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and two on the left, continued open, said that each camel, by drinking, lass whence a quantity of lymph oozed con in a store of water that will support him tinually. It was allo with the utmost for forty days. I will by no means be difficulty we could get out the rag, by a voucher of this account, which car, cutting it to fhreds with scissars. The ries with it an air of exaggeration ; but tale is both unpleasant and irksome. fourteen or fixteen days, it is well Two foles which remained from our known, an ordinary camel will live, sandals, the upper leathers of which though he hath no fresh supply of water. had gone to pieces in the sand near When he chews the cud, or when he Gooz, were tied with a cotton cloth eats, you constantly see him throw, very adroitly by the Bisareen. But from this repository, mouthfuls of water it seemed impossible that I could walk to dilute his food, and nature has confurther, even with this alliitance, and trived this vessel with such properties, therefore we determined to throw away that the water within it never putrifies, the quadrant, telescopes, and time nor turns unwholesome. It was indeed keeper, and save our lives, by riding vapid, and of a bluish cast, but had the camels alternately. But Providence neither taste nor smell. had already decreed that we Mould not “ The small remains of our misera. terminate this dangerous journey by ble stock of black bread and dirty water, our own ordinary foresight and con- the only support we had hitherto lived trivance, but owe it entirely to his on amidit the burning fands, and our visible support and interposition. spirits likewise, were exhausted by an

« On the 27th, at half past five in the uncertainty of our journey's end. We morning we attempted to raise our were surrounded among those terrible camels at Saffieha by every method that and unusual phænomena of nature we could devise, but all'in vain, only which Providence, in mercy to the one of them could get upon his legs, weakness of his creatures, has conand that one did not stand-two minutes cealed far from their fight in deserts till he kneeled down, and could never almost inaccessible to them. Nothing be raised afterwards. This the Arabs but death was before our eyes: all declared to be the effects of cold ; “ On the 28th, at half past seven in and yet Fahrenheit's thermometer, an the morning we left Waadi el Arab, hour before day, stood at 42 deg. Every and entered into a narrow defile, with way we turned ourselves, death now rugged, but not high mountains on Nared us in the face. We had neither each tide. About twelve o'clock wę time nor strength to waste, nor provi. came to a few trees in the bed of a tora fions to support us. We then took Ill as I was, after refreshing the finall skins that had contained our myself with my last bread and water, water, and filled them as far as we I let out in the afternoon to gain a thought a man could carry them with rising ground, that I might fee, if pof:

but after all these fifts, there lible, what was to the westward ; for was not enough to serve us three days, the mountains seemed now rocky and at which I had estimated our journey to high like those of the Kennouss near Syene, which still however was uncer- Syene. I arrived, with great difficulty tain. Finding, therefore, the camels and pain, on the top of a moderate hill, would not rise, we killed two of them, but was exceedingly disappointed at and took so much flesh as might serve not seeing the river to the westward ; for the deficiency of bread, and, from however, the vicinity of the Nile was the stomach of each of the camels, got very evident, by the high, uniform about four gallons of water, which the mountains that confine its torrent when Bilhareen Arab managed with great it comes out of Nubia. The evening dexterity. It is known to people con was still, so that fitting down and coververfant with natural history, that the ing my eyes with my hands, not to be camel has within him reservoirs in which diverted by external objects, I listened he can preserve drink for any number and heard distinctly the noise of waters, of days he is used to.

In those cara which I supposed to be the cataract, vans, of long course, which come from but it seemed to the southward of us, the Niger across the desert of Selima, it is as if we had passed it. I was, howa


ease ;

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ever, fully satisfied that it was the the thermometer shewed the fame de. Nile.

grees. Above all, we had a good de“ On the 29th, at seven o'clock in cent provision of brandy on board, part the morning, we left Abou Seielat; of which I had procured from the again about nine, we saw the palm-trees at part from the schourbatchie my landAssouan, and a quarter before ten ar- lord, neither of whoin knew the other rived in a grove of palm-trees on the had given me any, and both of them north of that city."

pretended to each other, and to the Our travellers providentially met with world, that they never tasted fermented a kind reception at Affouan. “ It was liquors of any kind, nor kept them in agreed we should not stay here, but their custody." load and depart immediately; this was In this chapter, which finishes the done in an instant ; five camels easily fourth volume, our author arrives at carried the roads, with a man upon Cairo-describes his transactions with them besides ; and there were three the bey of that place ; and, in conclumore camels, ' upon which we rode by fion, lands fafely at Marseilles. turns. We made a brisk retreat from The fifth volume contains the quintSaffieha to Syene, which is about forty effence of the author's discoveries, and miles. At a little past four in the af. the chief fruit of his labours. We shall ternoon we entered the town again, first notice the three maps; one of the without any accident whatever, or witho countries he traversed from the mouth out having feen one man in our journ of the Nile to its source, with the Red ney.

Sea, and the border of Arabia. Pon* Here then we were to close our cet's wider track is also laid down. travels through the desert, by, dis- The second gives a view of the source charging the debts contracted in it. of the Nile ; and the third illustrates his We had now got our credit and letters, ingenious hypothesis of Solomon's traf. which furnithed us with money. I fic. began by recompensing Idris Welled The general map might serve to conHamran, the Hybeer, for his faithful firm Mr. D'Anville's geographical reservices. The next thing was to keep putation, if it wanted confirmation. our faith with our prisoner. I had Indeed, upon surveying the two maps, made Idris chuse him a good camel, we perceive that, for every cloathed him anew, and gave him pose, D'Anville's is abundantly accu. dresses for his two wives, with a load In Abyssinia the French geoof dora. I then dispatched him with grapher is nearly as particular, and the the aga's protection, wondering what course of the Nile is nearly the same. men we were, who, without compulsion Its source is indeed considerably more or subterfuge, kept our words so ex. to the north in D'Anville; and he actly. Though rich beyond his hopes, does not give it a visible course through and so very lately our enemy, the poor the lake of Dembea ; in which circumfellow, with tears in his eyes, declared, stance we will venture to believe that if I would permit him, he would only he is right, leaving the latter to be dego back and deliver up what I had termined by future inquiry. What given him to his family, and return to must strike every reader, and will not me at Syene, and follow me as my ser- readily be forgiven by any, is the want vant wherever I Mould go.

of an analysis, or memorial, alligning It was the 11th of December when the authority according to which places we left Syene ; we cannot say failed, are laid down. The places named as for our mast being down, we went with of importance in the text, do not all the current and the oars, when the wind appear in the maps: this inaccuracy ivas against us. In our voyage down may perhaps be placed to the account of the Nile we had but very indifferent the engraver ; but one thing is evident, weather, clear throughout the day, ex all the positions, those which the author ceedingly cold in the night and morn visited and those which he did not, are ing; but, being better cloathed, better not equally certain. Now, upon what fed than in the defert, and under cover, authority do the latter reft? The mounwe were not so sensible of it, though tains, for instance, where D'Anville


useful pur.



and Mr. Bruce place the Garamantica have depreciated the price of this in rallis, are seen in Mr. Bruce to run in modern times. a kiff, Araight line along latitude 11 The three next species seem to be of deg. without that variety and curvature the family minosa; whether new or which generally occurs in nature : in not does not appear. The kol-quall D'Anville they do not differ from the scems to be a well-characterised (purge, general analogy of ridges, and do not probably, as Mr. Bruce's friends obproceed so far eastward. An expla- served to him, the euph. offic. in which bation of this, and any other variations case the drawing is fuperfluous. We that may occur on comparison with have also a drawing of the kantuffa; or former maps, will surely be required troublesome thorn*. The brucea anbefore a preference can be given to tidysenterica is too interesting to be this.

palled over. We are sorry to be inThue appendix, besides the maps, formed that it has nat borne feed in our presenes us with eighteen drawings of botanic Gardens. As its trivial name plants, fix of mammalia, eight of birds, implies, it cured the author of a dan, and five of miscellaneous zoology. . gerous disease. The part he took was These engravings have a neat appear. the bark of the root, in the quantity of ance, but are profeffedły not seientific, an heaped tea-spoonful every day.' It shough the parts of fructification are produced a violent drought at first; in Seen in some of the plants. Mr. Bruce fix or seven days the author pronounced is of opinion that drawings are more kimfelf well.' Its virtues” are well waluable for not being made by pro- known in Sennaar; and it were to be feled botanists, as if an uninfructed wished that they could be ascertained by eye was capable of making the molt European experience. Mr. Bruce fays accurate observations,

it is a plain, simple bitter, without any For the first engraving the author, aromatic or resinous taste. though he has omitted the parts of The Banksia Abyssinica has likewife fru&ification, may expect the thanks of its medicinal virtues; they are thus the whole literary world. Its interest. described ; ing subject is the Egyptian papyrus;

“ The cuffo is one of the moft beau. and the confideration that fo kilful å tiful trees, as also one of the most botanist as fir Joseph Banks, as we are useful. It is an inhabitant of the high asured, had no idea of what this plant country of Abyfunia, and indigenous was before the author gave him a lpe. there; I never saw it in the Kolla, nor cimen, will greatly enhance its value. in Arabia, 'nor in any other part of

We have next two figures of the Alia or Africa. 'It is an instance of balsam. In the difficulty of assigning the wisdom of Providence that this tree the ancient names to their proper sube does not extend beyond the limits of ject, we are afraid to rely upon our au- the disease of which it was intended to thor's historical deduction. Different be the medicine or cure. vegetables will yield a balsam or sub The Abyssinịans of both sexes, ftance of a peculiar confiftence. Ac- and at all ageş, are troubled with a cording to his account, three produc- terrible disease, which culton, how. tions of this tree were esteemed by the eyer, has enabled them to bear with a ancients i 1. opobalfanum, the green- kind of indifference. Every indiviith liquor in the kernel of the fruit; 2. dual, once a month, eyacuates a-large carpo-balsamum, or the expressed liquor quantity of worms; these are not the of ihe fruit : (this distinction is not ta pe worm, or those that trouble chil. Fery clear; we suppose fruit, in the dren, but they are the fort of worm fecond case, means the outside pulp, as called Ascarides ; and the method of in the peach, &c.); 3. xylo-balfamum, promoting thefe evacuations is by inor the expression or decoction of the fusing a handful of dry cuffo flowers in red twigs. In the next page but one about two English quarts of bouza, or opobalsamum is said to be the liquor the beer they make from teff; after that flows from the wounded tree. * For the whole of this article, ses Other ballams from the new world Natural History, p. 401,


has been keeped all night, the next The hardships and uncommon difficul. morning it is fit for use. During the ties of this traveller--with the frequent time the patient is taking the cuffo, he loss of his papers, &c.'which must have makes a point of being invisible to all left much to memory-will furely apohis friends, and continues at home from logize for many of the faults. morning till night. Such too was the Respecting the situation of the source custom of the Egyptians upon taking a of the Nile, we gave, in a former numparticular medicine. is alledged ber, the opinion of a critic whom we that the want of this drug is the realon considered as not under the influence of why the Abyssinians do not travel, or intereft, and who read the whole before if they do, most of them are short- he decided on a part. lived.'

“ This extraordinary work,” says The teff, one of the cerealia, which he, “ will doubtless procure its author chiefly supplies this country with bread, a very conspicuous rank in the repubcloses the vegetable list. The bread lic of letters, though, from the various is made by moistening the teff four nature of the work itself, we cannot with water; the male is placed at some easily ascertain what that rank will be. distance from a fire, till it ferments; To the learned reader, the historical it is then baked in cakes two feet in and geographical travels of Mr. Bruce diameter. The raw Aesh is wrapped will naturally recal the work of Heroup in this bread, with salt and Cayenne dotus, part of which is written conpepper. At a fealt many of these cakes cerning the same countries, and which are placed one upon another, the whitelt is divided into nearly the same number uppermost ; different sets of people of books; but a writer who disdains, dine, one after another, and “each, as much as Mr. Bruce, the graces of when he has done, wipes his fingers on elegant composition (which, perhaps, the bread he is to leave for his successor." he would not have found it a very easy The bouza or beer, is said to be made matter to attain), forms an unworthy of teff bread, toated and digested in parallel with the ancient historian, whose warm water till it ferments.

harmonious and captivating diction deThe article chinoceros is too long served and perpetuated, for his azine for our kimiţs. Mr. Bruce is of opi.. books, the names of the nine mules. nion that the behemoth of scripture is Instead of confusion, exaggeration, inthe elephant, and the unicorn the rhi- consistency, and sometimes contradicnoceros *.

tion, had Mr. Bruce fet an example of Although the extracts we have made perfpicuity, accuracy, and energy of from the volumes of Mr. Bruce, are description, his literary and military very copious, fome concluding opinion talents, his discoveries and his battles, on its merits will probably be expected his philosophy and his horsemanship, by the reader. Most of the monthly his piety and his raillery, and above vehicles of criticilin began, without all, his relating to his countrymen a reading the work, to beitow on it the long series of transactions in a distant highett eulogiums;-"independent of land, in which he himself bore fo conthe discovery whose honours it claims, fiderable a part, would bring to mind át tcems with observations equally in-, the celebrated Athenian, who travelled teresting to science and commerce, en- througla Rearly the same extent of barriches, turprises, invigorates the natu barous and unknown country, fighting ral historian, the philosopher, and the and discoursing alternately; who enman of poetic fancy, and abounds with tered, like Mr. Bruce, into the fervice novel entertainment for every class of of an unfortunate prince; and who, in readers." On investigation, however, his return home, was exposed to the innumerable inconsistencies were difco- same dangers, and delivered by fimilar vered, but few beauties. For ourselves,, address : - the composition of Xenowe have been more solicitous to extract phon, so interesting and fo persuasive, entertainment and information than to insures credit to his report, perhaps, point out errors and contradictions. when it is false ; and the narration of

* For the next article of consequence, Mr. Bruce, so harsh, so exaggerated, and the Hyæna, see p. 402.

to repullive, makes us doubt the reality

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of his adventures, even perhaps when Whether the books fo charitably cira they are true. Besides these lines of culated, were ever as charitably read, is discrimination between the ancient and more than I know. Pofsibly several of the modern traveller, the latter often them have been exported to France ; appears in the character of a phyfician, and, like goods not in request here, may which, as far as we know, the former with you have found a market. I have never once assumed; and this circum- heard much talk of the lights to be ftance, there is reason to suspect, may drawn from books that are sent from suggest to the malignity of criticism, that hence. What improvements they have Mr. Bruce is not the Xenophon, but the had in their passage (as it is said some Ctesias of his age. Yet Ctehas, lying liquors are meliorated by crolling the physician as he was called, had his par- sea) I cannot tell : but I never heard a tizans and his adınirers. We too ad- man of common judgment, or the leaft mire the boldness, the perseverance, the degree of information, speak a word in dexterity, and the fagacity, of the his. praise of the greater part of the publitorian of Abyffinia; we'lament that, cations circulated by that fociety; nor with all his variety of accomplishments, have their proceedings been accounted, he possessed not the talent of writing a except by some of themfelves; as of any more agreeable book : but the man, we serious consequence. fancy, is greatly superior to the work ; “ Your National Affembly seems to his faults are faults of carelessness, not entertain much the same opinion that I of incapacity; nor does he appear defi- do of this poor charitable club. As a cient in learning, but wanting in dili- nation, you reserved the whole stock of gence.”

your eloquent acknowledgments for the Revolution Society; when their fel

lows in the Constitutional were, in REFLECTIONS ON

equity, entitled to fome share. Since TION IN FRANCE, AND ON THE

you have selected the Revolution SoPROCEEDINGS OF CERTAIN SO

ciety, as the great object of your national thanks and praises, you will think

me excufeable in making its late conHONOURABLE EDMUND BURKE.

duct the subject of my observations. 5S. 1790.

The National Assembly of France has THESE Reflections, the author in- given importance to these gentlemen by forms us, had their origin in a corres- adopting them; and they return the pondence between him and a very young favour, by acting as a sort of sub-comgentleman at Paris, who defired his mittee in England for extending the opinion upon the important transactions principles of the National Assembly. which then, and ever since, have fo Henceforward we must consider them much occupied the attention of all as a kind of privileged persons; as no

inconsiderable members in the diploma. Mr. Burke begins with a description tic body. This is one among the revoof the Constitutional and Revolution So- lutions which have given fplendour to cieties; from which he takes away obscurity, and distinction to undiscerned much of their popularity.

merit. Until very lately I do not re“ The first, calling itself the Consti- collect to have heard of this club. I tucional Society, or Society for Confti- am quite sure that it never occupied a tutional Information, or by some fuch moment of my thoughts; nor, I betitle, is, I believe, of feven or eight lieve, thofe of any person out of their years ftanding. The institution of this own set. I find, upon enquiry, that society appears to be of a charitable, and on the anniversary of the Revolution in so far of a laudable nature': it was in 1688, a club of difsenters, but of what tended for the circulation, at the ex- denomination I know not, have long had pence of the members, of many books, the custom of hearing a sermon in one which few others would be at the ex. of their churches; and that afterwards pence of buying; and which might lie they spent the day cheerfully, as other on the hands of the booksellers, to the clubs do, al tbe tavern. But I never great loss of an useful body of men. heard that any public meafure, or poli.




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