notwithstandconsiderable, that in 1317 it reckoned 4,000 es- ing the ravages of time, of exquisite workmanship. tablishments connected with the cloth trade alone, It was built in 1439. In the council chamber are some and contained 40,000 inhabitants. During the paintings by Verhaegen, and the Continence of reign of Duke Wenceslaus however, and about Scipio, by Luca Giordano; and in the Grand Saloon the year 1370, a tumult arose in the town, in

is a collection comprising the Resurrection, by consequence of the arbitrary punishment of a

Rubens; Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, by Crayer; and citizen, after he had been judicially acquitted of

a portrait of Lipsius, by Van Dyck. a petty theft of which he was accused. A number

The Cathedral Church of St. Peter, was built of cloth manufacturers took part in this tumult,

about the year 1010, and replaced by the present and on its suppression were banished from the town. These ingenious workmen retired to Eng- building, a beautiful edifice, in 1490. This had a

spire of the height of 533 feet, considered by the land, drawing after them many of their relations

people of Louvain as the eighth wonder of the and friends; and so rapidly did the town decrease

world; but, unfortunately, this bold and justly in population from that period, that in less than

admired specimen of steeple building was levelled forty years Louvain presented all the appearances

with the ground, by a violent storm of wind, in of a vast deserted city. To remedy the evil, John,

1604. The interior of this church contains much the fifth Duke of Brabant, founded in 1246, a

to attract the attention, particularly a fine allegUniversity, which afterwards became one of the most celebrated in Europe. It was suppressed by Charity, by Crayer, which is in the Chapel of the

orical subject, representing Faith, Hope, and the French in 1793, and the building converted into

Trinity. The iron screen, curiously wrought in an hospital for invalids. It was, however, re

one piece, is by Goemans, and the iron lustre by established, under the late government, in 1817, in

Quentin Matsys. the former Halles of the cloth workers; a large building of great simplicity, erected at The Crucifixion, by Van Dyck, which adorns the the close of the last century. There are 17 pro- altar of St. Julien, is remarkable for the artist's fessors and about 1,500 students. The library | introduction of a number of winged boys, who are contains about 10,000 volumes, and the university stationed with a cup at the foot of the cross, to also possesses a botanical garden and a tolerably catch the blood of our Saviour. The Last Supper, good museum of zoology and mineralogy.

and the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, by Dietric

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