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per, for the benefit of mankind; haram, killed the eunuch upon guard, and, by a proper medical treatment, who refused them admittavce; they his difpofition was so much improv- then proceeded to the Shah. The ed, that for a fortnight together he substance of the various accounts is, would not order the discipline of the that they dispatched him with a stick, much less command any one matchlock ball, with blows, and to be deprived of his eyes or life. wounds, with swords and knives, And especially when the attempt It is faid that at first he raged and was made to assassinate him on the abused, and then humbly fuppli borders of Mazenderan, he did not cated for mercy'; but neither prepunish any one until he had coolly vailing, he was obliged to submit to and deliberately investigated the mat- his fate *. ter. But after the departure of Al The women, with the jewel-office lavee Khan, his own physicians, and other valuable' effects, having from the dread of offending him, been fent on before to Kelat, under Tuffered the peccant humours again the charge of Nafsirulla Mirza, to predominate, when he returned escaped the fury and rapine of the to his old courses; every day, for affaflins. At day-break, when the the most trifling offences, he would principal Omrahs assembled toge: order fome to be deprived of eyes, ther to investigate this astonishing and some of life. At last his cruelty event, they found the trunk of had risen to such a pitch, that he Nadir Shah lying headless on the had resolved to have a general maf- ground, and an old woman lament: facre of his Perlian troops, by the ing over the head. The troops and hands of the Afghans and Uzbecks, the country people now plundered in whom alone he now placed con- 'the Shah's camp with that fury of fidence. But he was himself mur- which he had set them the example dered the very night preceding the in Hindoftan, Turan, Turkey, and morning inwhich he had determined other places. His head was sent to to put his bloody purpose into exe- Aly Kuly Khan, his brother's son, cution. The following are the par- who had occafioned the conspis ticulars of this event. On the night racy, in order to raise hinself to of the 11th of Jemady, ul Sany, A.H. the throne.. 1160 (or June 8th, 1747), near the Nine days after the affaffination, city of Khojoon, three days journey Aly Kuly Khan ordered the body from Meshed, Mohammed Kuly to be removed to Melhed, where Khan Ardemee, who was of the it was buried on the fifteenth day, fame tribe with Nadir Shah, his in the mausoleum which Nadir Shah relation, and Kushukchee Bathee, had prepared for himself. with seventy of the kukshek or This prince was a brave and exa guard, as well from a view to self-perienced soldier, pofleffed of an preservation, as at the instigation of acute, discriminating understanding, their eommander, bound themselves with activity, resolution, and fore. by an oath to assassinate Nadir Shah; sight; he knew very well how to but when the appointed hourarrived, conquer, and to inake himself obey. fifty-seven of them being seized with ed, but he was totally ignorant of a panic, refused to join in the exe- the true principles of government, cution of the plot. The other thir- for the prosperity of a kingdom ; teen, however, at night tore down and the impetuofity of his temper, the fera perdah, and entering the his cruelty and hardness of heart,

* This account agrees, in a great mea- fate of this despot, in his Travels through Jure, with what Mr. Hadway lays of the Persia, by way of the Caspian Sca." Vol. II.

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made

made his naine universally abhorred and jewels to an incredible amount, and detested.

with the peacock throne, and other After the death of Nadir Shah, riches, which Nadir Shah had dehis nephew Aly Kuly Khan, with the pofited in Kelat. He put to death assistance of Thomas Aly Khan Je- all the fons and grandsons of Nadir layer, and others of the nobility, Shah, excepting Sharokh Mirza, mounted the throne, and assumed the son of Reza Kuly Mirza, by a the title of Aly Shah. He got pof- daughter of Sultan Hussein. He apsession of ten crores of rupees in pointed his own younger brother, money, with gold and silver bullion, İbrahim Khan, his viceroy.

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CURIOUS ACCOUNT OF THE ELEC

SURINAM.

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a sudden and violent shock is ra. TRICAL EEL, OR TORPEDO OB ceived, in all respects like that

which is felt on touching the prime BY WILLIAM BRYANT, ESQUIRE.

conductor, when charged with the

electrical fluid from the globe; and, [From Transactions of the American Phi- like that, chiefly affects the ends of losophical Society.]

the fingers and elbow. Gently hold. URINAM, a colony of South ing the tail of the fish with one hand,

America, belonging to the States and touching the head with the other, of Holland, abounds with as many a very violent shock is felt in both natural curiofities as any country in elbows, and through the breast and the world. But that which I look shoulders. I at first imagined that upon to be as surprifing as any in the violence of the shock proceeded it, and which I believe has not yet from both arms receiving it at the been accurately described, is a fish fame time, and that the pain was no of the species of eel, and is caught more than that of the two strokes there in nets among other fish; ge added together ; but I found myself nerally in muddy rivers, and I be- mistaken. For upon seven persons lieve is found in moit of the neigh; joining hands, and the first taking bouring provinces. In fize and hold of the tail, (which may with colour it is not unlike a common more ease be held than the head) cel of Europe or America, and in and the seventh at the same time Mape resembles it more, except that touching the head, we were all afit is thicker in proportion to its fected in both elbows, and that in, length, and the head is more flat the same manner as I remember to and not so pointed; but differs from have been in the electrical experi. them in this respect, that it comes ment, when several persons take to the surface to breathe in the air. hold of the wire, and the equilibri. It is called by the Dutch Beave Aal, um is restored by the fluids passing and by the English inhabitants the through their bodies. Numbing Eel. As to the other

qua I find the Nock may be received lities, of which I mean chiefly to through metallic substances : take notice, and which I think are touching the fish with an old swordas different from the torpedo of Eu- blade, I was strongly affected. But rope, as the fish is in shape, they arming it with fealing-wax, and are as follows

taking hold of that part which was On touching the fish as it lies in covered with it, the electrical fluid the water, in a tub provided for it, (I cannot help calling it fo) would

nur

on

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not pass. Neither has it any effect ten observed, that on first taking
on the body when touched with a hold of it, the shock is tolerable;
glass bottle, sealing-wax, &c. Yet but as soon as it perceives itself the
I cannot observe the least dimi- least confined, the shock is much
nution of this quality by placing more violent. This I experienced
the tub which contains the fish on to my cost, as I one day took hold
glass bottles ; it continues the same of it, about the middle of the filh.
in all respects. So that whether it I lifted it partly out of the water,
has an unaccountable faculty of col. when on a sudden I received so
lecting a quantity of the fluid from smart a fhock, that it occafioned a
the surrounding waters, or through strong contraction in the bending
the body of the person touching it, muscles of my fingers, and I could
or has in its own body a large fund not immediately let it go; but en:
which it can discharge at pleasure, deavouring to disengage my hand,
I am greatly at a loss to think or threw it on the ground; taking
imagine.

hold of it a second time, to return
Although it has no effect on the it into the tub, I was more strongly
human body, when touched with a affected than at first, and that not
piece of wood, or indeed any other only in my hands and arms, but
substance not metallic ; yet an acci- throughout my whole body; the
dent discovered to me, that on some fore part of my head, and back
occasions the effect would be fenfi- part of my legs suffered principally;
ble through wood. For one morn- and in the same manner as on re-
ing while I was standing by, as a ser- ceiving a very smart shock from a
vant was emptying the tub, which he highly charged phial in electrical
had lifted entirely from the ground, experiments.
and was pouring off the water to re On observing that the sensation
new it, and the fith left almost dry, occasioned by the mock, as to the
the

negro received so violent a fhock, nature and degree of strength upon as occafioned him to let the tub fall; touching different parts of the fish, and calling another to his assistance, was different, I was at first inclined I caused them both to lift the tub to thiok it might be owing to its free from the ground, when pouring having an extraordinary faculty of off the remains of the water, they containing more of the fluid in one both received smart shocks, and part of its body than in another. were obliged to delift from empty. The tail part, to above one third ing the tub in that manner. This of its length, occafions rather a I afterwards tried myself, and re- numbness and tingling, than pain; ceived the like shock. This fifta but on applying the end of the indeed was one of the largest I have fingers to the back, head, and unseen, and but newly caught. For der part of its body, it causes a I observe that after being some time sharp pricking pain. confined in a tub, and wanting per- possibly be accounted for, by the haps their natural food, they lose difference in the texture of the much of the strength of this extra- surface of the skin, as the man• ordinary quality. I am fometimes ner of the electrical Auid's coming apt to conjecture that this' animal from a glass tube is different when has the power of communicating its surface is altered by being the stroke when, and with what de rubbed with different substances, as gree of force it will; and that it has been lately taken notice of in serves it as a weapon of defence a letter to the Royal Society. against its enemies." For I have of.

SELECT

This may

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SELECT BIOGRAPHY.

cation.jppis

LIFE OF

place, from the school-mistress of CAPTAIN JAMES COOK. the village : but his father, from [Compiled from Dr. Kippis's late Public the goodness of his character, hay.

ing been appointed bailiff on Airy URING the present period, late Thomas Scotrow, esq. he re,

Holme, a farm belonging to the D the pursuit of foreign difco- moved thither with his family; and very and enterprize has exceeded his son James, being then about that of

any
other

age or country: eight years old, was, by Mr. Scotmariners have dauntlessly and repeatedly braved the dangers of rocks where he learned writing, and the

tow, put to a day-school in Ayton; and shoals, in pursuit of islands hi

principles of arithmetic. therto unknown, and of passages ne

He was bound apprentice to a ver before explored; travellers, of shopkeeper at Staiths, a fishing town rank and fortune, have with equal ten miles norih of Whitby, before courage traversed desarts and woods, he had attained the

age

of thirteen ; in momentary danger of meeting but having a strong inclination for wild and ferocious natives, or more

a seafaring life, his passion for which destructive beasts of prey, for the

was probably strengthened by the purpose of aiding geographical precifion. Their adventures are read opportunities he had of frequenting

the

company of mariners, on a viowith avidity; and are generally ho lent quarrel with his master, he noured with approbation : but no traveller, or author, has risen so after, bound himself, for seven years,

procured his discharge; and, foon high in the estimation of Europe, as

to Messrs. J. and H. Walker, of the subject of the following memoirs; Whitby, both Quakers, and prin. captain James Cook ; whose fuccefs cipal owners of two ships employed must excite the applause even of dul- constantly in the coal trade. He ness, and whose fate will often-per- continued to serve, after he expihaps in ages to come-bedew the ration of his apprenticeship, in the cheeks of sensibility.

coal and other branches of trade, as

a common sailor ; but at length he Captain James Cook, the eminent was promoted to be mate of one of British navigator, was born the 27th his master's vessels. of O&tober 1728, at Marton, a small To this period, nothing strikingly village in the North Riding of York- portentous appeared either in his fhire, about fix miles from Stockton character or conduct: he did not exi upon Tees. His father, whose chris- hibit any marks of those superior tian name was also James, from his abilities, which have done distin. dialect was supposed to be a Nor- guished honour to his country, thumbrian, and lived in the humble which rank him amongst the most station of a farmer's fervant. He celebrated navigators, and which married a woman in the iņferior render his name immortal. rank of life; they were both, how In the spring of 1755, a war com, ever, noted for a more than moderate menced between Great Britain and portion of honesty, sobriety, and in- France. An order having been dustry.

issued from the Admiralty for im. Young Cook received the first ru; pressing seamen, Mr. Cook, then in diments of his education at his native the river with his ship, to avoid be

ing

ing pressed, entered voluntarily into the full satisfaction of his employers. his majesty's service, to try his for- He did not, however, effect his pure cune in another capacity. He re, pose without great hazard: having paired to a house of rendezvous at been engaged in this business for feWapping, and entered with an of- veral nights successively, he was at ficer belonging to the Eagle, a length discovered by the enemy, thip of fixty guns, con manded by who sent a number of canoes filled captain Hamer. Captain, now fir with Indians, to surround him, and Hugh Palliser, was appointed, in he had no other alternative but to the month of October 1955, to this make for shore on the itland of Ore fhip; and Cook's diligence, and at leans, near the guard of the Englih gention to the dusies of his profef- hospital; to which he was so closely fion, did not escape this commander's pursued, that he had scarcely leaped notice, who foon distinguished him from the bow of the boat, which be to be an able and active seaman. longed to one of the Phips of war,

On the 10th of May 1759, he ob. when the Indians entered it by the tained a master's warrant for che ftern, and carried it off in triumph. Grampus floop, at the instance of Before this period, there is reason the member for Scarborough; but to believe, that Cook had scarcely this appointment did not take place, used a pencil, and was entirely una as the proper master of that vefsel acquainted with drawing; but such unexpectedly returned. However, were the powers of his mind, and four days after, he was made master his aptitude for acquiring knowof the Garland: but here again he ledge, that he foon made himself was disappointed; for, upon enquiry, master of every object to which he it was found, that the ship had failed applied; and, notwithstanding the some days before. As a recompence disadvantages under which he lafor this accident, on the 15th of boured, he furnished the admiral May he was appointed to the Mer- with a complete draught of the cury, which was destined for North channel and loundings, America, to join the fleet under the Our navigator also performed command of sir Charles Saunders; another important service while on who, in conjunction with general the American station, which does no Wolfe, was then engaged before less honour to his memory, and Quebec. During that memorable cqually delerves mention. The nasiege, it was found necessary to take vigation of the river St. Lawrence foundings in the channel of the is both difficult and dangerous, and river St. Lawrence, directly oppo. was particularly fo then to the Enga site the French camp at Montmo« lill, who were scarcely acquainted rency and Beauport, that the admi- with that part of North America, ral might be enabled to lay his frips and who had no chart, on the core before the enemies batteries, and rectness of which they could depend. cover the British army, in an attack The admiral, therefore, having rewhich the general intended to make ceived so favourable a specimen of on the French camp. This being Mr. Cook's abilities, appointed hiin a dangerous service, and as Cook's to survey those parts of the river sagacity and resolution were now below Quebec which navigators acwell known, captain Palliser recom- counted to be most dangerous. This mended him as a proper person to business he executed with the same undertake it, and he was not disap- diligence, activity and skill, as he pointed; for Cook performed it in had displayed on the former occathe molt effectual mauper, and to fion, When he had completed this

chart,

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