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Jesus rises from the dead, and

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ST. MARK.

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appears to Mary Magdalene

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A. M. 4037. Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which || Mary Magdalene, out of whom he A. M. 4037. was crucified: he is risen; he is not had cast seven devils. here: behold the place where they laid him. 7 But go your way, tell his disciples and Peter, that he goeth before you into Galilee: there shall ye see him, f as he said unto you.

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10 * And she went and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept. 11 1And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.

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culty they apprehended. So they knew nothing of || three-fold denial of his Master, he had not forfeited Pilate's having sealed the stone, and placed a guard || his right to be one of his disciples."-Whitby. See of soldiers there. And when they looked—Avabhɛpa- || notes on Matt. xxviii. 7–10. oal, and having lifted up their eyes; they sawVerses 9-11. When Jesus was risen early, he apNamely, before they arrived quite at the sepulchre;|| peared first to Mary Magdalene-“There is somethat the stone was rolled away-An angel having || thing very remarkable in this passage of the history. descended and done this, as is recorded Matt. xxviii. None of the apostles, or male disciples, were hon2; where see the note. For it was very great— || oured with the first visions of the angels, or with the These words, the reader will observe, should be immediate news of Christ's resurrection, far less read after the third verse, with which they are con- with the first appearances of Jesus himself. The nected: an instance of a similar transposition was angels in the sepulchre kept themselves invisible all noted on chap. xi. 13. And entering into the sepul- || the time Peter and John were there. Perhaps the chre they saw a young man, &c.-Matthew says, male disciples in general had this mark of disrespect this was the angel, who had rolled away the stone, put on them, both because they had with inexcusable and frightened the guards from the sepulchre. It and shameful cowardice forsaken their Master when seems he had now laid aside the terrors in which he he fell into the hands of his enemies, and because was arrayed, and assumed the form and dress of a their faith was so weak, that they had absolutely human being, in order that when the women saw despaired of his being the Messiah when they saw him, they might be as little terrified as possible. him expire on the cross, Luke xxiv. 21. How difSee note on Matt. xxviii. 5, 6. This is the appear- || ferent was the conduct of the women! Laying aside ance of the one angel which Matthew and Mark the weakness and timidity natural to their sex, they have described. The women, much encouraged by || showed an uncommon magnanimity in the whole of the agreeable news, as well as by the sweet accent || this melancholy transaction. Hence, in preference with which the heavenly being spake, it seems, went to the male disciples, they were honoured with the down into the sepulchre, and lo, another angel ap- news of Christ's resurrection, and had their eyes peared; this is the vision of the two angels, which gladdened with the first sight of their beloved Lord Luke, chap. xxiv. 3, 4, has described as the principal || after he arose, so that they preached the joyful tivision. Probably the one sat at the head, the other || dings of his resurrection to the apostles themselves." at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. In And she went-With the other women; and told which situation they showed themselves by-and-by || them that had been with him—That is, the disciples to Mary Magdalene, John xx. 12. that had constantly attended him; as they mourned

Verse 7. Go your way, tell his disciples, &c.—|| and wept-For the loss of their dear Master. And The kindness of this message will appear above all praise, if we call to mind the late behaviour of the persons to whom it was sent. They had every one of them forsaken Jesus in his greatest extremity; || but he graciously forgave them, and, to assure them of their pardon, called them by the endearing name of his brethren, John xx. 17. And Peter-Though || he so oft denied his Lord. What amazing goodness was this! "Peter is here named, not as prince of Verses 12, 13. He appeared in another form unto the apostles, as the Papists think him, but, as the fa-two of them, &c.-Of which, see notes on Luke thers say, for his consolation, to take off the scruple xxiv. 13-33. And they went and told it unto the re|| which might lie upon his spirit, whether, after his || sidue-Namely, the same evening. Neither believed

|| they believed not-Such were the prevailing prejudices that had taken possession of their minds, and so entirely were their spirits dejected and their hopes blasted by his death, that, though they could not think this was related with a design to impose upon them, yet they were ready to impute it to the power of imagination, and supposed that the women who gave them the information were deceived.

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14 ¶n* Afterward he appeared unto
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the eleven, as they sat 1at meat, and

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and ascends up into heaven.

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17 And these signs shall follow them A. M. 4037 that believe: In my name shall

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upbraided them with their unbelief and hard- they cast out devils; they shall speak with ness of heart, because they believed not them || new tongues;

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they them—That is, some of them did not believe, though others of them did, who, though they had given little credit to the reports of the women, supposing they were occasioned more by imagination || than reality; yet, as appears from Luke xxiv. 34, when Simon declared that he had seen the Lord,|| they began to think that he was risen indeed. Their belief, therefore, was not a little confirmed by the arrival of the two disciples, who declared that the Lord had appeared to them also.

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s Luke x. 17; Acts v. 16; viii. 7; xvi. 18; xix. 12.—t Acts ii. 4 x. 46; xix. 6; 1 Cor. xii. 10, 28.——u Luke x. 19; Acts xxviii. 5.——————— x Acts v. 15, 16; ix. 17; xxviii. 8; James v. 14, 15.—y Acts i. 2, 3.- -z Luke xxiv. 51.—a Psalms cx. 1; Acts vii. 55.

a faith productive of love to God and man, and of obedience to the divine will; and who, in token of that faith, is baptized, and continues till death to maintain a temper and conduct suitable to that engagement, shall be saved-That is, he shall, by virtue of that faith and baptism, be put into a state of salvation: he shall be saved from the guilt and power of his sins into the favour and image of God; his person shall be justified, and his nature sanctified; and he shall be entitled to, and made meet for, eterVerse 14. Afterward he appeared unto the eleven nal salvation; of which also he shall be made a as they sat at meat-Namely, on the evening of the partaker, if he continue in the faith he has received, day on which he rose. Concerning this appearance and do not wilfully recede from his baptismal coveof Christ, see notes on Luke xxiv. 36-43, where it nant. He that believeth not-With such a faith as is related at large. And upbraided them with their || is above described, whether baptized or unbaptized; unbelief, &c.—“That after so many assurances from || shall be damned—Karakpilnoɛrai, shall be condemned, his own mouth that he would rise again the third || namely, at the day of final judgment, and in conseday; and after the testimony of so many eye-wit- ||quence thereof shall perish eternally. nesses, that he had performed his promise, they believed not. And if this be attributed to them as culpable unbelief, and hardness of heart, surely those persons must much more be guilty of these sins, who, || after the testimony of these apostles, and five hundred more eye-witnesses of his resurrection; after the ocular testimony of a multitude of Christians in different parts of the world, touching the mighty miracles performed in his name by the apostles, the chosen witnesses of his resurrection, and by many others, who believed it and were baptized into this faith, for a whole age together, do yet continue to disbelieve that resurrection, and the faith confirmed by it."-Whitby.

Verses 17-20. And these signs shall follow them that believe-Bengelius subjoins, "That believe with that very faith mentioned in the preceding verse." (Though it is certain a man may work miracles and not have saving faith, Matt. vii. 22, 23.) "It was not one faith by which Paul was saved; another, by which he wrought miracles. Even at this day, in every believer, faith has a latent miraculous power: (every effect of prayer being really miraculous:) although in many, because of their littleness of faith, and because the world is unworthy, that power is not exerted. Miracles in the beginning were helps to faith; now also they are the objects of it. At Leonberg, a town in Wirtemberg, in the memory of Verses 15, 16. Go ye into all the world-To all our fathers, a cripple, that could hardly move with countries under heaven; and preach the gospel to crutches, while the dean was preaching on this very every creature―That is, to all mankind, to every text, was in a moment made whole." See note on human being, whether Jew or Gentile, for our Lord chap. xi. 22; where many similar instances are respeaks without any limitation or restriction whatever. ferred to; the number of which might easily be inOn this Bengelius remarks, "If all men, of all places creased on the most certain evidence. Shall follow and ages, have not heard the gospel, the successors them that believe-The gospel word, and faith of the first preachers, or those whose duty it was to therein, must precede, and then the signs shall folhear it, have not answered God's design herein, but low. In my name they shall cast out devils, &c.— have made void his counsel." He that believeth-That is, by my authority committed to them, and by The gospel which you preach, with his heart unto || my power attending them. Raising the dead is not righteousness; he that receives your testimony with || mentioned here; so our Lord performed even more

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The disciples go forth

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20 And they went forth, and preach- || them, and confirming the word with A. M. 4037ed everywhere, the Lord working with signs following. Amen.

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bActs v. 12; xiv. 3; 1 Cor. ii. 4, 5; Heb. ii. 4.

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than he promised. If. they drink any deadly thing || authority, there to reign in all the glory of his me-But not by their own choice: God never calls us || diatorial kingdom: And they went forth and preached to try any such experiment; it shall not hurt them. || everywhere-Through all parts of the Roman emThey shall lay their hands on the sick, and they || pire, and even to divers barbarous nations, and that shall recover-Immediately, without the use of any with amazing success; the Lord working with them, further means. Such was the purport of our Lord's according to his promise, and confirming the word discourses with his disciples till his ascension, as is with signs following-Which were at once the most more largely related by Luke and John. And after solid, as well as the most obvious and popular dehe had spoken unto them-In this and a similar || monstration of those divine truths which they delimanner, time after time, for forty days; he was re-vered. Amen-So may the presence of the Lord be ceived up into heaven-While they were steadfastly always with his faithful ministers! and may his beholding him; and sat on the right hand of God-|| gospel be attended everywhere with success, as well God— That is, was invested with the highest dignity and as with convincing evidences of its divine authority! 330

PREFACE

то THE

GOSPEL OF SAINT LUKE.

ACCORDING to Eusebius and Jerome, this evangelist was a native of Antioch, in Syria; but of

this there appears to be no certainty, nor whether he was by birth a Gentile or a Jew. From the circumstance, however, of his being Paul's fellow-labourer in Judea, we may infer, that if he was originally a Gentile, he embraced the Jewish religion early in life; for, considering that apostle's prudence, we may be sure he would have allowed no person to assist him in preaching the gospel in Judea who was not circumcised, (see Acts xvi. 3,) a ceremony which he forbade to the Gentile converts. It is true, in his epistle to the Colossians, (chap. iv. 10-14,) he appears to distinguish Luke from his fellow-labourers of the circumcision; but from this we can only infer, that Luke was not a Jew by birth; or rather, as Dr. Campbell observes, "He might have added the clause, who are of the circumcision, not to distinguish these persons from those after mentioned as not of the circumcision, but to give the Colossians particular information concerning those with whom, perhaps, they had not previously been acquainted. If they knew what Luke, Epaphras, and Demas, whether Jews or Gentiles, originally were, the information was quite unnecessary with regard to them." That our evangelist was, with all the other writers of the New Testament, a convert to Christianity from Judaism, not from Gentilism, is, upon the whole, sufficiently evident from his style; in which, notwithstanding its greater copiousness and variety, there are as many Hebraisms as are found in the other evangelists, and such as could not be exemplified in any writer originally Gentile, unless his conversion to Judaism had taken place when he was young. Dr. Lardner thinks it also likely, that he is the Lucius mentioned Rom. xvi. 21; and, if so, related to the Apostle Paul, and Lucius of Cyrene, mentioned Acts xiii. 1.

Cave and Mill, with others, think it probable that Luke was converted to Christianity by Paul. But there are no hints of this either in the Acts or Epistles; neither are there any expressions used by Paul in speaking of him or to him, which denote peculiar affection, nor any particular demonstrations of gratitude from Luke toward Paul as a spiritual father; circumstances which render it highly probable that Luke was a Christian long before his acquaintance with Paul. Indeed Epiphanius, and after him many of the ancients, have supposed that both Mark and Luke were of the number of the seventy disciples; and many moderns have gone into the same opinion, particularly Whitby and Heuman: but others think that the preface to Luke's gospel is inconsistent with this supposition. For he speaks of himself as writing according to the information of the eye-witnesses, which it is thought implies, that he was not one of the number himself. But, to remove this objection, Heuman observes, that Luke's words imply no more than he was not one of the eye-witnesses "from the beginning;" that he may have been, nevertheless, a follower of Christ in the latter part of his ministry; and that, though he was an eye-witness of many things which he relates, he very properly places the authority of his history on the testimony of the apostles. It must be acknowledged, however, that the most ancient authors do not mention him as being of the seventy; nor is it likely that

PREFACE TO THE GOSPEL OF ST. LUKE.

he should be of the number, unless he was both a Jew by birth, and had his residence in Galilee, from which country our Lord appears to have chosen not only his apostles, but the seventy also. It is remarkable, that he is the only evangelist who mentions the commission given by Christ to the seventy, chap. x. 1-20. It has been generally supposed, that this evangelist was a physician, and is the person intended Col. iv. 14, where the apostle says, " Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas, greet you." In this opinion, Eusebius, Gregory Nyssen, Jerome, Paulinus, Euthalius, Euthymius, and others, agree; and it is certainly strengthened by his being joined with Demas, because, in the other passages, where, according to the opinion of all, he is spoken of, he is mentioned in conjunction with the same Demas; and both are called Paul's fellow-labourers, Philem. 24; 2 Tim. iv. 10, 11. This argument is the more to be regarded, in that the epistle to the Colossians, in which Luke is styled the physician, was sent at the same time with that to Philemon, who was an inhabitant of Colosse.

What is certain concerning this evangelist, from his own history of the Acts, is, that he often attended Paul in his travels, and was his fellow-labourer in the gospel. The first time he speaks of himself as Paul's companion, is Acts xvi. 10; where, using in his narration the first person plural, he intimates he was one of Paul's company at Troas, before he took ship to go into Macedonia. He went with him, therefore, from Troas to Samothrace, then to Neapolis, and after that to Philippi. But it is observable, that, having finished his account of the transactions at Philippi, he changes his style from the first to the third person plural, chap. xvii. 1; nor does he any more speak of himself till Paul was departing from Greece with the collection for the saints in Judea, Acts xx. 6. Here, therefore, he joined him again, accompanying him from Macedonia to Troas, and from thence to Jerusalem, where he abode with him. After this, Paul being sent prisoner from Cesarea to Rome, Luke was in the ship with him during the whole of the voyage, came with him to Rome, and there abode, ministering to him, as is plain from the salutations in the epistles which Paul wrote from that city. In all probability, therefore, Luke attended the apostle during the whole of his imprisonment; and as he published his history of the Acts before Paul's release, it can hardly be doubted that he composed it in Rome under the apostle's eye, while he waited on him. It is not certain, indeed, where he penned his gospel. Cave supposes he did it at Rome likewise. But Jerome seems to contradict this; for he tells us, that Luke, the third evangelist, published his gospel in the countries of Achaia and Boeotia. Grotius imagines, that when Paul was released, Luke went into Greece, and there wrote his gospel. Nevertheless, as this work came abroad before the Acts, it is more natural to suppose that Luke employed himself in collecting and digesting the materials of his gospel while he travelled with Paul in Greece and Judea, before the latter was seized upon by the Jews in the temple; that he finished it while Paul was imprisoned in Cæsarea, and then undertook his history of the Acts of the Apostles. Both these treatises Luke inscribed to one Theophilus, an intimate friend of his own, who from his name is supposed to have been a Greek. The epithet (кpati5ε) most excellent, wherewith he addressed him, shows him to be a person of distinction; for it was usually given to men in the highest stations, such as prefects and governors of provinces. Accordingly we find it thus applied by Lysias in his letter to Felix, by Tertullus in his speech to Felix, and by Paul in his speech to Festus.

But though no certainty can be had about the precise time and place of the publication of this gospel, we have, in regard to the author, the same plea of the uniform testimony of Christian antiquity, which was pleaded in favour of the preceding evangelists, Matthew and Mark. Some indeed have thought that, as an evangelist, Luke has the testimony of Paul himself, being, as they supposed, "the brother whose praise is in the gospel," mentioned in one of his epistles, 2 Cor. viii. 18. But admitting that Luke is the person there intended, another meaning may with greater plausibility be

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