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the altar in the attitude of prayer. canons of their faith, and exacts
The prayer was a sort of litany, from him a solemn promise to abide
pronounced by a young man in a by them the rest of his life. They
loud and distinct voice; the people offered to admit Mr. Wilkins into
joining, at certain periods, in a ge. their fociety, but he declined the
neral response. This prayer was honour, contenting himself with
followed by a short blessing from their alphabet, which they told hine
the old man, and an invitation to to guard as the apple of his eye, it
the assembly to partake of a friendly being a sacred character: 'it is but
feaft. A share was offered to Mr. little different from the Dewanagari.
Wilkins, who was too polite to re. The language itself is a mixture of
fuse it. It was a kind of sweet-meat Persian, Arabic, and Sanscreet,
composed of sugar and flour mixed grafted upon the provincial dialect
up with clarified butter. They were of Punjah, which is a kind of Hin-
next served with a few sugar plums; dowee, or, as we commonly call it,
and thus ended the feast and cere. Moors,

The founder of this sect was Naneek Sah, who lived about four hundred years ago; he left behind him a book, of his own composition, IN the island of Ceylon the people in verse, containing the doctrines he. bestow no title on their king ; but had established : this book teaches, . when they speak to him they divest that there is but one God, filling themselves, through respect, of the all space, and pervading all matter; quality of man: for example, if the that there will be a day of retribu.. prince alks any of them whence he tion, when virtue will be rewarded, comes, they will say, Your majesty's' and vice punished. [In what man- dog comes from such a place. And ner, is not {pecified!] "It forbids if he asks how many children he has, murder, theft, and such other deeds he will reply, Your majesty's bitch. as are by the majority of mankind has produced fo many children to : esteemed crimes, and inculcates the your majesty's dog. practice of all the virtues; but par White among the Japanese is the ticularly, an universal philanthropy mark of mourning, and black that and hospitality to strangers and tra. of joy. They mount their horses yellers. It not only commands uni- on the right side. They falute neiversal toleration, (blush! Christians, ther with the head nor the hand, blush!) but forbids disputes with but with the foot. In the house those of another persuasion. If any they wear their finest cloaths, and one shew a sincere inclination to be lay them aside when they go abroad. adınitted among them, any five or A Japanese nobleman, when aceused more Seeks being assembled in any and convicted of any crime, would place, even on the highway, they think he disgraced himself did he lend to the first shop where sweet- beg for a pardon; he only endeameats are fold, and procure a very vours to obtain permilion to destroy finall quantity of a particular kind himself, or to make some one of his called Batasa, which having diluted friends, who is a gentleman, like in pure water, they sprinkle fome himfelt, perform the part of the of it on the body and eyes of the executioner. profelyte, whilst one of the best in So great was the ignorance inta Itructed repeats to him the chief which Europe svas plunged for sec


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veral centuries, that noblemen of his left brow, as a fign of mourn. the first rank.could not sign their ing. Not above two hundred years

In England, that the ago, the law proceeded against rats, nation might be inspired with a tafte in the same manner as it would have for study, a criminal who could read proceeded againdt men. The cele and write was pardoned. “ Ņo- brated Chaffeneux *, who was afterbody,” said fathers to their chil- wards firit president of the parliament dren, can foresee wkat will hap- of Provence, being as yet only advo: pen in life; one day, perhaps, it cate for the king in the bailiwick of may be your fate to be condemned Autun in Burgundy, undertook the to the gallows: it is therefore of the defence of the rats, in opposition to highest importance to learn to read a fentence of excommunication proand write.

nounced against them by the bishop In Languedoc, in the thirteenth, of Autun. He remonstrated, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, says M. de Thou, “ that the time when a man or a woman was caught which had been allowed them to in the act of adultery, the criminal appear in was too short, especially was condemned to run naked, in the as it was very dangerous for them middle of the day, from one end of to set out, because all the cats in the the town to the other.

neighbouring villages were lying in In public calamities, the Ethio. wait to seize them." He obtained, pians fometimes made a general therefore, that they mould be again massacre of their priests, saying, fummoned, and that a longer time

go, and pray to the gods a little fhould be granted them to appear. nearer?"

Formerly in Poland, those who We read in the feventeenth vo were accused and convicted of eatlume of the General History of ing meat in Lent, had their teeth Voyages and Travels, that a Dutch plucked oịt. A Nanderer was con: clergyman having made a present of demned to walk on all fours, and a bottle of gin to an Indian prince, to bark like a dog for a quarter of the latter, in order that he might an hour. It is pretended that thew his gratitude, and do honour Charles Y. king of France, intro, to his benefactor, ordered a battle duced this punishment at his court, to be fought by his subjects, fo that and that on certain days nothing the earth was soon covered with was heard but barking for whole wounded or dying people, and with mornings. dead bodies; and that, notwithftand Among the ancient Arabs, when ing the prayers and entreaties of the a new king was crowned, a list of clergyman, the combat continued the names all the women eigh for fome time, " These are my or nine months gone

with child was fubjects," said the prince ; * the made out; these females were all loss of tbem ig of very little import- shut up in the palace, where every ance; and I am exceedingly happy possible care was bestowed upon in making this small sacrifice, as a them, and the child first born, if a proof of the efkeem which I enter- boy, was declared presumptive heir tain for you."

to the crown.-" Royalty," said The weaknesses of the human they, “ought not to be confined to mind are sometimes fo ridiculous, one family, it belongs to the whole that one can scarcely give credit to nation." them. In Egypt, the master of a

* Born in 1480, died in 1542. house in which a cat died, Mayed





Anderson procured all their names. LIFE OF

Sixty-one of these ifles have their CAPTAIN JAMES COOK.

proper places and names marked out [Compiled from Dr. Kippis's late Publi- upon the chart of the Friendly Isles,

and the ketch of the harbour of Continued from p. 93


The 17th of July, captain Cook HE ships being to touch at took his final leave of the Friendly

Otaheite and the Society Isles, Iffes ; and reached Otaheite on the it had been determined to send back 12th of August. Froin thence he Omai, a native of that country, proceeded to some other of the Sowhom captain Furneaux brought to ciety Ifles; and, having properly England with him the former voyo disposed of Omai, and judiciously age. On the 24th of June 1776, distributed part of his live stock, he Omai left London, in company with determined on pursuing his course the captain; and, every preparation to the northward. He fet fail, therebeing completed, they failed for Ply. fore, from Bolabola, on the 8th of Demouth, where they were joined by cember, and, crossed the line about the Discovery. From Plymouth the 24th : on the 18th of January captain Cook directed his course to 1778, he discovered an island, which, Teneriff, to procure a fresh fupply however, he could not reach. Soon of corn and hay, for the subsistence after another appearing, he went on of the live stock. They next pro- fhore; and in the course of a few ceeded to the Cape, where they days, a whole group was observed, continued from the 18th of O&tober which the captain, in honour of lord till the zoth of November; and, hav- Sandwich, distinguifhed by the name ing touched at Kerguelen's Island, of the Sandwich Illands. Those and Van Diemen's Land, discovered which he saw, were situated between by Tasman in 1642, they arrived the latitude of 20°. 30. and 22° 15'. on the 12th of February 1777, at north, and between the longitude of Queen Charlotte's Sound, in New 1999. 29'. and 2010. 30. ealt. Zealand.

Quitting these islands, captain Continuing at New Zealand about Cook ranged along the western side a fortnight, they acquired much new of America; and after giving names information as to its productions, and to several capes and headlands, which the manners and customs of its in- appeared in fight, came to anchor habitants. After this, they paid à in an inlet, where the country previsit to the Friendly Illes, where re- sented a very different aspect from maining some time, captain Cook what he had previously seen. The took every opportunity of making summits of the mountains were such observations as might be ser- clothed in' sheets of snow, while viceable to navigation and astrono- the valleys between them and the my. From the information which grounds on the sea coast, both high he then received, it appears, that, and low, were covered to a condi. this Archipelago is very extensive; derable breadth, with tall streight above one hundred and fifty islands trees, which formed a most beau.. were enumerated by the natives, tiful prospect, as of one immense who made use of bits of leaves to forest. On his first arrival in this ascertain their number; and Mr. inlet, he had honoured it with the


name of King George's Sound; but of Oonalaska, the inhabitants of he afterwards found that it was which place behaved with a degree called Nootka by the natives. of friendship and politeness rarely

This place is at present the cause to be met with among favage tribes. of an impending war between Great He next steered towards the AmeriBritain and the Spaniards; who, can coast; and, having advanced as although they never took poffesfion far as the latitude of 70°. 44. found of the island, and never attempted, his progress impeded by ice, which probably never thought of, forming he found as compact as a wall, and a settlement there; nevertheless, at least ten or twelve feet in height; have watched with a jealous eye, farther north it still appeared to be the astonishing progress made in this much loftier ; its surface was ex. scheme by Mr. Meares, an English tremely rugged, and in different gentleman at China; in order to places it was covered with pools of fupply that market with furs, and water. On it lay a prodigious numthe skins of bears, wolves, foxes, ber of sea-horses, foine of which deer, and sea-otters. Besides this, were procured for food; and as at the filliery on every part of this this time there was a great want of coast is extremely valuable; from fresh provisions, (though many of the trials made of the oil, it is fup- the failors were disappointed, having posed to be the finest in the whole at first concluded that these animals world. However, in the months were sea-cows) the general anxiety of June and July last, the Spaniards for a change of diet, induced the thought proper to seize the English crews to consider the difference bevessels; and the loss in confequence, tween horses and cows as an object without confidering the immenfe ad- of no serious objection. vantages which the traffic, and the From the time captain Cook left fituation of the place, was likely to Nootka, to the 29th of July, many afford, is estimated at upwards of important discoveries were made: one hundred thoufand pounds. which form a valuable addition to

After staying nearly a month at those of his two former voyages; Noorka, to complete the neceffary and, in point of extent, furpass all repairs, our navigators on the 26th that the Ruffians accomplished in a of April proceeded northward, and long series of years, though, in entered another inlet, from which parts, contiguous to their own emgreat things were expected, as they pire. Previous to the last mentioned entertained the strongest hopes that period, he had traversed the icy sea it would be found to communicate beyond Beering's Strait, in various either with the sea to the north, or directions, and through numberless with Baffin's or Hudson's Bay to the difficulties and obstructions; but he east. On this account it was traced never once abandoned the pursuit as high as the latitude of 60°. 30'. of his favourite object till the great and the longitude of 210°. feventy increase of the ice precluded all leagues from its entrance, but with• hopes of success, at leait during that out fuccefs; captain Cook, therefore, year. named it River. Turnagain. It has The season being now fáråd. fince been distinguished by the ap- vanced, and the time of the frost pellation of Cook's River, by lord being fast approaching, our great Sandwich.

navigator thought it imprudent to Captain Cook, however, conti- make any farther attempts to find a nued his researches; and on the 27th paffage into the Atlantic, till the of June 17784 arrived at the island ensuing summer. He therefore be


gan to look out for a place where he behaviour on this occasion was open might, besides procuring wood and and unreserved, and afforded little water, conveniently pass the winter; cause for suspicion. It was indeed and none seeming better adapted for remarked, that even the people of that purpose than some of the Sand- Otaheite had never displayed fuch wich Isles, he directed his course unbounded confidence in the intethither.

grity of the English. This expedition hitherto, though January the 17th, 1779, our na.attended with many dangers and dif- vigators came to anchor in the Bay ficulties, had been marked with no of Karakakooa, situated on the west peculiar disaster ; and captain Cook fide of the island of Owhyhee, and was no doubt flattering himself with extending about a mile in depth. It the hopes of being yet more success- is bounded by two points of land, ful; but little did he think that the bearing south-eait and north-west Sandwich Isles, which he confidered from each other, at the distance of as the most important discovery of all half a league ; on the northernmost that had been made by Europeans in of which is situated a village called the Pacific Ocean*, would in the Kowrowa. A more confiderable result prove fatal, and that he village stands in the bottom of the Mould there fall by the murdering bay, near a stately grove of cocoa dagger of a barbarian ; a victim to nut trees; and a high rocky cliff, his own humanity.

inaccessible from the sea shore, runs Captain Cook in his former visit between them. to this group of islands, had observed The islanders behaved with the five of them fituated between the la- greatest friendthip to captain Cook, titude of 20°. 30'. and 22°. 15'. and seemed difposed to render him porth, and between the longitude of every poffible aslistance. Several of 1999. 20'. and 2010. 30'. cast, the their chiefs paid him a visit, and names of which were Woahoo, when he went on fhore, he was reAtooi, Oneeheow, Orechoua, and ceived with ceremonies which fell Tahoora ; but on his return south- little short of adoration. He had ward, with an intent of passing the an interview with Terreeoboo, the winter, he discovered, on the 26th king of the island, whom he carried of November, when he came to the on board the Resolution, and treated latitude of 20°. 55'. a sixth, named with every mark of respect; and in Mowee ; and on the 30th, another, return for a beautiful feathered cloak which the natives distinguished by which he had given our navigator, the appellation of Owhyhee. This the captain put a linen fhirt on his island appearing to be of greater ex. majesty, and girt his own hanger tent and importance than


of the round him. The islanders began at rest, the captain spent nearly seven length to be very inquisitive about weeks in failing round it, and in ex the time of their departure ; but amining its coast. Whilst he was these enquiries were made with no employed in this businels, the inha- other view than that they might bitants came off from time to time provide a sufficient quantity of proin great numbers with their canoes, visions for them when they quitted and readily engaged in traffic. Their the island, notwithstanding their pre

* The last words which captain Cook our voyage with a discovery, which, though wrote in his journal were, “. To this diso the last, seemed in many relpects to be the appointment," alluding to his unsuccessful molt important that had hitherto been made endeavours to get home by a northern pal. by Europeans, throughout the extent of the fage, we owed our having it in our power Pacific Ocean," to revisit the Sandwich Illes, and to corich Vol. II.



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