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Tilleur (Station) is a village of small import- The ancient episcopal Palace now serves as a

The hills, by which the railway has run porch to the industrial establishment, founded in since it left Flémalle, seem to withdraw and disap- 1814 by John Cockerill, a Birmingham working pear. In the beautiful basin through which the

This model establishment is the most conline extends the village of Sclessin rises. Beyond | siderable and perfect existing on the continent, Sclessin the hills, which had drawn nearer to the for the construction of machinery and large steam river, again withdraw to form a smiling and fertile engines. Originally half of it belonged to King valley, which they surround as with a circle, William I. of the Netherlands as senior partner. leaving open only the side bounded by the Meuse, After the revolution of 1830, John Cockerill where the sight freely wanders on the woody purchased his royal co-proprietor's portion, and heights on the right bank. After passing through thus became sole proprietor of the establishment the Val-Benoît, which touches the town of Liége, It is now worked by a company formed in 1842, the left bank branch arrives at the Guillemins, after the death of its founder, which took place where it joins the State Railway in the station

at Warsaw in 1842, where he stopped during one common to both.

of the distant excursions which his intelligent Leaving Flémalle Station the main line crossing activity induced him to make every now and then,

to open new sources of trade. His Statue, by the old highway, which continues to follow the left bank, advances towards the Meuse, which it crosses

Cattier, on a base supported by working men, on a stone bridge, 76 yards long, and 9} broad.

was uncovered 1871. The valley which the railway enters on reaching The area occupied by the Seraing Works amounts the right bank was formerly called the field of Moors. to nearly 270 acres. They contain richcoal-pits, fur

The view which is presented immediately after naces, an iron manufactory, and a number of workcrossing the Meuse is the most extensive, the shops, three of which, one for boilers, another for most varied, and the most fascinating, perhaps, locomotives, and the third for steam engines, proin the whole trip. The landscape, which is not perly so called, are of immense extent. All the a little embellished by the elegantly constructed ironwork of the engines, &c., is made in the estabbridge, is commanded, on the right bank by the

lishment. It enters in the state of ore, and comes woody hill bounding the Valley St. Lambert, at

forth transformed into mighty engines. Nearly the top of which the high chimneys of the Ivoz

300 steam engines, equivalent to about 10,000 horse coal works appear, rising amidst the trees on the power, are unceasingly adding to the labour of an left bank, by the steep rock surmounted by the

immense population of workmon of all grades, castle of Chokier, with its heavy bastions and

There are also a cannon foundry and boring-works, graceful turrets; whilst opposite appear the two

and furnaces, &c., for the production of cast steel. châteaux of Flémalle-Haute and Flémalle-Grande, and on both sides of the river to the furthest

In the evening, when the shades descend, the horizon, innumerable forges usher in the wealthy view, on

spectacle which presents itself to the traveller's basin of the Liége country, producing iron and

the way from Seraing to Ougrée

may be styled magnificent. Glimmering lights coal in equal abundance.

tremble in the air, on the tops of the chimneys, Beyond the Valley St. Lambert the railway rising like as many light-houses on the banks of traverses the Marihaye coal works, and passing by the Meuse; raging flames reflecting all the colours the side of the Espérance furnaces, reaches of the rainbow, whirlwinds of crimson vapour, SERAING (Station), which was formerly a

spangled with white sparks, burst on every side delightful retreat, on the Meuse, bounded by an

from the furnaces and workshops, like so many amphitheatre of hills, crowned with lofty trees. craters in eruption. The annual value of the The Prince-Bishops of Liége possessed a château locomotives, marine, and other engines, plates for there.

ironclads, castings for bridges, and other large Population (1884), 30,610,

įron erections is said to be over £2,000,000. Th

boring machinery for the Mont Cenis tunnel A considerable manufacturing town, on the was made here. There are a hospital and an direct railway from Ghent to Antwerp, containing orphanage belonging to the works, costing £2,300 18,570 inhabitants. It is situated on the river per annum.

Durme, by which it communicates with the Ougréė is a village containing a population of Scheldt. The market place and the quay are 1,500 inhabitants; it is situated on the left of the

remarkable. The Church, the construction of railway. On the right are two country houses which dates as far back as the thirteenth century, surrounded with plantations. The tunnel near the is adorned with an elevated tower, and contains station passes through the establishment of fur

a fine Pulpit, magnificently carved, and representnaces, a distance of 150 yards.

ing, in a group of ten figures, Jesus among the Scarcely has the line passed through the tunnel

Doctors. There are also some fine pictures; one when we see at the left the Castle of Ougrée. especially should be examined, the Circumcision, It consists of a square building, flanked by four

by Veraeghem. A fine picture, representing Abigail turrets, covered in a pavilion style, and surmounted

going to meet David, by Otto Venius, is the by several lanterns. The railway next passes for

property of a baker of the town, and ought to be more than a league through fertile fields, orchards,

seen by every visitor. and meadows, confined between the river and a

Conveyances.-Railway trains to Alost, Antwerp, chain of green hills, the last slopes of which are

and Ghent, see Bradshaw's Continental Guide. crowned with thick shades, which form part of the

St. Nicholas (Station). wood of Quinquempois.

Hotels: Quatre Sceaux; de l'Ancre. Just before leaving the last hills, which are on

Population (1884), 26,800. the sides of the line, the traveller sees unfolded

The chief town of a district of East Flanders, on before him the beautiful valley in which the town

the road from Ghent to Antwerp. A flourishing of Liége is situated. On nearing the latter the train

trade is carried on in all sorts of stuffs, which are crosses the Government Line from Liége to

here manufactured. The principal church contains Cologne, with which it has a junction in four directions. A mile and a half beyond this point splendid specimen of art, by Smeyers.

some fine pictures, and the New Town Hall is a the train arrives at the Longdoz Station.

Conveyances.—Railway to Antwerp and Ghent; Liége.--For this city and the Route to Aix-la

to Termonde (page 13) via Hamine.-See BradChapelle and Cologne, see Route 18.

shar's Continental Guide. ROUTE 10.

Leaving this last station we pass Nieukerken, Ghent to Antwerp, direct through the and then Beveren, with a population of 7,000, Pays de Waes.

and arrive at Distance, 32 English miles.

Zwyndrecht, a pretty little village, containing Ghent (Station).-See Route 21.

2,000 inhabitants. Its church, an ancient edifice, Parties entering Belgium at Ostend, and who, constructed in 1242, contains a choir and some proceeding to Ghent, wish also to visit Antwerp, paintings worthy of the visitor's notice. The

train next reaches may do so from Ghent, from which it is it hour distant. The State line (1) hour) by Termonde,

Tête de Flandre. On the left bank facing (see page 13) has better carriages.

Antwerp lies the Terminus, which forms an outThe railway, quitting Ghent, proceeds through

work to the city. A steam ferry boat plies across a thickly populated and well-cultivated country,

the Scheldt between the Tête de Flandre and Antthe Pays de Waes, formerly a moor. To the north of werp, every quarter of an hour, conveying the pasthe road we see the castle of Loochristi, once a sengers who travel by this line. Napolcon inhunting seat for the Bishops of Ghent.

tended to found a new city here. The Belgian Beirvelde (Station) is the first met with; and, Government have constructed on this side the five miles further on we arrive at

Scheldt, a Camp Retranché, which is to be the Lokeren (Station).

head quarters of Government, and of the Belgian Hotels ; Dos Quatre Sceaux; dụ Miroir,


of an invasion. And this camp


is well worth visiting. It is situated opposite the The shorter road by rail, opened 1887, passos Citadel of Antwerp.

through Wyneghem and Oost-Malle, where Antwerp.-See Route 4.

there is a branch to Hoogstraeten. Not far

from these two places is West-Malle, near to ROUTE 11.

which is the Cistercian Convent, or Abbey of La

Trappe. The monks of this order are remarkable Antwerp to Brussels, by Malines.

for the strict régime under which they live, as Antwerp, in Route 4.

well as for the active and industrial pursuits which Leaving Antwerp, we pass Berchem (Station), they constantly follow. The brothers rarely speak; in a commune of 2,800 inhabitants. Here were the

they rise at two o'clock a.m., and continue in prayer head-quarters of the French during the siege of Ant

until six o'clock, when they proceed to their daily werp, in 1832. It was before this place that Count

avocations of field labour and other pursuits. They Fréderic de Merode was mortally wounded in 1830,

take but one meal a day, and retire to bed at eight during the retreat of the Dutch troops. About

o'clock p.m.

The brothers number about here we perceive many beautiful country residences, sixty, and have reclaimed a barren heath of 400 principally belonging to the merchants of Antwerp.

acres, converting it into a fruitful garden. The Vieux-Dieux (Station), or Oude God in visitor is shown through the house by one of the Flemish, near a little hamlet to the right, so called brothers, and in the garden he will see the cemetery, from a Pagan idol adored here, before the establish

in which a grave is always open to receive him who ment of Christianity. Quitting here the line

dies next. They are buried without coffins. Seven proceeds by the banks of the Nethe. To the right miles from West-Mallc is we see Edeghem, a village with 1,063 inhabitants; and little further on to the left, rising

Wortel, the pauper colony established by the

It up in the distance, Hove, and soon after arrive at Dutch government in 1822, lying north-east.

contains 460 inhabitants. In reference to this Contich (Station), close to a small place with 3,640 inhabitants. The antiquated castles of place we find the following in the Commercial Groeningen Hof, de Tanghoff, and d'Altina here,

Statistics :--"It was placed at its foundation under

the direction of Captain Van den Bosch, brother to are worth a visit. A branch rail to Herenthals and

the General of that name. The company at Turnhout, crosses the Antwerp and Maestricht

Wortel contracted to maintain 1,000 paupers for line. See next route.

35 florins each per annum. Other paupers were Duffel(Station) is situated upon the Nethe, tra

afterwards taken. Another pauper settlement was versed by the route from Malines to Lierre Sta

undertaken by one person, near Bruges, who also tion (near a chief town of a canton in the district agreed with government to maintain 1,000 paupers of Malines, on the Maestrichtline, as above, situated

for 35 florins per annum; but whether from the at the confluence of the great and little Nethe, separation of Belgium from Holland, or whether surrounded by ramparts planted with trees, and

from the pauper colonists, chiefly idle vagrants containing a population of 16,700. (See page 31).

sent from Brussels, being of an inferior class : Duffel has a population of 3,940 people, and its

certain it is, that the pauper settlements of trade in linen is the chief staple of its industry. Belgium are far behind the colony of Froniksen Passing

in prosperity." Merxplas, a convict station, is Wavre-Ste.-Catherine(Station),we arrive at situated 4 miles beyond this. Malines.-Hence to Brussels, see Route 1.

Turnhout (Station).

Inn: Porte d'Or. Antwerp to Turnhout.-Distance, about 24 Turnhout is on the line from Antwerp and Conmiles by road, and 244 by rail by Oos:-Malle, or tech, via Herenthals. Population, 16,000. A great 35 by rail, by Lierre and Herenthals,

place for leech catchers,

Herenthals (Station)-Hotel: Del'Empereur. , fluence with the Lomme. Limestone and marble Population, 4,915. The altar in St. Crispin's church, are quarriod; and the Grotto may be visited. ornamented with elaborate carving (1470), will [Branch line (2} miles) to Rochefort (Station), repay a visit. By omnibus, 5 miles, to Gheel, in remarkable as a ruined fortress, where Lafayette the centre of the Campine, a desolate moor. The was confined by the Austrians. Very beautiful chief occupation of the greater part of the inhabi- limestone caves. Omnibus to the Trou de Han, tants is taking care of the Lunatics sent here from

(Hotel Brasseur, first-class), another fine stalactitic all parts of Belgium. At Gheel there is a pretty

cavern, Hence to St. Hubert in the Forest of church, dedicated to St. Dympna, an Irish lady Ardennes. The line is continued to Eprave.] and the daughter of an Irish king. From Herenthals, a line turns to the south,

Poix (Station), in Belgian Luxombourg, from past Vesterloo, where it crosses the Nethe;

which it is an hour's run by omnibus to St. and 10 miles further, after crossing the Deynze,

Hubert (Hotel de Luxembourg; population, 2,700), it reaches

a small place in the Forest, with an old Abbey, Aerschot (Station) (on the Antwerp and Maes- and the Chapel dedicated to the patron saint of tricht line), which has a church worth visiting. sportsmen. Louvain is 12 miles by rail from Aerschot.

Libramont (Station). Branch to Limerlé, by

Bastogne, close to a small town (2,000 inhabiThis line (681 miles long) runs first to Lierre (pages 31 and 59), whence it is 17 miles to

tants), with an old church. There is also a branch Aerschot, the next station of any importance

to Bertrix. being Diest.

Longlier (Station), near NEUFCHÂTEAU, a small Diest (Station), a little to the east (Hotel: Du

town on a branch of the Semoy or Semois. Sauvage) has the old Church of St. Sulpice, with

At Marbeban, a branch goes off to Poncelle, the neighbouring Churches of Mont Aigu and

Virton, and Lamorteau, on the Montmedy and Avenboden Convent. Population, 8,000.

Ecouviez line. From Virton, a branch goes to From Diest to Hasselt (see page 64) is 124 435 miles, see page 75), and Gedinnes, in the

Izel Florenville, Bertrix (branch to Gouvy, miles, and the rail continues to follow the valley

Forest of Ardennes, near the French frontier, of the Demer, which it entered at Aerschot, as

Florenville the station for the extensive ruins far as Maestricht, page 64.

of Orval Abbey, founded in 1124, ROUTE 13.

Arlon (Station). Hotels: Du Nord; Europe.

The small capital (7,330 inhabitants) of the Namur to Luxembourg and Trèves, by

Belgian part of the province of Luxembourg, the Great Luxembourg Railway,

1,250 feet above sea, and surmised to be the Orolauin 5 hours, through the Forest of Ardennes. num of the Romans. Rail to Longuyon, past Athus, Namur, see Route 8. Then

where there is a connection with the Prince Henry Nannines, near the village of Vivier l'Agneau. line from Petange and Esch (towards Metz); and

Assesses, before reaching the village of Emften- from which the new line (called the Meuse line) nes, on the left. Then

works round, via Signeulx, to Virton, for FlorenNatoye, and

ville, &c., as above. At Esch a connection is opened Ciney, on a branch of the Meuse, formerly a with Deutsch oth (Station), Redingen (Statown of the Condrusi, in Roman times. Here a tion), &c., on the Alsace-Lorraine lines. line from Huy (page 54) comes in.

At Bettingen (Station) is the Dutch douano. Aye, the best station for MARCHE, a pretty town, Examination at Luxembourg. The German lanin the Famène corn district.

guage begins to be spoken. Marloie, where the direct line from Liége, LUXEMBOURG (Station). along the Valley of the Qurthe, falls in.

Hotels : De Cologne, in the centre of the town, Jemelle, in the Valley of the Wamme, at its con- an old house, affording good accommodation,

Hotel de l'Europe.

which, on the following day, at the Polizei, the Grand Hotel Brasseur; English spoken.

passport is returned. If, however, the traveller

wishes to proceed on his journey the same day, The town, not less singularly than picturesquely

his passport may also be obtained. situated, is the capital of the independent duchy of

Excursion on Whit-Tuesday to Echternach the same name, and contains 20,000 inhabitants.

(page 137), which has a church of the 19th century, Of the public buildings, the most noteworthy is

originally founded in the 11th. the old Hotel du Gouvernement, which dates from

Rail to Diekirch and Spa, to Thionville and 1443, and was then the Hotel de Ville.

Trèves, crossing the ravines by good viaducts. The most remarkable spot is the Gateway, Our line to Trèves passes through a hilly in the lower town, a broken fragment, and sole country, to surviving memorial of the palace of Peter Ernest

Oetringen (Station), or Etrange, on the Sire. of Mansfeldt, the Spanish Stadtholder. The town Then Roodt (Station) and Wecker (Station), is hemmed in by high rocks, so that, coming from near GREVENMACHERN, where the line reaches the the Brussels side, you do not get a glimpse of it Moselle, and follows its left bank, through scenery until at its very portals. It is divided into the of attractive beauty, until our arrival at Trèves. upper and lower towns, the former being con- Mertert(Station), between the Sire and Moselle. nected only on the west with the neighbouring At Wasserbillig (Station) we cross the bridge country. It has a precipitous descent 200 feet spanning the Sire, and arrive at the Prussian deep on the other sides. Its valley, which will frontier and custom-house, where the examination well repay a walk, is enclosed by bold and rugged (of baggage, &c.), a rigid but polite one, takes rocks of lofty dimensions, and watered by the place. Igel is the next station, where is visible streams of Alzette and Peltrusbach. The lower from the line the Igel, a curious Roman monutown is full of active industry, and has a great ment.

The village is a small one, and has, number of mills and dyeworks. A projecting standing in its midst, a magnificent Roman struc- . rock, known as Le Bouc, divides it into two ture, known as the monument of Igel. It is a quarters, which communicate with the upper town quadrangular Obelisk, 75 feet high, ornamented by means of zig-zag streets and flights of steps, with inscriptions, carvings, engravings, &c., but A fine and striking view of the town may be ob- so mutilated as to render the discovery of its tained from the road to Trèves, and this is decidedly origin or designation all but impossible. Many, the best point if the traveller desires to carry away indeed, have been the explanations given of it, as a characteristic remembrance of this singularly many, probably, as the number of antiquarians, built and situated town. The fortifications who exhausted all their lore in endeavours to were successively added to and strengthened by decipher its hieroglyphics. Some claim it as a various towers until it was considered to be the commemoration of Constantine's marriage with strongest defence in Europe, after Gibraltar. Helena, others would ascribe its erection to record According to a Decree emanating from a Con- the birth of Caligula, and others consider it an ference of the Great Powers, held in London,

allusion to the apotheosis of some imperial family. (May, 1867), the Forts were dismantled, the However, speculation seems to be merged in the whole of the Prussian garrison withdrawn, and plain fact, that it was erected by two brothers the Duchy has become neutral territory under called Secundinus, for a twofold purpose; that is, the control of the King of Holland. The Fosse is to conmemorate a marriage of their sister, and be now filled up; a fine park occupies the site of the à mourning memorial for the memory of their fortifications; and new buildings are rising up

deceased relatives. Its style of architecture would outside at the best points of view.

denote it as belonging to the Constantine era. On entering the gate of the city, the passport may The Secundini, by whom it was erected, it be demanded, and must be given up. A receipt or would appear, were a noble and powerful family, certificate (Schein) is given, on the production of l wh occupied several posts under the Roman

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