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from thee; and I will give the carcasses of the host of the Philistines this day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Israel. And all this assembly shall know that the Lord saveth not with sword and spear: for the battle is the Lord's, and He will give you into our hands."

And it came to pass, when the Philistine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet David, that David hasted, and ran toward the army to meet the Philistine. And David put his hand in his bag, and took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon his face to the earth. So David prevailed over the Philistine with a sling and with a stone, and smote the Philistine, and slew him; but there was no sword in the hand of David. Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, and cut off his head therewith. And when the Philistines saw their champion was dead, they fled. And the men of Israel and of Judah arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philistines, until thou come to the valley, and to the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, even unto Gath and unto Ekron. And the children of Israel returned from chasing after the Philistines, and they spoiled their tents. And David took the head of the Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem ; but he put his armour in his tent.

And when Saul saw David go forth against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the captain of the host :“Abner, whose son is this youth ?" And Abner said: “As thy soul liveth, O king, I cannot tell.” And the king said:—“Enquire thou whose son the stripling is.” And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul with the head of the Philistine in his hand. And Saul said to him :-“Whose son art thou, thou And David answered:-“I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Beth-lehemite."

young man?”

See Note 32, Outline Study.



(I Samuel xx) Introductory Note.David was admitted among the warriors who formed the personal following of King Saul. Excelling in the arts of war and peace, he became the most famous of these chosen warriors, married Saul's daughter, and contracted with Jonathan, Saul's oldest son, one of the famous friendships of history. He soon, however, became the object of the King's jealousy and was driven to wandering and concealment to escape Saul's plots against his life.

And David fled from Naioth' in Ramah, and came and said before Jonathan "What have I done? what is mine iniquity ? and what is my sin before thy father, that he seeketh my

life?" And he said unto him :-“God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father will do nothing either great or small, but that he will shew it me: and why should my father hide this thing from me? it is not so."

And David sware moreover, and said :-“Thy father certainly knoweth that I have found grace in thine eyes; and he said, Let not Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved: but truly as the Lord liveth, and as thy soul liveth, there is but a step between me and death.”

Then said Jonathan unto David :-"Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will even do it for thee."

1. Four miles northwest of Jerusalem.

If thy

And David said unto Jonathan :-"Behold, to-morrow is the new moon, and I should not fail to sit with the king at meat: but let me go, that I may hide myself in the field unto the third day at even. father at all miss me, then say, David earnestly asked leave of me that he might run to Beth-lehem his city: for there is a yearly sacrifice there for all the family. If he say thus, 'It is well ;' thy servant shall have peace: but if he be very much wroth, then be sure that evil is determined by him. Therefore thou shalt deal kindly with thy servant; for thou hast brought thy servant into a covenant of the Lord with thee: notwithstanding, if there be in me iniquity, slay me thyself; for why shouldst thou bring me to thy father?"

And Jonathan said :—“Far be it from thee: for if I knew certainly that evil were determined by my father to come upon thee, then would not I tell it thee?"

Then said David to Jonathan :-“Who shall tell me? or what if thy father answer thee roughly ?"

And Jonathan said unto David :—“Come, and let us go out into the field.” And they went out both of them into the field. And Jonathan said unto David :“The Lord the God of Israel be witness: when I have sounded my father about this time to-morrow, or the third day, behold, if there be good toward David, shall I not then send unto thee and disclose it unto thee?


2. The first day of the lunar month was observed as holy-day and was made the occasion of state banquets.

The Lord do so and much more to Jonathan: but if it please my father to do thee evil, then I will disclose it to thee, and send thee away, that thou mayest go in peace; and the Lord be with thee, as He hath been with my father. And thou shalt not only while yet I live shew me the kindness of the Lord, that I die not: but also thou shalt not cut off thy kindness from my house for ever: no, not when the Lord hath cut off the enemies of David every one from the face of the earth.” So Jonathan made a covenant with the house of David, saying :-“Let the Lord even require it at the hand of David's enemies." And Jonathan caused David to swear again, because he loved him: for he loved him as he loved his own soul.

Then Jonathan said to David :- "To-morrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty. And when thou hast stayed three days, then thou shalt go down quickly, and come to the place where thou didst hide thyself when the business was in hand, and shalt remain by the stone Ezel. And I will shoot three arrows on the side thereof, as though I shot at a mark. And, behold, I will send a lad, saying, Go, find out the arrows. If I expressly say unto the lad, ‘Behold, the arrows are on this side of thee, take them ;' then come thou: for there is peace to thee, and no hurt; as the Lord liveth. But if I

say thus unto the young man, 'Behold, the arrows are beyond thee;' go thy way: for the Lord hath sent thee away. And as touching the matter which thou and I have

3. The word “Ezel” means departure.

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