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less than the rest. This peculiarity his attendants; but found much re-
travels, containing the author's farther
TRAVELS TO DISCOVER THE SOURCE quarter of an hour, and then gave place
OF THE NILE, IN 1768, to 1773. to another, who, while waiting, fat close by the side of her it was to fuc
5 VOLS. 4to. BY JAMES BRUCE, ceed: : a circumfance which made me
OF KINNAIRD), ESQ: F. R. S.
BINSONS. conjecture that in cold or rainy nights
1790. gl. gs. they fit by pairs, or perhaps more. IT being now sixteen years since the The sun was almost down; the male Public had reason to expect the partibird approached, (these equally with culars of Mr. Bruce's journey into the females assist in hatching the eggs). Abyffinia, many have been inclined to I inftantly shot him, but the report of doubt that this gentleman had never my gun scared the others, who in their reached the source of the Nile ; and fright broke several of them. I now that many other of his assertions were drew near, and faw with regret that the exaggerated. This, however, was by young ostriches were just ready to quit no means the general opinion; and the shells, being perfe&tly covered with whatever of suspicion may hitherto have down. The male I had fhot, had not operated, is now effectually done away a single good white feather, all being by the publication before us.
It conspoiled and dirty. I chose some black tains a Dedication to the King; and an ones, which appeared the best, and left Introduction, stating the motives on the place, sending some of my Hotten- which these travels were undertaken. tots to fetch the thirteen dispersed eggs, But this we must necessarily pass over ; charging them not to touch the others, as we mean to give our readers a comas I was curious to learn whether the plete view of the Work, sometimes females would return in the night. copying
the most interesting passages in I rose, and went to the nest at day. the exact words of the author. break, but found only fome scattered The discovery of the source of the fhells remaining, which plainly denoted Nile was a subject of frequent conversathat I had prepared a feast for the tion between Mr. Bruce and his friends; jackals, or perhaps for the hyæna. but it was always mentioned to him
“This particularity of female ostriches with a kind of diffidence, as if to be exaffifting each other for the incubation of pected from a more experienced trathe same nelt, is I think calculated to veller. Whether this was but another awaken the attention of the naturalists; way of exciting him to the attempt, he and not being a general rule, proves does not presume to say ; but his heart that circumstances fometimes determine in that instant did him the justice to the actions of these creatures, regulate suggest, that this, too, was either to be their customs, and strengthen their na- atchieved by him, or to remain, as it had tural instinct, by giving them a know. done for thefe last two thousand years, ledge not generally beltosed; for is it a defiance to all travellers, and an opnot probable, that they may associate to probrium to geography. be the more powerful, and better able Fortune, however, seemed apparently to defend their young?"
to point out Mr. Bruce for the underIn April, M. Vaillant arrived safely taking : for at the very instant, Mr. at the Cape, without meeting any very Alpinwall, very cruelly and ignomiremarkable occurrence. He discharged niously treated by the dey of Algiers,
had refigned his confullhip, and Mr. After a favourable voyage, he arrived Ford, a merchant, formerly the dey's at Tunis, and, having delivered his letacquaintance, was named in his place. ters from the bey, and obtained permis, Mr. Ford was appointed, and dying a fon to visit the country in whatever difew days after, the consulship became rection he should please, he set out on
Lord Halifax pressed Mr. ķis inland journey through the king. Bruce to accept of this, as containing doms of Algiers and Tunis. all sort of conveniencies for making the From Dugga he continued the upper proposed expedition.
road to Keff, through the pleasant plains He had all his life applied unwearied. inhabited by the Welled Yagoube. ly to drawing, the practice of mathe- He then proceeded to Hydra, a frontier matics, and especially that part necessary place between the two kingdoms of to altronomy. The transit of Venus Algiers and Tunis, as Keff is also. It was at hand. It was certainly known is inhabited by a tribe of Arabs, whose that it would be visible once at Algiers, chief is a marabout, or saint; thefe and there was great reafon to expect it Arabs are immensely rich, paying nợ might be twice. He furnished himself tribute either to Tunis or Algiers. with a large apparatus of instruments, The pretence for this exemption is a the completest of their kind for the ob- very singular one. By the institution of fervation. It was a pleasure to Mr. their founder, they are obliged to live Bruce to know, that it was not from a upon lions Hella for their daily food, as folitary desert, but from his own house far as they can procure it. at Algiers, he could deliberately take Having proceeded to the north-east as measures to place himself in the list of far as Tuberfoke, he returned to Dugga, men of science of all nations, who were and from thence to Tunis. His next then preparing for the same scientific journey through Tunis, was by Zowan, purpose.
a high mountain, where is a large aqueThus prepared, he fet out for Italy, duct which formerly carried its water through France; and on his arrival at to Carthage. Rome, he received orders to proceed to Having continued his journey along Naples, there to wait his majesty's fure the coast to Susa, through a fine country ther cominands. Having stopped a planted with olive trees, he came again short time there, he received orders to
to Tunis. praceed to take possession of his consula He then took leave of the bey, and, Mip. He returned without loss of time with the acknowledgments usual on to Rome, and thence to Leghorn ; such occalions, again set out from where, having embarked on board the Tunis, on a very serious journey in Montreal man of war, he arrived at deed, over the desert to Tripoli, the Algiers.
first part of which was to Gabs, and After Mr. Bruce had spent a year at fiom thence to the iBand of Gerba. Algiers, constant conversation with the Being arrived at Tripoli, he sent an matives whilst abroad, and with his ma- English servant from thence to Smyrna nuscripts within doors, bad qualified with his books, drawings, and superhim to appear in any part of the conti- numerary inftruments, retaining only dient without the help of an interpreter. extracts from such authors as might be
Business of a private nature having at necessary for him in the Pentapolis, or this time obliged Mr. Bruce to take a other parts of the Cyrenaicum. He voyage to Mahon, he failed from then crossed the gulf of Sydrı, formerly Algiers, after having taken leave of the known by the name of the Syrtis Madey, who furnished him with the neces- jor, and arrived at Bengazi, the ancient sary passports, and also gave him re- Berenice, built by Prolemy Philadelcommendatory letters to the bey of phus. Tunis and Tripoli. Being disappointed Mr. Bruce encompassed a great part in his views at Mahon, he failed in a of the Pentapolis, visited the ruins of Small vesel from that port, and, having Arfinoe, and received neither insult nor a fair wind, in a thort time made the injury. Finding nothing at Arsinoe coast of Africa, and landed at Bona, a nor Barca, he continued his journey to considerable town.
Ras Sem, the petrified city, concerning which so many ridiculous tales were butt-end of a lance, shod with iron, told by the Tripoline ambassador, Caf- upon the juncture of the neck with the fem Aga, at the beginning of this cen- back bone. This he received from aa tury, and all believed in England, Arab; a tribe of whom were already though they carried falsehood upon the arrived to plunder the ship: very face of them,
After having received this discipline, Next approaching the fea coast, he he had walked, or crawled up among arrived at Ptolometa, where he met a fome white, fandy hillocks, where he Greek junk belonging to Lampedosa, a fat down and concealed himself as little isand near Crete, which had been much as poffible. The weather was unloading corn, and was now ready to then warm, but the evening promised fail.
to be cooler, and it was fast drawing He embarked on board this vefsel, on; there was great danger to be apvery ill accoutered, as he afterwards prehended if he approached the tenis, found, and, though it had plenty of where the women were, while he was fail, it had not an ounce of ballast. A naked, for in this case it was very number of people, men, women and probable he would receive another barchildren, flying from the calamities tinado fomething worse than the first. which attend famine, crowded in un- Still he was so confused, that he had not known to him ; but the passage was recoile&ted he could speak to them in Thort, the vessel light, and the master, their own language, and it now only as was supposed, well accustomed to came into his mind, that by the gibthose feas. The contrary of this, how- berish, in imitation of Turkith, which ever, was the truth, as he learned after- the Arab had uttered to him while he wards, when too late, for he was an was bearing and tripping him, he took absolute landsman ; proprietor indeed him for a Turk, and to this mistake he of the vessel, but this had been his firft probably owed his ill treatment. voyage. They failed at dawn of day in The Thekh of the tribe, being in very favourable and pleasant weather. peace with the bey of Bengazi, and also It was the beginning of September, and with the shekh of Ptolometa, after a light and iteady breeze, though not many questions, ordered our traveller a properly fair, promised a short and plentiful supper, of which all his feragreeable voyage ; but it was not long vants partook, none of them having before it turned fresh and cold ; a perished. A multitude of consultations violent Mower of hail came on, and the followed on their complaints, of which clouds were gathering as if for thunder. he freed himself in the best manner he Mr. Bruce observed that they gained no could. offing, and hoped, if the weather turned After staying two days among them, bad, to persuade the captain to put into the shiekh restored to them all that had Bengazi, for one inconvenience he pre- been taken from them; and mounting sently discovered, that they had not them upon camels, and giving them a provision on board for one day. conductor, he forwarded them to Ben
The expected storm came on, the gazi, where they arrived the second day wind blew contrary to their wishes; in the evening and, before they could reach the har- He loft a fextant, a parallactic inbour of Bengazi, the ship struck on a strument, a time-piece, a reflecting funken rock. Ainong others, Mr. telescope, an achromatic one, with many Bruce and his servants took to the boat; drawings, a copy of M. de la Caille's but being in great danger of oversetting, ephemerides down to the year 1775, our traveller, fearing that some of the much to be regretted, as being full of people would take hold of him to save manuscript marginal notes ;
a small themselves, committed himself to the camera obscura, fome guns, pistols, a waves, telling his servants to follow. blunderbuss, and several other articles, In this situation he continued some of less value. time, struggling manfully against the At Bengazi Mr. Bruce found a small storm ; but when, by the most uncoin- French floop, the master of which had mon efforts, he had reached near thore, been often at Algiers when he was he lost his recollection. This he lay, consul there. He had even, as the zill awakened by a stroke from the master remembered, done him some
little service, for which, contrary to the bathed with pleasure in the river Ado. custom of that sort of people, he was nis. All here is classic ground. He very grateful. He had come there laden faw several considerable ruins of Grewith corn, and was going up the Ar- cian architecture all very much dechipelago, or towards the Morea, for faced. more. The cargo be had brought was He passed Latikea, and then came to but a mite compared to the neceffities of Antioch, and afterwards to Aleppo. the place; it only relieved the soldiers After narrowly escaping drowning for a time, and many people of all ages once more, Mr. Bruce happily passed and sexes were still dying every day: Haffia, and proceeded for Palinyra.
The captain of this little vessel loft Just before they came in light of the no time. He had done his butiness ruins, they alcended a hill of white well, and though he was returning for gritty itone, in a very narrow, winding another cargo, yet he cheerfully offered road, such as is called a pass, and, when Mr. Bruce what part of his money he arrived at the top, there opened before should want. They then failed with a them the most aftonithing, ftupendous fair wind, and in four or five days easy fight that perhaps ever appeared to morweather landed at Canea, a considerable tal eyes. The whole plain below, fortified place at the west end of the which was very extensive, was covered island of Crete. Here our traveller so thick with magnificent buildings, as was taken dangerously ill, occalioned that the one seemed to touch the other, by the bathing and extraordinary ex- all of fine proportions, all of agreeable ertions in the sea of Ptolometa, nor fornis, all composed of white stones, was he in the least the better from the which at that diltance appeared like beating he had received, of which he marble. At the end of it food the very long afterwards bore the marks. palace of the sun, a building worthy to
From Canea he failed for Rhodes, and close to magnificent a scene. there met with his books; he then pro- Mr. Bruce proceeded from Palmyra ceeded to Caftelroffo, on the coast of to Balbec, diitant about one hundred Caramania, and was there credibly in- and thirty miles, and arrived the same formed that there were very magnificent day that Emir Yousef had reduced the remains of ancient buildings, a short town and settled the government, and way from the shore, on the opposite was decamping from it on his return continent. Caramania is a part of Asia home. This was the luckieft moment Minor yet unexplored.
possible for our traveller, as he was the Disappointed in an attempt to procure Emir’s friend, and had obtained liberty new instruments, in the room of those to do there what he pleased ; and to he had lost, he consoled himself that he this indulgence was added the great had pencils and paper; and luckily his convenience of the Emir's absence, to large camera obscura, which had escaped that he was not troubled by the obthe catastrophe of Ptolometa, was ar- servance of any court-ceremony or atrived from Smyrna. He therefore be- tendance, or teased with impertinent gan to look about for the means of ob- questions. taining feasible and safe methods of Balbec is pleasantly situated in a repeating the famous journey to Pal- plain on the west of Anti Libanus, is myra.
finely watered, and abounds in gardens. From Smyrna, Mr. Bruce went to It is about fifty miles from Hassia, and Tripoli in Syria, and thence to Haffia. about thirty from the nearest sea-coast, From thence he would have gone fouth- which is the situation of the ancient ward to Balbec, but it was then be- Byblus. The interior of the great sieged by Emir Yousef, prince of the temple of Balbec, supposed to be that of Druses, a Pagan nation, living upon the sun, surpasses any thing at Pal. mount Libanus. He therefore returned myra. to Tripoli, in Syria; and after some Palling by Tyre, from curiosity only, time set out for Aleppo, travelling Mr. Bruce came to be a mournful northward along the plain of Jeune, witness of the truth of that prophecy, bet wixt mount Lebanon and the fea. that Tyre, the queen of nations, thould He visited the ancient Byblus, and be a rock for fithers to dry their nets
on. Two wretched fishermen, with some street of modern houses, where a miserable nets, having just given over very active and intelligent number of their occupation with very little fuccefs, merchants live upon the iniferable remhe engaged them, at the expence of nants of that trade, which inade it's their nets, to drag in those places where glory in the first times. It is thinly they said thell-fini might be caught, in inhabited, and there is a tradition among hopes to have brought out one of the the natives, that, more than once, it has famous purple-fish. He did not succeed, been in agitation to abandon it altobut in this he supposes he was a's lucky gether, and retire to Rosetto, or Cairo, as the old fishers had ever been. The but that they have been withheld by purple filh at Tyre seems to have been the opinion of divers faints froin Arabia, only a concealment of their knowledge who have assured them, that Mecca of cochincal, as, had they depended being deftroyed, (as it must be, they upon the fish for their dye, if the whole think, by the Ruflians) Alexandria is city of Tyre applied to nothing else but then to become the holy place, and that fishing, they would not have coloured Mahomet's body is to be transported twenty yards of cloth in a year. Much thither. fatigued, but satisfied beyond measure Mr. Bruce arrived at Cairo in the with what he had seen, our traveller beginning of July, recommended to the arrives at Sidon in good health. very hospitable house of Julian and
Mr. Bruce Jailed from Sidon, on the Bertran ; to whom Mr. Bruce imparted 15th of June 1768, bound for the island his resolution of pursuing his journey to of Cyprus. On the 16th, at dawn of Abyssinia. The wildness of the inday, our traveller saw a' high hill, which tention seemed to strike them greatly. from its particular form, described by After a variety of circumstances of Strabo, he took for Mount Olympus. little conséquence, Mr. Bruce was adIt is fingular, that Cyprus should have mitted to an audience of Ali Bey. He remained so long undiscovered; ships was a much younger man than our trahad been used in the Mediterranean one veller had conceived him to be ; he was thousand seven hundred years before sitting upon a large sofa, covered with Christ; yet, though only a day's failing crimson cloth of gold; his turban, his from the continent of Asia on the north girdle, and the head of his dagger, all and east, and little more from that of thickly covered with fine brilliants Africa on the south, it was not known one in his turban, that served to supat the building of Tyre, a little before port a sprig of brilliants allo, was among the Trojan war, that is, five hundred the largeit Mr. Bruce had ever seen. years after ships had been palling and The bey entered into discourse with repafling in the surrounding feas. himn concerning the Ruffian and Turk.
On the 17th of June they left Lere ilh war, and conversed some time with nica ; and, on the 20th, early in the him on that subject. morning, had a distant prospect of Two or three nights afterwards the Alexandria rising from the fea. On bey sent for him again. It was near the first view of the city, the mixture of eleven o'clock before he got admittance. old monuments, such as the Column of He met the janissary Aga going out, Pompey, with the high Moorish towers and a number of soldiers at the door. and steeples, 'raise expectations of the As Mr. Bruce did not know this officer, consequence of the ruins to be found ; he passed him, without ceremony, which but the moment travellers are in port, is not usual. Whenever he mounts on the illusion ends, and they distinguish horseback, he has absolute power of the immense Herculean works of an- life and death, without appeal, throughcient times, now few in number, from out Cairo and its neighbourhood. the ill-imagined, ill-constructed, and The Aga stopt Mr. Bruce just at: imperfect buildings, of the several bar- the threshold, and asked one of the barous masters of Alexandria in later bey's people who he was ? and was ages. There are two ports, the Old and answered, " It is Hakim Englefe,” the the New, which are by no means safe. English philosopher, or physician. He
There is nothing beautiful or pleasant politely asked Mr. Bruce, in Turkisk, in the present Alexandria, but a hand. if he would wait on hill, for he was not VOL. II.