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to this diet, without variery or change, was necessarily in those trading places Thould have it for their characteriitic which were upon the very same coast that they were long livers.
from which the bullion was brought. The shepherds were not at all alarmed Alexander's expedition into India at the arrival of Cambyses's ambaíla- was, of all events, that which most dors. On the contrary, they treaied threatened the destruction of the comthem as an inferior species of men. merce of the continent, or the dispersing Upon asking them about their diet, and it into different channels throughout hearing it was upon bread, they called the East: first, by the destruction of it dung, probably from having the ap- Tyre, which must have, for a time, pearance of that bread which the mi- annihilated the trade by the Arabian Terable Agows, their neighbours, make gulf; then by his'march through Egypt from feeds of bastard rye, which they into the country of the Nepherds, and collect in their fields under the burning his intended further progress into Ethirays of the sun. They laughed at opia to the head of the Nile. If we Cambyses's requisition of submitting to may judge of what we hear of him in him, and did not conceal their con that part of his expedition, we should tempt of his idea of bringing an army be apt not to believe, as others are fond thither. They treated ironically his of doing, that he had schemes of comhopes of conquest, even fuppofing all merce mingled with those of conquests. difficulties of the desert overcome, and His anxiety about his own birth at the his army ready to enter th: ir country, temple of Jupiter Ammon, this first and counselled him to return while he queltion that he asked of the prielt, was well, at least for a time, till he 66 Where the Nile had its fource ?" should produce a man of his army that seerned to denote a mind busied about could bend the bow that they then sent other objects; for eise he was then in him ; in which cafe, he might continue the very place for information, being to advance, and have hope of conquist. in the temple of the horned god, the
It is well known, that the Pui fians deity of the shepherds, the African care were all famous archers. The morti- riers of the Indian produce; a temple fication, therefore, they experienced, which, though in the midst of sand, and by receiving the bow they could not destitute of gold or silver, possessed more bend, was a very sensible one, though and better information concerning the the narrative of the quiintity of gold the trade of India and Africa, than could messengers had seen made a much be found in any other place on the greater imprellion upon Cambyses. To continent. procure this treasure was, however, im Mr. Bruce next proceeds to give practicable, as he had no provision, nor some account of the visit made by the was there any in the way of his march. queen of Sheba, as we erroneously call His army, therefore, wasted daily by her, and the confequences of that visit; death and dispersion ; and he had the the foundation of an Ethiopian momortification to be obliged to retreat narchy, and the continuation of the into Egypt, after part of his troops had fceptre in the tribe of Judali, down to been reduced to the necessity of eating this day. each other.
“ Many,” says Mr. Bruce, “ have Trade was now attempted to be open- thought this queen was an Arab. But ed by Darius, king of Persia, in a much Saba was a separate state, and the more worthy and liberal manner, as he Sabeans a distinct people from the sent fhips down the river Indus into Ethiopians and the Arabs, and have the ocean, whence they entered the Red continued so till very lately. We Sea. It is probable, in this voyage, he knoiv, from history, that it was a cus. acquired all the knowledge necessary tom among thefe Sabeans, to have for establishing this trade in Perlia; for women for their sovereigns in preferhe must have passed through the Persian ence to men, a culom which still luba gulf, and along the whole eastern coast lifts among their descendants. of Arabia; he must have seen the marts
Medis levibusque Sabreis, of perfumes and spices that were at the
Imperat hic sexus Reginarumque fub armis, mouth of the Red Sea, and the manner Barbarice pars magna jacet. of bartering for gold and silver, as he
“ Her name, the Arabs say, was learning which was then almost peculiar Belkis; the Abyssinians, Maqueda. to Paleitine, not to Ethiopia. "For we Our Saviour calls her Queen of the see that one of the reasons of her coming, South, without mentioning any other was to examine whether Solomon was name, but gives his fanction to the really the learned man he was said to truth of the voyage. •The Queen of the be. She came to try him in allegories, South (or Saba, or Azab) Thall rise up or parables, in which Nathan had inin the judgment with this generation, structed Solomon. and shall condemn it ; for the came “ The learning of the East, and of from the uttermost parts of the earth to the neighbouring kings that correshear the wisdom of Solomon ; and, be• ponded with each other, especially in hold, a greater than Solomon is here.' Palestine and Syria, consisted chiefly in No other particulars, however, are men- these: • And Joalh king of Israel seot tioned about her in fcripture; and it is to Amaziah king of Judah, saying, The not probable our Saviour would say she thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the came from the uttermost parts of the cedar that was in Lebanon, saying, earth, if she had been an Arab, and had Give thy daughter to my son to wife: near 50 deg. of the continent behind and there passed by a wild beast that her. The gold, the myrrh, caffia, and was in Lebanon, and trode down the frankincense, were all the produce of thistle.'-- Thou sayest, Lo, thou hast her own country; and the many rea fmitten the Edomites, and thine heart fons Pineda gives to sew Mhe was an lifteth thee up to boast : abide now at Arab, more than convince me that he home, why shouldest thou meddle to was an Ethiopian or Cufhite shepherd. thine hurt, that thou thouldest fall,
“ A strong objection to her being an even thou, and Judah with thee?' Arab, is, that the Sabean Arabs, or “ The annals of Abyssinia, being Homerites, the people that lived oppo- very full upon this point, have taken a fite to Azab on the Arabian fhore, had middle opinion, and by no means an kings instead of queens, which latter improbable one. They say she was a the shepherds had, and still have, Pagan when the left Azab, but being Moreover, the kings of the Homerites full of admiration at the fight of Sclowere never seen abroad, and were stoned mon's works, he was converted to to death if they appeared in public ; Judaism in Jerusalem, and bore him a subjects of this stamp would not very son, whom she called Menilek, and who readily suffer their queen to go to Jeru. was their first king. However Itrongly falem, even fuppofing they had a queen, they affert this, and however dangerous which they had not.
it would be to doubt it in Abysinia, I " Whether Me was a Jewess or a will not here aver it for truth, nor much Pagan is uncertain : Sabailin was the less still will I positively contradict it, religion of all the East. It was the as scripture has said nothing about it. I conitant attendant and stumbling block 'suppole, whether true or not, in the cir. of the Jews; but considering the mul- cumstances (he was, whilst Solomon also, titude of that people then trading from so far from being very nice in his choice, Jerusalem, and the long time it conti- was particularly addicted to Idumeans, nued, it is not improbable she was a and other strange women, he could not Jewess. “And when the queen of more naturally engage hiinself in any Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon amour than in one with the queen of concerning the name of the Lord, the Saba, with whom he had so long enter. came to prove him with hard queftions.' tained the most lucrative connections, Our Saviour, moreover, speaks of her and most perfect friendship, and who, with praise, pointing her out as an ex on her part, by so long a journey, had ample to the Jews. And, in her thankf- surely made fufficient advances. giving before Solomon, the alludes to - The Abyllinians, both Jews and God's blesing on the feed of Israel for Christians, believe the xlvth psalm to be ever, which is by no means the language a prophecy of this queen's voyage to of a Pagan, but of a person skilled in the Jerusalem ; that she was attended by a ancient history of the Jews.
daughter of Hirain's from Tyre to Je“ She likewise appears to have been rusalem, and that the last part contains a person of learning, and that fort of a declaration of her having a fon by So
lomon, who was to be king over a na. in private hands, few of them, from extion of Gentiles.
treme poverty, being able to purchase " To Saba, or Azah, then, she re the whole, either of the historical or turned with her fun Menilek, whom, prophetical books of the Old Testament. after keeping fome years, the sent The same may be said of the New, for back to his father to be initructed. copies containing the whole of it are Solomon did not neglect his charge, very scarce. Indeed no where, unless and he was anointed and crowned king in churches, do you see more than the of Ethiopia, in the temple of Jerusalem, Gospels, or the Acts of the Apostles, in and at his inauguration took the name one person's possession, and it must not of David. After this he returned to be an ordinary man that possesses even Azab, and brought with him a colony these. Many books of the Old Testaof Jews, among whom were many doc ment are forgotten, so that it is the tors of the law of Moses, particularly fame trouble to procure them, even in one of each tribe, to make judges in his churches, for the purpose of copying, as kingdom, from whom the prefent um. to consult old records long covered with bares (or supreme judges, three of whom dust and rubbish. The Revelation of always attend the king) are said and St. John is a piece of favourite reading believed to be descended. With these among them. There is no such thing came also Azarias, the son of Zadok the as distinctions between canonical and priest, and brought with him a Hebrew apocryphal books. Bell and the Dratranscript of the law, which was deli- gon, and the Acts of the Apostles, are vered into his custody, as he bore the read with equal devotion, and, for the title of nebrit, or high-priest; and this molt part, with equal edification. The charge, though the book itself was burnt Song of Solomon is a favourite piece of with the church of Axum in the Moorish reading among the old priests, but forwar of Adel, is fill continued, as it is bidden to the young ones, to the deasaid, in the lineage of Azarias, who are cons, laymen, and women. The Abyrnebrits, or keepers of the church of finians believe, that this song was made Axum, at this day. All Abyffinia by Solomon in praise of Pharaoh's was thereupon con ted, and the go- daughter; and do no think, as some vernment of the church and state mo. of our divines are disposed to do, that delled according to what was then in there is in it any mystery or allegory use at Jerusalein.
respecting Christ and the church. “ By the last act of the queen of Next to the New Testament they Saba's reign, she settled the mode of place the constitutions of the Apostles, succession in her country for the future. which they call Synnodos, which, as First, Me enacted, that the crown Mould far as the cases or doctrines apply, we bę hereditary in the family of Solomon may say is the written law of the counfor ever. Secondly, that, after her, no try. These were translated out of the woman should be capable of wearing Arabic. They have next a general that crown or being queen, but that it liturgy, or book of common prayer, fhould descend to the heir male, how. besides several others peculiar to certain ever distant, in exclusion of all heirs festivals, under whose names they go. female whatever, however near; and The next is a very large voluminous that these two articles should be consi- book, called Haimanout Abou, chiefly dered as the fundamental laws of the a collection from the works of different kingdom, never to be altered or abo. Greek fathers, treating of, or explainlimed. And, lasly, That the heirs ing feveral heresies, or disputed points male of the royal house, should always of faith, in the ancient Greek church. be sent prisoners to a high mountain, Translations of the works of St. Athawhere they were to continue will their nafius, St. Bazil, St. John Chrysostome, death, or till the succeffion should open and St. Cyril, are likewise, current to them.”
The Abyssinians have the whole The next is the Synaxar, or the Flos scriptures entirely as we have, and count Sanctorum, in which the miracles and the same number of books; but they lives, or lies of their saints, are at large divide them in another manner, at leait recorded, in four monstrous volumes in
folio, stuffed full of fables of the most home, standing immediately before the incredible kind. They have a faint book of Job, which is its proper place that wrestled with the devil in the shape in the Abyssinian canon ; and a third of a serpent nine miles long; threw him copy he presented to the Bodleian lifrom a mountain, and killed him. An. brary at Oxford. other faint who converted the devil, The Abyssinian annals mention an turned monk, and lived in great holiness expedition to have happened into the forty years after his conversion, doing farthest part of Arabia Felix, which the penance for having tempted our Saviour Arabian authors, and indeed Mahomet upon the mountain : what became of himself in the Koran calls by the name hiin after, they do not say. Again, of the War of the Elephant, and the another saint, that never até nor drank cause of it was as follows—There was from his mother's womb, went to Je- a temple nearly in the middle of the rufalem, and said mass every day at the peninsula of Arabia, that had been holy sepulchre, and came home at night held in the greatest veneration for about in the shape of a stork. The last Mr. one thousand four hundred years. The Bruce mentions, was a saint, who, being Arabs say, that Adam, when shut out very fick, and his Itoinach in disorder, of paradise, pitched his tent on this took a longing for partridges; he call. fpot; while Eve, from some accident ed upon a brace of them to come to or other, died and was buried on the him, and immediately two roasted par- shore of the Red Sea, at Jidda. Two tridges came flying, and rested upon his days journey east from this place, her plate, to be devoured. These stories grave, of green fods about fifty yards are circumstantially told and vouched in length, is shewn to this day. In by unexceptionable people, and were a this temple also was a black stone, upon grievous itumbling-block to the Je- which Jacob saw the vision mentioned suits, who could not pretend their own in scripture, of the angels descending, miracles were either better established, and ascending into Heaven. It is likeor more to be credited.
wise said, with more appearance of proThe last of this Ethiopic library is bability, that this temple was tuilt by the book of Enoch. Upon hearing Seloftris, in his voyage to Arabia Felix, this book first mentioned, many literati and that he was worshipped there under in Europe had a wonderful desire to see the name of Osiris. it, thinking that, no doubt, many fe This tower, and idol, being held in crets and unknown histories might be great veneration by the neighbouring drawn from it. Upon this, some im- nations, suggested the very natural poffor getting an Ethiopic book into thought of making the temple the marhis hands, wrote for the title, The ket for the trade from Africa and Prophecies of Enoch, upon the front India. They chose this town in the page of it. M. Pierisc no sooner heard heart of the country, accessible on all of it than he purchased it of the im- fides, and commanded on none, calling postor for a considerable sum of money: it Becca, which signifies the house; being plced afterwards in cardinal though Mahomet, after breaking the Mazarine’s library, where Mr. Ludolf idol and dedicating the temple to the had access to it, he found it was a true God, named it Mecca, under Gnostic book upon mysteries in heaven which name it has continued, the centre and earth, but which mentioned not a or great mart of the India trade to this word of Enoch, or his prophecy, from day. beginning to end; and, from this dif. Abreha, in order to divert this trade appointment, he takes upon him to deny into a channel inore convenient for his the existence of any such book any present dominions, built a very large where else. This, however, is a mil. church or temple, in the country of the take; for, among the articles Mr. Homerites, and nearer the Indian Ocean. Bruce consigned to the library at Paris, To encourage also the resort to this was a very beautiful and magnificent place, he extended to it all the pricopy of the prophecies of Enoch, in vileges, protection, and emoluments, large quarto ; another is amongst the that belonged to the Pagan temple books of scripture which he brought of Mecca.
Among the various tribes of Arabs, the temple, which he had in that case Gne called Beni Koreish, had the care of resolved in his mind to do, could not the Caba, the name by which the round conceal bis astonishment at fo filly a tower of Mecca was called. These requelt, and he could not help testifying people were exceedingly alarmed at the this to Abou Thaleb, in a manner that profpe&t of their temple being at once thewed it had lowered him in his esteem. delerted, both by its votaries and mer Abou Thaleb, smiling, replied very chants, to prevent which, a party of calmly, “ If that before you is the them, in the night, entered Abreha's temple of God, as I believe it is, you temple, and having first burned what shall never destroy it, if it is his will part of it could be consumed, they pol. that it should stand: if it is not the luted the part that remained, by be temple of God, or, which is the same finearing it over with human excre- , thing, if he has ordained that you should ments.
destroy it, I shall not only assist you in So gross an affront could not be demoliming it, but shall help you in passed unnoticed by Abreha, who, carrying away the last stone of it upon mounted upon a white elephant, at the my lhoulders : but as for me, I ain a head of a considerable army, resolved, shepherd, and the care of cattle is my in return, to destroy the temple of profession; twenty of the oxen which Mecca, and with this intent laid siege are stolen are not my own, and I fall to that place. Abou Thaleb was then be put in prison for them to-morrow; keeper of the Caba, who had interest for neither you nor I can believe that with his countrymen the Beni Koreish this is an affair God will interfere in ; to prevail upon them to make no relift, and therefore I apply to you for a solo ance, nor thew any signs of wishing to dier who will seek the thief, and bring make a defence. He had presented back iny oxen, that my liberty be not himself early to Abreha upon his march. taken from me." There was a temple of Osiris at Taief, Abreha had now refreshed his army, which, as a rival to that of Mecca, was and, from regard to his guest, had. looked upon by the Beni Koreish with not touched the temple; when, says a jealous eye. `Abreha was so far mis- the Arabian author, there appeared, led by the intelligence given him by coming from the sea, a flock of birds Abou Thaleb, that he miftook the called Ababil, having faces like lions,' temple of Taief for that of Mecca, and and each of them, in his claws, holding razed it to the foundation, after which a small stone like a pea, which he ler he prepared to return home.
fall upon Abreha's army, so that they' Being soon afterwards informed of were all deitroyed. The author of the his miitake, and not repenting of what manuscript from which Mr. Bruce took he had already done, he resolved to this fable, and which is also related by destroy Mecca also. Abou Thaleb, several other historians, and mentioned however, had never left his side ; by his by Mahomet in the Koran, does not great hospitality, and the plenty he pro- seem to swallow the story implicitly. cured to the emperor's army, he fo For he says, that there is no bird that gained Abreha, that hearing, on in- has a face like a lion, that Abou Tha-' quiry, he was no mean man, but a leb was a Pagan, Mahomet being not prince of the tribe of Beni Koreish, then come, and that the Christians were noble Arabs, he obliged him to fit in worshippers of the true God, the God his presence, and kept him constantly of Mahomet; and, therefore, if any with him as a companion. At last, miracle was wrought here, it was a pot knowing how to reward him fuffi. miracle of the devil, a victory in favour ciently, Abreha desired him to ask any of Paganism, and destructive of the bea' thing in his power to grant, and he lief of the true God. In conclusion, would 'satisfy him. Abou Thaleb, he says, that it was at this time that the taking him at his word, wished to be small-pox and measles first broke out in provided with a man, that should bring Arabia, and almost totally destroyed the back forty oxen, the soldiers had stolen army of Abreha. But if the stone, as from him. Abreha, who expected that big as a pea, thrown by the Ababil, had the favour he was to ask, was to spare killed Abreha's army to the last man,