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terfered, and caused these pugilists to men were taken to the infirmary, much be apprehended. The beginning of hurt; two, who had been dug from unthis month they waited on fir Sampson der the ruins, lay dead in one of the Wright, by his desire, with their fure- aifles ; another is since dead; and wheties; when they were informed, that if ther the others will recover, is at present they should attempt to challenge each doubtful. Near twenty feet of the other, or appoint any meeting in future, arched work fell at once. they would be subject to severer penalties : they both promised to obey; though Mendoza faid, he could have

Lately died, Mr. and on the following wished another trial with Humphries.

day Mrs. Louther, of Taylor's-buildings, nearly opposite Sadler's Wells,

Illington. They were buried in one Mr. Fisher, of Baldock, in Hert- grave at lady Huntingdon's chapel, fordshire, returning home lately from Northampton-row, Clerkenwell, being Shooting, laid his gun (still loaded) followed to the place of interment by across the table in the parlour; when their seven children. The eldest son, going out to a neighbour's house, a about ten years

age, walked as chief young girl, of the age of fix years, mourner, and his three brothers each took the piece in her hand, declaring led a sister by the hand. The would shoot the cat; although the The poor old man who quitted his was not strong enough to level it, the native hills, and from the summit of contrived to pull the trigger, and un- Mount Jura, undertook a journey to happily discharged the corrents full in Versailles, to behold and return thanks the face of the maid-fervant, who in to the national assembly for the vote ftantly expired on the spot. A similar ac which had freed him and his poor cident happened at Hertford, in the same countrymen from the feudal yoke, died county, about the middle of January. at Paris the beginning of this month, at

A very dreadful accident happened the prodigious age of an hundred and about the ift of February, in Hereford twenty-one years. In the early part of cathedral. Agreeably to Mr. Wyatt's his life, he was a servant in the family plan, it was lately determined to take of the prince de Beaufremont. His down the cieling (or groined arch- memory continued good to the last day work) of the nave of the church; and of his life; and the principal inconvefour large heavy scaffolds had in con niences which he felt from his great age sequence been erected, from the ground were, that his fight was weakened, and to within a few feet of the arches, for the natural heat of his body was so dithe purpose of receiving the stone. In- minished, that he shivered with cold in Stead of having a hanging platform, or the middle of the dog-days, if he was ftage, suspended from the timbers above not fitting by a good fire*. A collecthe groined-work, for the men to stand tion was made for him

by the members, upon, in case of accident -fixteen which exceeded five hundred pounds workmen stood on the top, and, upon sterling; but he lived not to return to the moving of a single stone, the whole Mount Jura. He was buried with of that part on which they were placed, great funeral pomp, in the parish church funk, and exhibited a scene shocking of St. Euftace at Paris. beyond description. A few of them Lately at Lean Gadwallader, North were fortunate enough to jump upon a Wales, in the hundred and fifteenth part that continued firm, while some year of his age, the celebrated Hugh clung to the side walls ; one man took Llewellyn, well known in the neighhold of a rope, which he held for near bouring counties for his musical skill, a quarter of an hour, and was faved; particularly on the Welsh harp (few another, after holding by a piece of having excelled him) which he played timber for a few minutes, dropped, and until within a fortnight of his death. was dashed to pieces; and a third was buried under the ruins of the scaffold

* For a ‘more particular account of this

fee ings, all of which came down, Five

page 18, of this volume,


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we are hastening to the period which INTERESTING PARTICULARS,

will extinguish them quite, and leave RELATIVE TO THE EGYPTIAN SLAVE

Egypt naked to any power which

may be preparing to subdue it. [From Papers of the British Consul at Alex. The African flaves, on the con

andria, laid on the Table of the House of Commons, the 29th of January 1790.]

trary, are brought to ferve. They

retain their characteristic title of HE flaves of Asia are brought Alid, fignifying property flave; and

from Georgia, Mingrelia, Cir- their colour, diversified only by a caffia, and the borders of Persia. few shades, is black. Their condi. They are of that race of men from tion, however, in Egypt, is mild ; which the Janissaries, fo victorious for, whether from humanity or inteand invincible in the history of the rest, whether nature or good sense,

Turks, were constantly selected. it is remarkable that their masters They do not lose the name of Nave treat them with a parental tenderness, when they are brought into Egypt; adopt them with confidence, entrust for the appellation of Mamaluk, thein with the management of their which is given them, signifies it; concerns, marry them, and, in fact, but instead, it confers a title to pursue this plan of benevolence to reign. Their number, in all Egypt, the last. We fee, in return, genedoes not now exceed four thousand; rally speaking, a devotion, an atand the annual importation, since tachment, a fidelity, which nothing Russia has asserted the independency can remove. We see a gravity in of their native provinces, does not their demeanor, which seems the surpass one hundred. The Beys, election of the mind. We see a dirwho originated from the same fount, cernment in their actions, which is are generally their purchasers. They not far from refinement. Yet these become, by this act, of the body of men are slaves, negroes of that same Mamalukes, espouse the Mussulman nursery, from which our plantations. religion, are trained to arms, and are supplied, and confidered as being start in a career which infallibly leads barely possessed of the form only of the valiant and expert to grandeur men.

It is true, that in this country In the time of Ali Bey, their they are not wanted for the labonumbers ascended to ten thousand; rious duties of life: the native peabut his wars, and the fpirit of con- fantry does all that; and of course tention and rebellion he left behind the numbers annually imported are him, has wasted them to their pre, inconsiderable, compared with the sent state. The sources of their re. astonishing drains for the West Inplenifhinent, too, being obtructed, dies. I am well affured, that they VOL. II,



and power.

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do not exceed five thousand, com- pass from perfect freedom to the prising male and female; of which most tyrannic fervitude, is not the the latter are the greater part. They easiest tranGtion of life; that these are taken in the kingdoms of Sernar, flaves feel keenly the sentiment of Darfour, Fezanè, and Abyssinia ; their fate, a thousand instances of and the smallest number, though, their preferring death, in its moft deon account of their docility, the sperate forms, fufficiently evinces : most defired, is from Abyffiaia. and shall Engliflamen trample upon

The slave in Egypt is completely this sentiment! treat it as a spirit of at the mercy of his master; but I revenge! Englishmen, who glory in cannot learn, from all my informa- this characteristic! whose boast is tion, a single instance of any rash or death or liberty! I Mould hope the revengeful exercise of that power. example of the Turks might operate The master says, I can dispose of to foften the condition of the poor him if he displeases me—why should men subjected to our service; and I dellroy my property? And the if there are necessary evils which flave can fay, My matter is cruel ; must be complied with, at least that proclaim me in the market, (i. e. , the submission to them should be lo Soke il Sultan) and he must be tempered with all possible humanity, fold,

as to make it supportable. This seems a contradiction to the The few flaves that are castrated absolute power of the master ; but for the service of the feraglio, and there is so much odium, in this bar for other people in power, do not barous country, attending the in- undergo that abominable fate until fiction of death upon a flave, that they arrive in Upper Egypt, where a claim to mercy has the voice of I am informed is a Copthi family the law. What harm can result who have exercised that profeffion from this order of things ?-Will from father to son for a long time; the slave capriciously say, Sell me? who continue to live by their dexo He does but change one master for terity in that practice; but the numanother. Or will the master suffer bers do not exceed twenty annually: by parting with a discontented flave? The caravan, which is the vehicle -I see no great danger of abuse of this particular commerce, is anfrom this lenity in our goveroment nual, and visits, as I have said be. of llaves; nor does experience con- fore, the kingdoms of Sernar, Dartradict me.

But how it would be four, Fezanè, and Abyffinia. They in 'our islands, where the labour is - take with them coral, Venetian glass, heavy, where the food is unwhole- beads, and other ware, musket bare fome, where the irascibility of the rels, and linen of the manufacture master is provoked by the very na of Egypt, and exchange them for ture of the service, I see the propri- the flaves, for gold duft, gums, eleety of the rule giving way to the phants' teeth, tamarinds, and ostrich diversity of the case. The evil feems feathers - The value of this comto follow the fatal necessity which it merce altogether amounts to about serves. - Masters might be lefs exi- one hundred thousand pounds ; but gent of labour, and temper better it is capable, in the opinions of most the necessity which constrains. It men, were the government of Egype might be provident even to sacrifice favourable to commerce, of infinite a few hogsheads of sugar to the pre- enlargement. servation of the slaves. They Mould Egypt dispatches too, annually, a remember, that of all men ihese fa- considerable carayan to Mecca; its vages are born most free; that to foundation is for holy purpofes, but



is encouraged likewise in objects of called caravans from Suez to Cairo, commerce so much, that the mer- and from place to place, in the do. chandise exported and received by minion of Egypt, are merely carathis caravan enjoys a perfect exempo vans of transport. The camels are tion from duty.It employs about supplied by the Arabs, who confix thousand camels, and takes to ftantly encompass all fertile coune Mecca and Gedda ordinary linens, tries bordering the defart, and who coral, beads, amber, cochineal, draw a very ample subsistence from French cloth, quicksilver, pimento,' this transport service; but they are tinfel, German dollars, and Venetian not always contented with this. fequins. The value of these arti- They are constantly finding precles amounts to about one hundred tences for war, or, more properly thousand pounds, and they are ex-speaking, for rapine, and become as changed for Indian goods, muslins, hurtful by their depredations as they Surat ftuffs, rich Mawls, and coffee. are useful in the other sense. But this is but a small portion of the trade carried on from Cairo to

HISTORICAL MEMOIRS Gedda. The other part is carried

OF THE LIFE AND DEATH OF PLINY on by sea, and employs upwards of fiity ships of two hundred tons burthen each, and some of a thousand

[Transmitted by G. W.] tons.-The amount of this com PLINY was a physician and na. merce keeps in circulation not less turalist, born of an illustrious family than three millions of pounds fer. at Verona.

He lived under the ling:

Roman emperors Vespasian and Ti. There is likewife an almost con- tus, who honoured him with their ftant intercourse by caravans be: esteem. He was the author of a tween Cairo and Syria, composed great number of works, but no other generally of one hundred camels than his Natural History has sureach. They bring cotton, filk, and vived the wreck of time.' He wrote soap, and take away linens, coffee, upon a much more extensive plan and money. The annual amount than Aristotle, and probably his was of this commerce may be fifty thou- too unlimited. Desirous of comsand pounds sterling.

prehending every thing, he feems to Another caravan comes annually have endeavoured to take measure with the subjects of the king of Mo- of nature, and even to have found rocco from Fez and Moroeco. It is it too confined for the extent of his commonly composed of about five genius, thousand camels to carry the mer. His Natural History compre. chandize, and of about fifteen thou. hends, independent of his history of fand mules for the travellers. They animals, plants, and minerals, a his. bring gold dust and massive curren- tory of heaven and earth, medicine, cy, filver in bars; and they take in commerce, navigation, a history of return India goods and raw filk. arts liberal and mechanic, the oriThe amount of this branch is about gin of customs ; in fine, all natuone hundred thousand pounds annu- ral sciences, and all human arts, ally. Part of this caravan passes on What is most astonishing, is to find to Mecca, and part remains to tranf. him in every part equally great; an act business, and to return with the elevation of ideas, and a nobleness jeturn of the caravan.

of style, heighten still more his proI know of no other caravans im• found erudition. He not only knew mediately commercial, What are all that could be known in his time,


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but he bad that facility of thinking, day I allot to bufiness, and I reserve upon the whole, which multiplies the night for reading and compofiknowledge: he possessed that deli- tion. Should I not be even too cacy of reflection, upon which de- happy if this conduct procured me pends the elegance of taste; and he no other advantage than that of liv. communicates to his readers a cer. ing longer? Sleep absorbs half the tain liberty and boldness of thoughts, life of man; and it is a more certain which is the basis of philosophy, and a more legal gain than any His work, though as variegated as other, to purloin as much time as nature herself, always depicts her in possible from Morpheus.” a beautiful dress. It may, indeed, Pliny's death was occafioned by a be said, that his book is a compila- fatal accident, which is set forth at tion of all that was wrote before length in a letter from his nephew him; a copy of all that was excel- to Tacitus the historian. He was at lent and useful in learning: but this Nisinus, where he commanded a copy has such striking features squadron of Roman ships. Perceivthis composition contains a variety ing a large and uncommon cloud of objects, placed in such an entire rise from Mount Vesuvius, he fail. new point of light, that it is prefer- ed towards it, to observe the different able to the greatest of those original forms that this dreadful phænomeproductions, that treat upon the non would successively undergo. lame subjects.

He dictated his observations with This learned naturalist, as Pliny the same tranquillity of mind as if the Younger, his nephew, informs nothing had been to be dreaded from us, lived a regular economical life, it. Nevertheless, burning calcined flept but little, and employed all his pulverised stones and fints began to time to the best advantage. He al- fall upon his ships in great quamțiways had a person to read at his ties. Pliny deliberated a moment, table, and, in his perambulations in whether he should veer about, agreesearch of knowledge, he had con- ably to the exhortations of the pi: stantly with him his book, his tablets, lot; but his insatiable thirst of know, and his amanuensis, as he read no ledge and instruction prevailed, and work from which he did not make he rejected his pilot's advice. “ Forextracts.


” said he, “ favours the brave! He had, probably, never his pa- let us go and join Pomponianus, rallel for afsiduity in reading and who is now on shore. writing. One day the reader, during one of his friends, whom he found the repast, having given a vicious busy in preparing to escape, as foon pronunciation to fome words, one of as the wind, which was contrary, Pliny's friends stopt him, and made had veered about. Pliny embraced him begin again. " Pliny said to his and encouraged him; and to dimi, friend,“ You nevertheless undere nish his fears, and convince his friend stood him?" which being agreed to, of their seeming security, he went Pliny added, “Why then did you and bathed; then supped, and was make him read it again? your in- very chearful, terruption has made us lose above ten After the repast, he went to rest, lines.” At another time, observing and flept profoundly. Nevertheless, his nephew walking without his the apparent danger obliged him to book, he said, “ You cannot afford wake. The court of the house was. to lose this time."

filled with alhes, and the building He wrote to Titus in the follow. was so much shook by repeated earthing familiar manner: The whole quakes, that it seemed torn from itz


This was

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