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to which I refer the Reader. His Dialogue with Trypho alfo abounds with such ; of which Work BASNAGE, the learned Author of the late History of the Jews, gives () us this Account. Je remarquerai, says he, seulement que comme Justin avoit lu fort exactement les Ecrits des Prophetes, il a fait fon fort de les entasser les unes sur les autres fans beaucoup d' Art, & peut-etre sans beaucoup des Choix ; & le Fuif auroit eu Raison de lui dire plus souvent qu'il n'a fait, que ces Citations ne prouvent pas ce qu'il veut prouver.
Thus also do IRENÆUS, TERTULLIAN, ORIGEN, LACTANTIUS, EUSEBIUS, BASIL, and all the other (9) Fathers, both before as well as after JEROM, whọ cite the Books of the Prophets, as fulfill’d in the Gospel, make Application of the Passages they cite from those Prophets; whose words are only pertinent to the Purpose, for which they produce them in an allegorical Sense. This the Learned well know. And Simon, in particular, speaking of EUSEBIUS'S EVANGELICAL PREPARATION, (r) says, that if you will examine with any Care many of the PROPHESIES, which EUSEBIUS understands of JESUS CHRIST, bis Reasonings are not alwave conclufive, because these PROPHESIES seem to have another literal Sense ; but therein be follow'd the Method, which was (s) received before him in the Church. How could Justin Martyr (t) pretend to prove from the Books of the PROPHETS ; that Jesus, who was to come into the World, was to be born of a Virgin, should cure every Disease, and Malady in Nature and raise the Dead, and be treated with Spite and Ignominy, and at length should be fastened to a Crofs, and dye, and rise again, and ascend up into Heaven; and that he was truely the Son of God, and should be worship'd under that Title ; and that he should fend out some to preach these Tydings to every Nation ; and that the Gentiles Mould come over to the Faith in greater Numbers than the Fews; and that these very Prophefes went of him, thousands and hundreds of Years, before his Coming ; but by arguing from the allegorical Sense of those Prophefies, which, literally understood, have no Manner of Relation to these Matters, and so visibly relate to other Matters, that it is hard to conceive JUSTIN could be so ignorant as not to know he argued allegorically, and not from the literal Sense of them ?
(0) Basnage Hist. des Juifs. 1. 8. c. 1. $. 13.
Üg See Whitby Stricturæ Patrum apud Differ. de Scrip. Interp. Tri Simon Bib. Chois. Vol. 1. p. 40.
[5.] But several Christian Authors before JEROM not contenting themselves with arguing (and That knowingly, as it ought to be judged) from the Prophesies of the Old Testament, in the fame allegorical Manner with the Apostles, do directly affert (contrary to
(s) See Grabe apud Thirlbii 5. Martyr, p. 82, &c. (t) Justin Martyr's Apology, by Reeves, p. 62, 63.
what what Mr. WHISTON affirms of them) a twofold Sense of those Prophesies, a literal and a mystical, and make them applicable in a mystical Sense only to our Saviour.
Thus JUSTIN MARTYR (u) asserts a double Sense of some Prophesies. He gives us an Account, how the Devils introduced into the Pagan Religions several Things in Imitation of what they found prophesied of CHRIST, in the Old Testament, but says, they did not cause (w) one of Jove's Sons to be crucify'd, because That being SYMBOLICALLY reprelented in the Old Testament, they could not Spell out the Meaning of the SYMBOL ; tboʻ the Cross, according to the Prophet, was the great Characteristick of bis Power and Government.
Thus Origen (x) directly advances such a Distinction, and defends the mystical Sense of the Prophesies of the Old Testament against Çelsus, who attack’d the Christians for their mystical and forced Interpretations of the Old Testament.
Thus EUSEBIUS (y) of Cefarea, in interpreting the celebrated Prophesy of ISAIAH of a Virgin's conceiving and bringing forth a Son, said to be fulfilld in JESUS by St; MATTHEW, refers it primarily to the Prophet ISAIAH's own Son, whom he exprelly
(u) Justin Martyr's. Af oli by Reeves. 9. 71.
makes a Type of Christ ; as does also (2) St. Basil. And Eusebius (a) affirms in general, that there are many allegorical Explications of the Prophets in the Gospels and Epistles of the Apostles, and especially in the Epistle to the Hebrews ; and that such was the Method of explaining Scripture used by the Doktors of the Christian Church.
The Gospel according to the Egyptians, which was exant before any of the four Gofpels, and supposed to be one of those Gospels refer'd to by Luke ; was, as (6) appears by the remaining Fragments, a Gospel sufficiently MYSTICAL and ALLEGORICAL, according to the Genius of the Egyptian Nation. And tho' among those few Fragments, which remain of it, there appear no allegorical Interpretations of Prophesies, yet it may be justly Tupposed, to have as much or more abounded with them than St. MATTHEW's Gospel itfelf; which being written chiefly for the Use of the Jews, has in it more allegorical Application of Prophefies than the other Gospels, according to the Genius of the Jewish Nation at that Time. Nor can This be much doubted, if it be consider'd, that the (c) Therapeuta (who are supposed to be those Christians of Egypt, that received the Gospel according to
(z) Basil apud Huetii Dem. Evang. p. 355.
the Egyptians) explain'd all the Scriptures of the Old Testament in an allegorical and mystical Manner; and took the Gospels and Epistles of the New Testament to be mystical Books, and proper to guide them in their mystical Explications of the Old Testament.
We may also "fairly judge (d) the Gospel according to the Hebrews, which was also publith'd before our four Gospels for the Use of the Nazarenes, (as the first Christians were çalld) was written in the Spirit of Allegory; since their Successors allegorized the Bible in the same Manner with the Pharisees, who began the Method of allegorizing among the Jews, which was afterwards follow'd in the Christian Church. But however That be ; the Nazarcnes before JEROM's Time were undoubtedly Allegorifts, as appears by the Proofs SIMON brings out of JEROM.
In fine, Mr. W. (e) himself says, He will. not affirm, that what Predictions the Fathers alledge out of the Old Testament do always bear that Sense they ascribe to them, yet he thinks they GENERALLY, if not wholly, believed them to do so. So that he hereby allows; that the Fathers did argue after a typical and allegorical Manner from the Predictions of the Prophets; and that they might fometimes, tho' not generally, believe they interpreted those Predictions, not in a literal, but allegorical Sense.
(d) Simon Hist. des Comment. p. 1 le) Lectures, p. 28.