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Magi, by Albert Dürer; Portrait of St. Ignatius progress of the English arms in 1814, when the surrounded by a garland of flowers, by Seghers town was taken, after a bombardment which nearly and Schut. Some of the wall paintings are by destroyed the whole of the docks. De Keyser. The Chair of Rubens is likewise But the event which gave the old citadel of preserved here, and in an adjoining apartment is a Antwerp its great interest in modern times, was fine collection of casts. In the garden of the its siege and surrender to the arms of France at the Museum are several busts, and a bronze statue of close of 1832. From the period of the revolution, Mary of Burgundy ornaments her tomb. She

which divided Belgium from Holland in 1830, the was drowned in attempting to save the life of her Dutch had retained possession of the citadel, which dog, whose image likewise forms part of the monu- commands not only the navigation of the Scheldt, ment. Open 10 to 4, Sundays and Tuesdays free; but holds the entire city of Antwerp at its mercy. other days, 1 franc. Catalogue 4 francs, a shorter The forts below the town were also in the hands one, 1 franc. Attached to the Museum is a Gallery

of the Dutch, under General Chassé; so that the of Modern Paintings.

late monarch had the control of the commerce The Académie des Beaux Arts, for paintings, of Antwerp as effectually as at any period during sculpture, architecture, and engraving, which was

his reign. To put an end to the incongruous state originally founded in 1454, and was taken under the

of things, after upwards of two years spent by immediate patronage of royalty in 1817. A society

Great Britain and France in fruitless endeavours to for the encouragement of the fine arts has long been

effect a pacification between the parties, these two established, which distributes prizes every third

powers resolved upon employing force to compel year to artists of merit; the allotting of the prizes

the King of Holland to relinquish a position which is preceded by an exhibition, to which none but

gave him so decided an advantage, and which also the works of living and native artists are admitted.

kept both countries in a state of agitation and Oudheden Museum (antiquities) of old fumi- warlike preparation, the evils of which were not ture, arms, pictures, &c., at the Steen, à remnant

very inferior to those of war itself. A combined of the old castle, near Fishmarket.

English and French squadron was therefore There are several private Collections, which are despatched to blockade the mouth of the Scheldt shown to travellers with great readiness; the

by sea, while an imposing French force, under most remarkable is that of M. Van Lancker, in the Marshal Gerard, proceeded to lay siege to the Place de Mer, which is rich in most carefully citadel and the adjacent forts by land. selected specimens of the best masters. There is The French army was much larger than was also a Museum of Natural History in the Rue du deemed necessary for the mere reduction of the forConvent, which is worthy of attention.

tress, but the Prussians had established alarge corps The Citadel (which has been pulled down and re- of observation on the right of the Meuse, and the placed by strong lines of modern fortification, King of Holland, on his side, had levied a powerful surrounding the town), was originally built in

force, which was kept ready for action within a 1568, by Pacciotto and Cerbelloni, under the direc

few leagues from Antwerp; consequently in order tion of the Duke of Alva; it was of immense strength to be ready for every contingency, the army in the form of a pentagon, with six bastions, under Marshal Gerard was such as to ensure its which command each other, and are defended by success; it consisted of nearly 50,000 infantry, deep and broad trenches. Thisfortressformerly con- 6,000 cavalry, and a tremendous train of artillery. tained the Bagne, or place of detention for criminals The siege of 1832 commenced on the 29th Novemcondemned to hard labour. It contained 15 wells, ber, and terminated on the 23rd of January, 1833, and a handsome Church, in which protestant service in the surrender of the garrison. The French, is now performed. When Carnot was governor under Marshal Gerard, amounted to 66,000 men. of Antwerp, under Napoleon, he spared no pains to The late Duke of Orleans commanded the troops strengthen these fortifications, and succeeded, as in the trenches. The best proof that could be he thought, in rendering them impregnable, but given of the determination and bravery with they opposed a very ineffectual resistance to the which General Chasse and his 4,500 men had defended the trust confided to him, was found in building inhabited by Carnot, while governor of the state of the fortress when entered by the Antwerp. victors; all the places which had been built and In a small court out of Place Vendredi, considered bomb-proof were discovered to be in a is an old House, the front of which is emstate of utter devastation; and even

the bellished with a figure of Hercules accompanied hospital which contained the sick and wounded, by a woman, bearing the inscription “Labore et and amputated soldiers, and which was so placed Constantia.” It was from 1565 the printing as to be, at least comparatively secure, was found office of Christopher Plantin (printer to Philip II.) to have been so injured as to threaten moment- and his successor, Moretus. The house, with its arily to fall upon the heads of the inmates; the treasures, was sold by its last owner to the city, loss of the besieged was stated at 90 killed, 349 and now forms the Musée Plantin, containing the wounded, and 67 missing; that of the French, 108

old furniture, 14,000 letters of scholars, some of killed and 687 wounded. The order of the day of their portraits, with the Polyglot printed by the French Marshal stated that 14,000 metres Philip II. Open 10 to 4, Saturdays excepted, (beween eight and nine miles) of trenches had 1 franc. In Rue Leys (formerly Rue de la been opened during the siege, and 63,000 cannon Station) is the handsome House of the late Baron balls fired at the citadel.

Leys (born here 1814), containing his frescoes and The Park, on the site of an old fortification, other works. Some of his productions are in the contains a statue of Quentyn Matsys, and the Town Hall. The House of Rubens still exists, Loos Monument, a statue of Antwerp, with alle- in a street which now bears the name of the great gorical figures.

painter. His country house was at Steen. His The Hotel de Ville is situated in the principal tercentenary was kept 1877, when his bust was market-place, in which the markets are held every placed in the City Museum. He executed 2,700 Wednesday and Friday. It was built 1581, and

works (700 being drawings and sketches), of which enlarged in 1713, by pulling down twenty-nine 300 are lost. houses. It has a carved front of 250 feet, and

The town also contains several Theatres, the is adorned with statues of the Virgin, Justice, new Flemish one being remarkably fine, a new and Prudence, with their attributes. In this National Bank, Palais de Justice, an Athenæum, building is an extensive collection of ancient

a Botanic Garden, a Foundling Hospital, and and modern Pictures. Admission, 1 franc, before one of the best Zoological Gardens in Europe. 9 a.m., or after 4 p.m.

The numerous associations called “harmonies," The Bourse, which was burnt down 1858, was will afford great pleasure to the lover of music. principally remarkable as having been the model

There are public Baths in the Place Verte and from which Sir Thomas Gresham formed his design in the Esplanade. for the Royal Exchange of London; it was finally

Antwerp is the birth-place of Crayer, Rubens, completed in 1584. It was 180 feet long by 140 feet

Van Dyck, Jordaens, the two Teniers, and Ommewide. The handsome new Exchange is by Schadde. It is larger than the old one, but in the same style. gank, all painters of the first class; Edelink, the

engraver; Ortelius, the geographer; Grammage, The form of the City of Antwerp resembles a

Butkers, Sanderus, and Vammeteren, historians; strung bow, the string being represented by the Scheldt; it contains fine broad avenues and public Moretus, the printer; and Stockmans, whose legal

decisions are of the greatest authority in the Belgic squares, of which the most beautiful is the Place

courts. The Park is situated just outside the gate de Meir

, in which is the Royal Palace purchased leading to Brussels. About 8 miles south-west is by Napoleon and furnished by him for his own residence. It contains a few fine paintings. In the Rupelmonde, with its statue to the inventor of Place Verte, & square handsomely planted with

Mercator's map. On the line to Maastricht is Lier trees, are held on the 17th of May, and on the or Lierre (Station), 9 miles; with silk factories, 16th of August, fairs which last 30 days, for mer- and good pictures by Rubens and Memling at St. chandise of all kinds; here also is the handsome Gomer's old church. Hotel d'Anvers.

The Antwerp and Gladbach line (for Cologne, FROM COURTRAI TO BRUGES. -The trains cor&c.), viâ Herenthals and Roermond, passes respond at Courtrai with the trains for Mouscron, Vlodrop, Rheydt, and München Gladbach. Tournay, Lille, and Paris, by the Northern Line.

The line to Aix-la-Chapelle, by Diest (pages 60 and 68), Hasselt, and Maestricht, Route 17, is now

ROUTE 5A. generally preferred for Cologne.

Courtrai to Ypres and Poperinghe.

Courtrai.--See Route 1. On this route we Antwerp to Brussels, via Malines.

pass the village of Bisseghem, near which the Between Antwerp and Malines the land is well Duke of York was defeated in 1793 by General cultivated, and there are several picturesquem Sonham, losing on the occasion 70 pieces of cannon. looking châteaux on both sides.

See page 59,

Menin (Station), a fortified town, situated on Route 11.

the Lys, which separates France from Belgium. Malines, or Mechlin (for description of which It contains a population of 9,800 persons. sce Route 1).

Ypres (Station), or Yperen, in Flemish.

Hotels.—De la Tête d'Or; de l'Epée Royale.
Bruges to Courtrai.

A fortified town, pron."Eepray," on a plain, and Bruges.--See Route 3.

containing 15,860 inhabitants. In the fourteenth Thourout (Station). (Thor-hout: Grove of

century it contained 200,000 inhabitants, and kept

4,000 looms constantly at work. It gives name to Thor.) A small town in a fertile district, with manufactures of coarse woollens and excellent

the linen called diaper (i.e., D'Ypres), so much lace. Its only objects of attraction are the large

used throughout the world. The old Clothiers' new Collegiate Church and Stadthuis. The Castle Hall, in the great market place, is a long, low of Wynendael is close by. It was in this place building, in the Gothic style, containing historical that the Bishop of Lincoln and his colleagues pictures by M. Pauwels, and was restored in 1860.

The Town Hall (1575) forms a continuation of this negotiated the marriage of Edward, Prince of Wales, with the daughter of Philip, King of

edifice, and has some good mural paintings. France, and that of Edward I., the Prince's father,

The Cathedral of St. Martin, in the Gothic style, with the sister of that monarch.

contains a very good carved pulpit, and a paint

ing, said to be by Van Eyck, the Fall of Man. In Lichtervelde (Station), the junction of a line

the choir a long stone points out the tomb of to Dixmuiden and Dunkirk. Roulers (Station). A small town picturesquely

Jansen, or Janssen, Bishop of Ypres, who died in

1638. He was founder of the Jansenists, ana situated on the Mander, amidst beautiful meadows.

was long and violently persecuted by the Jesuits. The church of St. Michael, to the rear of the west

St. Martin's Day, 10-11 November, is celebrated side of the market-place, a small structure with a beautiful spire, and the Stadthuis, an old building by horn and lanterns. Museum of Antiquities and

Pictures, 50 cents. situated in the market-place, are worth a visit. Iseghem (Station), of no importance, where

There is a railway connection here with Armenthe railway crosses the Lys, and arrives at

tières (page 3) and Comines, or Commines, the Courtrai.- See Route 1.

birth-place of Philip de Comines, the historian. FROM BRUGES TO COURTRAI.-The trains cor- Poperinghe(Station), near the French frontier. respond with the government trains going to Population, 11,000. Lace and cloth are made. At Ostend, Ghent, Brussels, and Antwerp. Tickets Hazebrouck (7 miles), page 3, the Lille and Calais for Ostend, Ghent, Brussels, Liége, Mouscron, Rail is joined. and Tournay, are delivered at Bruges, Thour

ROUTE 6. out, Roulers, Iseghem, and Courtrai; and in the great stations tickets are delivered for Bruges,

BRUSSELS. Thourout, Lichtervelde, Iseghem, Courtrai.

POPULATION (1886), 448,088, including suburbs.

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is formed the subject from three of our , Scott, and Southey; in the present day exaggerated or ung the lowertown, who

mansions, its magassage de St. Hubert, rt of the community, er or "west end" of he Place Royale, emf St. Jacques sur

painting, which is the sun streams ont illuminates the vivid ind the statue of the

thence to the Place s the pleasing coupPalace, the Palace of tiful and unbrageous

Royale, the noble oi and the splendid rès, but will exclaim nsemble, the neatness f Brussels, render it ties in Europe, and

to the seat of the ner walls are replaced vards above 4 miles Tays all round. The ning one of the finest or length and widt ctural variety of its


The Antwerp and Gla. &c.), viâ Herenthals : Vlodrop, Rheydt, and

The line to Aix-la-Cha and 68), Hasselt, and Mac generally preferred for C

Antwerp to Brus Between Antwerp and cultivated, and there a looking châteaux on be Route 11.

Malines, or Mechlin sce Route 1).


Bruges to Bruges.--See Route 3

Thourout (Station) Thor.) A small town i manufactures of coarse lace. Its only objects o new Collegiate Church ai of Wynendael is close t that the Bishop of Lin negotiated the marriage Wales, with the daugh France, and that of Edws with the sister of that m

Lichtervelde (Static to Dixmuiden and Dunk

Roulers (Station). A situated on the Mander, a The church of St. Micha side of the market-place, beautiful spire, and the situated in the market-pl

Iseghem (Station), the railway crosses the I

Courtrai.-See Route

FROM BRUGES TO Cot respond with the gove Ostend, Ghent, Brussels for Ostend, Ghent, Bri and Tournay, are deliv out, Roulers, Iseghem, and Courtrai; and in the great stations tickets are delivered for Bruges, Thourout, Lichtervelde, Iseghem, Courtrai.

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