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Above this picture are three smaller ones by the the workmanship of Lawrence Delvaux, of Ghent, same artists; the centre represents Christ on a is in the centre of the right nave, and is considered i hrone, holding a crystal sceptre, surmounted by one of the most beautiful in Belgium. It is coma large sapphire; the transparency of the crystal posed of white marble and oak. The tree of life is represented with an effect almost magical: the supports the pulpit, and covers the sounding-board left-hand picture is an exquisite representation of with its branches. At the foot of the tree is seated the Virgin, and that on the right is an equally a figure of Time, represented as a venerable old fine figure of St. John the Baptist. These four

man, whose eyes are covered with a thick veil, pictures, whether considered with reference to the which he is lifting up in order to contemplate the date of their execution, or to their intrinsic merit, features of Truth, who presents herself before must rank among the most valuable in Belgium. him as a beautiful woman, holding an open book, In the fourteenth chapel is a fine picture by

in which are traced the words “Surge qui dormis, Rubens, representing the Reception of St. Amand illuminabit te Christus," "Arise thou that in the Abbey of St. Bavon, after he had given all sleepest, Christ shall give thee light.” At the his property to the poor. The fifteenth contains foot of each staircase are two angels. The four the Resurrection of Lazarus, by Otto Vennius, fronts of this exquisite piece of workmanship, the master of Rubens, and also Judas Maccabeus which cost 37,000 florins (£2,960), are ornamented seeking a place of Burial for his Soldiers. In the with bas-reliefs in white marble. sixteenth is the Martyrdom of St. Lieven, the Another most perfect work of art in this patron of Ghent, by Seghers. The seventeenth cathedral is the mausoleum of Bishop Triest, has a copy from Rubens' picture of the Martyr- by Jerome Duquesnoy; it consists of a statue of dom of St. Catherine, the original of which is in

the bishop contemplating the cross borne by our the Church of St. Catherine, at Lille. In front of Saviour. On the opposite side is a figure of the the chapel is the ausoleum of Bishop G. Van Virgin, and two small angels are stationed at the Eersel, executed by Charles Van Pouche and F. bottom of the mausoleum. Janssens, after the designs of the former. The

The visitor should not leave St. Bavon without nineteenth chapel contains the Seven Works of

descending into the Crypt (A.D. 941), a low subterMercy, by Coexie; in the twentieth is the font in

ranean arch under the choir. It is divided into five which Charles V. was baptised; the twenty-first chapels, adorned with paintings, and containing has the Assumption of the Virgin, by Crayer; in

the tombs of John and Hubert Van Eyck, and his the twenty-second is one of the finest productions sister, also a painter, who might be reckoned an enof Crayer, representing St. Machaire praying for

thusiast in the art, as she rejected all offers of marthe cessation of the plague; before the altar is a bas-relief in white marble, by M. Portois, repre

riage, in order to devote herself entirely to its study.

The Church of St. Nicholas is one of the most senting the body of St. Machaire carried in procession.

ancient in Ghent. It was burned in 1120, but

re-built later on the same plan. This edifice suffered The altar-piece of the twenty-third chapel represents St. Stambart carrying burning coals on an

much in the religious wars. The Church of St. Pierre unconsumed surplice to St. Sandoalt; this pic approached through a beautiful square, and contains

is a building of the seventeenth century. It is ture is by Van Huffel. The twenty-fourth and last chapel contains a Descent from the Cross, by

a few good paintings by Crayer, Janssens, &c. Rambants, which is esteemed the finest production city, is remarkable for the elegance and lightness

The Church of St. Michael, in the centre of the of that artist. Fee to sacristan, who shows the chapels, 1 franc for each person. Open from 10 a.m,

of its architecture, of a mixed style, partly floridEntrance, between 10 and 4, may be gained by Gothic, partly Renaissance, which is seen to advanknocking at the side-door on the left of the tage from the open space in which it is situated. entrance. The organ has a fine tone, but is

The square tower which surmounts the church, placed in a situation which offends the eye, from was begun in 1445, and was to have been carried interfering with the harmony of the construction to a height of 400 feet, but the design has never of the rest of the edifice. The Pulpit, which is been completed. In the twelfth chapel of this edifice, is a magnificent picture of the Crucifixion, | about one hundred, whilst their entire number by Van Dyck, the only work of this master which in Belgium is about 1,300. New buildings at is to be found in any of the public buildings of Eecloo (rail in forty minutes), now replace the old Ghent. Each of the chapels, which are twelve in house, or Grand Béguinage, a moated pile, which number, contains one or more pictures of various was situated in the Rue des Bruges. There is a Petit merit. It will be sufficient to direct the attention Béguinage in Rue des Violettes, with 300 girls of a of the amateur to the Annunciation, by Lens, and poorer class. The first chapel was built in 1242. The the Assumption, by François, both in the newly sisters live in separate houses, and each door has finished chapel, to the right of the cross of the inscribed on it the name of some saint, chosen as church; the Apotheosis of St. Catherine in the

its protectress. Visitors to Ghent should see their third chapel, by Crayer, and the Finding of the church at the hour of vespers, which are sung at Cross, by the Empress Helena, whose figure, half-past seven each evening. The scene is most represented in the picture, was furnished by the impressive. The sisters are all dressed in black Empress Josephine, who sat for the model. There robes with white veils; the novices are distinare also in this church numerous paintings by guished by a different dress, whilst those who Belgian artists, and a St. Francis of Paula, by have but lately taken the veil are distinguished by Ribera. The organ recently erected in this church

a chaplet, which they wear around their heads. is remarkable for its sweetness. The pulpit of The chapel, barely illuminated by a few lamps, niassive mahogany is handsome. Sacristan, 1 franc and the solemn singing, together with the large for a single person.

assemblage of sisters, so picturesquely dressed, St. Jacques is situated in a vast square. It was

impart to the scene an aspect of solemn grandeur destroyed in 1720, and afterwards rebuilt. It has

and mystic beauty. The chapel itself is interesttwo good paintings of Jan van Cleef, and some

ing in the extreme. Lace (kanten) making forms monumental sculpture of merit from the chisel of

one of the chief occupations of the Béguines, and Van Poucke.

very good and sometimes beautiful work is done

by them. This may be bought at their establishThe Church of St. Martin has a magnificent ments, and will be found much cheaper than that painting of the Resurrection, by Crayer, said to be obtained at the shops in the town. his master-piece.

The Hôtel de Ville is situated partly in the Rue The Dominican Oratory deserves to be inspected Haute Porte, and partly in Le Marché-au-Beurre. on account of its bold and lofty wooden vault, The portion standing in the former street, built designed by the Dominican Francis Romain, in in the Gothic style of architecture, presents a 1700.

magnificent appearance, and is adorned with The Béguinage. The community of Béguines is exquisitely wrought ornaments. It has two said to have been founded by St. Begga, Duchess façades, built at intervals between 1482 and 1620, of Brabant, and sister of Philip of Landen, and after several plans, by as many architects. The is peculiar to the Netherlands. Clement V. issued turret or tribune at the corner was built in 1527a bull against these sisters, but John XXII. 1560 by Eustace Polleyt, and is in the richest revoked it, and accorded them many indulgences. flamboyant Gothic style. The other façade, built It is one of the few nunneries not swept away by

between 1600 and 1620, has columns of three the fury of the French revolution, or suppressed

different orders of architecture, one surmounting by Joseph II. Their existence received a legal

the other. In the Salle du Trône, so celebrated ratification in 1826. The sisters are bound by no

in the annals of Ghent, was signed the treaty vow, and may return to the world at any time.

known as the “Pacification of Ghent," drawn up, Their chief duty is to attend to the sick and visit in 1576, by the congress of confederates, who the hospitals, where they are constantly to be assembled to adopt measures calculated to drive met with. In the order are persons of the highest the Spaniards out of Belgium. The bust of families and wealth. The sisters in Ghent number Philip van Artevelde, the famous Captain-General (killed 1382 at the battle of Rosebecq, between the to hard labour. The remainder is divider into revolted citizens and the army of Louis II.), should two portions; half is given to the prisoners weckly be seen.

for pocket money, and the other given to them at Palace of Justice. This striking building by

the expiration of the term of their imprisonment, Rolands, is situated in the Rue du Théâtre. The

to assist in their re-establishment in the world. ground floor is used as the Exchange, and the Religious service and instruction are provided and upper chamber as Courts of Justice.

attended to in an admirable manner; and if prisoners Palais de l'Université.-Founded by William

are found ignorant of the first elements of knowI., King of Holland, in 1826. It is a beautiful ledge, as reading, writing, and arithmetic, they

receive instruction in the various branches. Inand modern edifice, having a splendid Corinthian

subordination or refractory conduct is punished by portico, modelled from the Pantheon, at Rome, and is built on the site of the Jesuits' College. solitary confinement. The shop for refreshments The library, consisting of 100,000 vols. and 700

sold to the prisoners is kept under strict regulations MSS., amongst them a Mayence Bible, 1472, by the officers of the establishment, and the profits and a folio Latin Bible, 1466, and a number of

are employed as rewards for the most industrious other ancient volumes, has been transferred to

and well-behaved prisoners. A new wing, recently the Baudeloo Convent. The Jardin Botanique, erected, contains cells adapted to the solitary instituted in 1797, belongs to the University, and

system. Admission can only be obtained by peris one of the finest in Belgium. It contains a

mission from the Minister of Justice, Brussels. collection of 8,000 plants, of 1,000 different species. The Kouter, or Place d'Armes, is a large square The Museum of Natural History is not less re

planted with trees. It is a beautiful promenade, markable for its extent than for the richness of and has a military band usually playing there on its collection. There are also coins, medals, and summer evenings. antiquities. An Engineering School, and a School

The Marché du Vendredi (Vrydag-Markt), a vast of Arts and Manufactures are also maintained in

square, so called from the day on which the fair connection with the University.

is held. It is remarkable as having been the spot Maison des Bateliers, on the Quai aux Herbes, where the trades' unions of the middle ages planted is an old and picturesque edifice, built in 1513. their standards and rallied to arms. On it the

The Halle aux Draps will also repay notice. ceremonial of inaugurating the Counts of Flanders Maison de Force, a house of correction, situated

was celebrated with a gorgeous and luxurious rather outside of the city, on the Coupure grandeur, unequalled at the present day. This canal, which is bordered by a double row of large spot is also identified with one of the most painful trees. It was constructed in 1773, in the reign of

and tragic reminiscences connected with the history Maria Theresa, and forms a perfect octagon, in the

of Ghent. centre of which is a spacious court, communicating It is celebrated as being the scene of an with the different quadrangles of the establish- internecine conflict, in which fifteen hundred citiment. Each quadrangle or ward has a yard, and zens were slain by fellow-citizens. The weavers in the centre of that belonging to the female ward and fullers constituted the two factions, and the is a large basin of water, in which the female former were led on and headed by Jacques Van prisoners wash the linen of the whole establish- Artevelde, called the Brewer of Ghent, in the corment. Each prisoner sleeps alone in a small but poration of which body he enrolled himself, though well-aired room, and is employed during the day descended from one of the first families in Flanders. in working at whatever trade or business he or The day, to mark the sanguinary and disgraceful she is most competent to do. Of the produce of work, was called Evil Monday in the annals of this labour, five-tenths are retained by government the town. On that spot, and on that day forty when the prisoners are merely detained correc- years after, Philip, the son of that Jacques, was tionally; six-tenths when they have been sentenced saluted Protector of Ghent, and received the oath of fidelity from his townsmen on the occasion of Portes de la Ville, or City Gates. There are seven his being called upon to lead them against Louis principal Gates, the most remarkable of which are de Mâle. In the Marché au Vendredi also were those of Brussels, St. Lievin, St. Peter, and Bruges, lighted the fires of the Inquisition, under the all of which present curious relics of the ancient Duke of Alva. The great cannon, situated in a gates erected in the 14th century. The greater street called the “Mannekens Aert," close to the number of these gates have been re-constructed. Marché, is called Die dulle Griete, alias Mad Margery, and is one of the most enormous ever made,

Casino.-Situated near the canal (cut in 1750, to measuring 19 feet in length and 10 feet in circumfer

unite the Lys and Bruges canal together), and ence. It is made of hammered iron, and bears the

built for the Botanical Society and the Musical Burgundian Cross and the arms of Philippe le Bon

Society of St. Cécile. Here are held the well (1419-1467). In the Place St. Pharailde, near the

known half-yearly shows of the Maatschappij van Marché aux Poissons, is an old turreted gateway,

Kruid-Kunde (Horticultural Society). called the Oudeburg, or the counts' fort or castle, a remnant of the ancient palace of the Counts of

The city and neighbourhood have for nearly a Flanders, and dates from 1180. It deserves a visit,

century been engaged in the cultivation and

export of flowers, which has been carried to a as one of the oldest buildings in Belgium. In the year 1338, Edward III. and his family resided high pitch of perfection, and visitors should not here. During his residence his queen gave birth

omit to see some of the beautiful gardens here.

Admission is freely granted to strangers. to her son, John of Gaunt (Ghent). An intimate and friendly alliance existed for years between the The Academy of Arts, Rue Ste. Marguerite, conEnglish and people of Ghent.

tains a Museum of Paintings, which is well worth

inspection, though the pictures, all of the Flemish It may not be uninteresting to mention the fate of school, do not number any very special examples. Jacques Van Artevelde, the brewer, whom Edward Sunday morning free; other days, 50 cents. III. of England used to style "his dear gossip."

Hospitals.-Ghent possesses 21 hospitals, civil He was a faithful friend and ally to this king, and

and military. The principal of these is the Byloque, lost his life, it may be said, in his service. He

founded in 1225, and capable of containing 600 invited Edward III. over to Sluis, in 1344, with a

sick. In the church attached to it, Jacques Van view of taking council for the promotion of the

Artevelde was buried. The Military hospital is promise made to the king by Jacques, to the effect

situated near the church of St. Martin. that he would make him “Lord and heritor of Flanders," a thing altogether opposed to the wishes Theatre.-A magnificent theatre has been lately of the Gantoises. Public indignation was excited erected at the corner of the Place d'Armes. The against him, and was further increased by a salon, concert hall, and ball-rooms are beautiful in rumour to the effect that he had, during his

their construction and decoration. It was erected administration of the government of Flanders,

at a cost of £100,000. stealthily sent large sums of money out of the exchequer to England, which so exasperated lington's advice before Waterloo, “that he might be

Louis XVIII. waited here by the Duke of Welthe people as to cause them to enter into a

&c no m8-.

schild, by watching at the king's door, got news ofthe

victory, posted to London, and made a great sum.

was attacked by a mob of 400 persons, and broken into, when a citizen, named Gerard Denys, slew him without mercy. His Statue was set up in the Square, 1863, on the site of one of Charles V., which stood here till 1796. A statue of Van Eyck (1878) stands in the Kauter Square, where he lived and died.

The commerce and manufactures of Ghent are very extensive and various; the most important of the latter consist of cotton weaving, bleaching,

and printing, cotton spinning, lace making, cloth working, gin distilling, sugar refining, soap

making, brewing, goldsmiths' work, paper making, Wetteren (Station). A charming village, or and numerous other branches of industry, par- rather town, the capital of a canton, situated to ticularly the making of masks, of which large the right of the railway, on the right bank of the quantities are exported all over the world. There Escaut. Population, about 9,000. is also a superb iron foundry and engine manu- At Schellebelle the direct line to Brussels (see factory, called the Phønix, founded 1821 by M. page 23) diverges to the right, forming a comHuytens Kerremans, in Ghent. Every day, in the munication with morning, at noon, and in the evening, a bell rings, Alost (Station)--Hotels: De Flandre; Duc de to announce to the workmen, who amount in Brabant; Mille Colonnes. On the river Dendre, the number to 1,500 and upwards, the hour of going to chief town of the district of East Flanders, said to work. While this bell is ringing, none of the owe its origin to a fortress built by the Goths in 411. bridges are allowed to be turned, lest they should

It was formerly the capital of what was called intercept the passage of the industrious artizans.

Imperial Flanders, and was reduced to ashes by a The environs of Ghent are pleasant and fertile, conflagration in 1360; in 1667 the celebrated Marabounding particularly in corn, flax, madder, and shal Turenne took and dismantled it. The old tobacco. Outside the Porte de Courtrai are numer- Town Hall, a fine Gothic editice, built in 1210, was ous country houses, and the road is bordered with

unfortunately burnt in 1879. The collegiate Church pleasure gardens. In the neighbourhood of the

of St. Martin was built by the same architect as the gate of St. Lievin is found a transparent stone, cathedral of Amiens, and contains a fine picture resembling the flint of Fleuris.

by Rubens, representing the “Plague of Alost." The fairs held at Ghent commence on the 16th The population is about 21,630, chiefly engaged in March, and continue for eighteen days; 10th July, linen, soap, and thread-lace manufactures. From seventeen days; 9th August, one day; and 3rd here a branch goes off to Antwerp, viá Opwyck October, two days.

(Station), on the Assche and Termonde line; A communication between the sea and Ghent | Londerzeel (Station), on the line from Ghent exists by means of a canal, which enters the to Malines; Boom (Station), and Hoboken Schelde at Terneuse. This ensures all the ad- (Station). vantages of a seaport to the city. Vessels drawing Leaving Wetteren, the road crosses a viaduct, eighteen feet of water can enter the basin. About and arrives at Wichelen, after passing the Molenfourteen miles north, at Sas van Gent, are sluices, beek, a stream flowing into the Escaut. by means of which the entire country can be laid Wichelen (Station). A small commune to the under water.

right of the railway, with a population of 4,000 GHENT TO ANTWERP, see Route 10. Six other inhabitants. This station is the point-d'arrét for lines run to Selzaete, Hecloo, Bruges, and Ostend; each train. On quitting this place, the railway Thourout, Oudenarde, Malines, &c.

proceeds through a rather uninteresting piece of Ghent to Mechlin and Brussels. country, passing the stations of Schoonaerde and Leaving Ghent, the railway after crossing the

Audeghem and arrives at Scheld is carried along the south side of it. The Termonde (Station), or Dendermonde. scenery is uninteresting, and such as usually char

Inns: Plat d'Etain; Aigle; dela Demi-Lune. acterises the environs of a great and populous Population, 8,640. city, until we arrive at

An ancient town, said to be earlier than the Melle (Station), on the Escaut or Scheld. time of Charlemagne. It is situated at the mouth Population, 1,900. The routes from Brussels to of the river Dendre, at its confluence with the Ghent, and from Ghent to Mons by Grammont Scheldt. The inhabitants have a taste for the fine here join. From this station to Wetteren the line arts, and the traveller may readily obtain access describes an immense curve, following the bend of to several private collections, among which we the Escaut, on whose surface can be seen the may name those of M. Schellekin and Madame boats as they sail up and down the river.

Terlinden. David Teniers married in this town,

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