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to surround all the avenues of the exceptions as his majesty, with the
Thuilleries, which had been only advice of his privy-council, thought
defended, during the night, by a neceffary to be made. With regard
cominon guard. A thoutand troops to the article of pensions, he pledged
were immediately ordered on that himself not to object to their exa-
duty, and all the gates of the palace” mination; but expreifed an opinion,
were secured by a train of artillery, that fuch an inquisition might, at
to prevent the possibility of surprize that time, tend to the creation of
or escape. In the evening, the dif- alarms; wherefore he proposed to
tricts of Paris, by a daring affump- the national assembly, to confider
tion of power, which deferved to whether a reduction on general pric-
incur the feverest reprobation, paffed ciples would not be preferable.
a refolution, that the regiment of The king's obfervations, however,
the king's body-guards Thould be experienced a very unfavourable re-
broken, and never more revived; ception from the affembly, who re-
and that in future his majesty should garded any objections to their de-
be guarded by citizens, initead of crees as a dangerous infringement
foldiers.

on their power. This consideration After the king's departure from led then to a discullion of the fol-' Versailles, the national aflembly en- lowing interesting question, (which tered into a debate on the propriety appeared to have been already deof following him to Paris; when termined by the voto granted to the it was resolved to adjourn to that king) viz. “Whether the king may city as foon as a convenient place refuse his assent to the acts of the le. could be prepared for their recep- gislative body ?” But before any detion. Accordingls, on the nine- cision could take place, another was teenth of O&tober, they repaired proposed—“ That in case the king thither, and opened the feilion in thall refuse his affent, shall his rethe great hall of the archevéchè (the fufal be final, or suspensive only ?'" archbithop's palace).

The first of these questions, after a That we inight not interrupt our long debate, was decided in the af narrative of that violent tumult firmative; but the king's refutal was which forced the fovereign from his determined to be suspensive only. family manfion, and brought him, in A third question was then puta a ftate of captivity, to the capital, “Whether the fufpenfive veto of we omitted to notice fome import- the king Mall ceale at the com. ant debates wbich occurred in the mencement of the first legislature national assembly the preceding which shall follow the one in which month. In addition to those reto- the law is paffed, or of the second ?" lutions which we have before men. On a division, its ceffation was tioned, it has been further resolved, agreed to take place on the comthat the person of the king hould mencement of the second legislature. be facred; that the throne Thould Hence it is determined, that the be indivisible and hereditary, from king's negative, put on any bill, male to male, in the house of Bour- hall defeat its effect for the term of bon; and the long list of refolves the teffion in which it is first passed, was conciuded by a determination and also for the whole term of the to examine into court penfions. next fellion ; but being pafied a

There, having been presented to third time, it fhall have the full the king for his fanction, were re- force of law without the royal aisent. turned with such observations and Thus the power of the kings of Vol.Il.

France

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S.

France will, in future, be subject to every person to make a declaration greater liinitations than that of the of the amount of his income before English monarchs.

the first of January, one thousand Ďuring the debates, the president seven hundred and ninety. All fure of the assembly had waited on the ther discussions, however, on the inking to entreat his immediate pro- teresting subject of finance were demulgation of the decrecs agreed to ferred, till the king's fanction fhould by the assembly, without alteration; be obtained to the declaration of and they accordingly received the rights, and the fundamental articles force of laws on the twenty-first of of the constitution, which had been September. On the subsequent day separated from the other articles the king and queen, deeply dil. that had already received his affent. trefled at the embarrassed itate of Accordingly, on the fifth of Octothe finances, gave orders for their ber, a letter from his majesty was plate to be sent to the mint; a pa. read to the assembly, in which he triotic example which was followed obferved, that no proper opinion by many of their subjects.

could be formed of the new consti. The next important objects of tutional laws, but when they were difcuffion were, “ The permanence viewed all together; the parts beof the national assembly," and "the ing necefsrily allied to each other, number of chambers of which it Yet, that he thought, in a moment should confift.” The first pasied when they invited the nation to unanimously as soon as it was gene- come to the fuccour of the state, by sally underitood. At first fight, it a signal act of confidence and pafeemed to convey an idea, that the triotilin, they Nould secure the prinintention was to perpetuate the pre- cipal object of its intereit; thus, in jent assembly; but an explanation the confidence that the first conttiproved its real meaning to be, that tutional articles they had presented the nation should never remain with- to him, united to the sequel of their out representatives, and that the labours, would accomplish the will funétions of the old inembers should of his people, and secure the hap, u!ot cease till the election of new had pinets and properity of his realm, taken place. It was also determined, he gave his consent to them, in that the assembly should remain compliance with their desire; but united in one chainber.

upon one positive condition, from After these resolutions bad been which he would never depart, that, adopted, M. Neckar read a long by the general result of their dememorial to the affeinbly, the pur- liberations, the executive power port of which was to exhibit, in its shouid have its entire effect in the irue light, the deplorable state of hands of the monarch. He added, the finances, and to point such that he fiould frankly avow, his remedies as he judged most con- consent to the articles sent him, was ducive to their relief. The princi- not given because they all, without pal of these was, a tax to be imposed distinction, presented him with an indiscriminately on all the inhabi, idea of perfection, but because he tants of the kingdom, of a nett thought it laudable, in his place, fourth of their annual income. Af. not to delay paying attention to the ter much confideration, M. Neckar's present wishes of the representatives propoful was embraced; and a pre- of the people, and to the alarming paratory decree patled the affembly circumitances which invited them on the lecond of October, ordering to strongly to yyish, above all things,

the

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the speedy re-establishment of peace, Paris themselves; and the great hall order, and confidence. He con of the archbishop's palace having cluded by saying, that he should been prepared for their reception, not explain himself on the declara- they there assembled on the ninetion of the rights of men and citi- teenth of October. The first step zens; it contained very good maxims, they took, after their arrival in the proper to direct their labours; but metropolis, was to send a deputation principles susceptible of different to the king, headed by the president, applications, and even different in. who addressed his majesty in a cu.. terpretations, could not be justly rious speech, in which he told him, appreciated, nor was there, indeed, that the national affembly, having any occafion to appreciate them voted themselves inseparable from at all, till the moment when their his august person, were now led by true sense should be fixed by the their affection to approach him, and laws, of which they were to consti-, offer him the homage of their intute the basis. This fpirited reply, mutable love and respect; he obe in many parts sensible and just, served, that the love of the French caused the greatest discontent in the people to their monarch had been afsembly; where an animated de- unbounded (it must be confessed bate took place, which was termi- they had recently exhibited a finnated by that memorable tumult, of gular proof of their affection!) ever which we have given an account. since that day when the public voice

It was now a proper time (when hailed him the restorer of liberty, to the king, forced from his habitation which it only remained for him to by a factious mob, was confined to add the endearing title of the best the precincts of that palace which friend to the nation ; a title to which he had been compelled to accept for his claim was indisputable, as the his residence) for the national af- whole nation had seen his majesty sembly to display, in a manner be- firm and tranquil in the midst of coming their dignity and import- danger, running every risk for the ance, that spirit of independence good of the state, and supporting which they had been' hitherto so and encouraging a beloved people anxious to affert. The shackles im- by his presence and protection. The posed by a democratic faction are speech contained many fimilar deprobably more dangerous, and cer-clarations equally dettitute of sense tainly more disgraceful, than those and meaning.– The Parisians, in of a despotic sovereign. Hence it the mean time, finding themselves became the assembly to refift, with wholly exempt from reitraint, condetermined resolution, the uncon- tinued their riots in the metropolis, ftitutional efforts of the Parisians; where the frequent commission of and boldly to demand the immediate cool and deliberate murders induced release of their monarch. By such the magiftracy to apply for relief to conduct they would have rendered the national assembly. The alarmthemselves respectable in the eyes ing state of the capital was accordof all Europe, and have proved ingly taken into immediate consid themselves worthy to be the cham- deration; and, after a warm and tepions of freedom; but though their dious discussion, a law was framed, courage was sufficient to withstand

authorizing the magiftrates to cmthe opposition of an impotent king, ploy inilitary force for the suppression it vanished before the threats of an of tumults in cases of necessity. In armed multitude. Thus awed, they consequence of this decree, which prudently determined to repair to a more early exertion of vigour on

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the part of the assembly would have them by the original.constitution of rendered superfluous, feveral of the the coưntry; and had the life of rioters were executed by martial that monarch been prolonged but law.

for a very short time, it is well known Having thus noticed every event that the parliaments of France would of importance which has hitherto have been wholly abolished. There occurred in the progress of this fur can be no poffible doubt, therefore, prizing revolution, we have only to that the heir to the monarchy was offer fome, few reflections on the early instructed in those principles conduct of the king, and the beha- of despotism, which had governed viour of the regular troops. the minds, and marked the admi

To form a just opinion of the nistration, of his ancestors; at that conduct of Leu'is the Sixteenth, at age, too, when the mind is most this trying conjuncture, we mutt not fusceptible of impressions, he had judge like mere Englismen, who, witnefied, and had certainly been brought up in the habits of free taught to respect, the arbitrary condom, are accustomed to view the duct of his grandfather. Having smallest violation of civil liberty' thus imbibed the most lofty ideas of with an eye of indignation; we regal authority, he ascended the Mould consider with attention the throne,' ere he had attained his principles inftilled into the mind of twenty-first year; and from his acthat monarch in his early infancy; ceffion till the approach of the preprinciples impressed by education, fent interesting period, had met with strengthened by example, and con- nothing which could poffibly expose firmed by practice. From the reign to him the fallacy of his principles, of Lewis the Eleventh, the monarchs Fully impressed with the opinion of France had enjoyed authority that he pofleffed the right of en. unlimited, except in one particular forcing implicit obedience from his instance; which was, that no royal subjects, he regarded a compliance, ediet could have the force of law on his part, with claims, however till it had been registered by the par founded in justice, as a stroạğ mark liament of Paris (the supreme court of indulgence; and though readof judicature). This reitraint, how, ing or observation might have conever, was of little consequence, as, vinced him that a material change when the judges proved refractory, had been effected in the minds of recourse was had to lettres de cacbet, his people within the last few years, and other limilar inftruments of ty: his courtiers h

had been so studious to ranny, in order to enforce their divert his attention from circumcompliance. But none of the Gallic stances which might eventually lead princes had made more frequent and to a diminution of their own power, more violent exertions of arbitrary that on the meeting of the states power than the immediate predecel general, he firmly expected, and befors of the present king; Lewis the lieved, that his expectations were Fifteenth, in particular, had extin: founded on a right to command, guished every spark of liberty, had from that affembly, the same pallive removed every possible barrier to the obedience which liis grandfather establishment of despotism, by first had experienced from the different restraining the parliament to the fim. lits de justice which had met during ple discharge of their judicial func his reign. The king acting on this tions, and then condemning them to principle, his conduct is not only to exile for daring to affert those pre. be accounted fur, þut even to be rogatives which liad been rested in justificd. It was natural for him to

oppofs

oppose the attempts of the national cause, from whatever motive their assembly to change that constitution support results ; else the behaviour which he had heen taught to regard of the troops could never have been as perfect; and to resist their efforts afcribed to any other than its true to deprive him of those privileges and natural motive; a motive which which he had been taught to con- has the most powerful influence on fider as his birth-right. Their op- the conduct of mankind in general ; positiou to his will appeared to him viz. Self-interest. They were doubta án act of rebelión; he accordingly less allured to disobedience, by that treated them as rebels ; war was de important augmentation of pay

whichi clared i and the contest was fup: the national affembly had the wifported with vigour on both sides : dom to propose at the commencefortunately, for the nation, the cham- ment of the leffion ; a fagacious and pions of liberty prevailed. But effectual measure, which contributed though the endeavours of the king more to ensure their success, than to maintain the despotic sway efta- any single step they have adopted blished by his ancestors, will excite from their first meeting: and that unfavourableimpressions in the breast it was done with this view, will not of every friend to freedom, and even admit of a doubt, when we reflect forcibly extort reprobation, yet, on on that rigid system of economy cool reflection, the head must dis- which they have enforced in every avow the impulse of the heart; and department of the state, and froin candour compel us to absolve him which no deviation would have been from that heavy weight of censure fuffered, but for the attainment of with which he has been hastily fome important object. We are the and inconsiderately loaded. On the more anxious to despoil these intewhole, though we must withhold rested beroes of those vain ornainents our aflent from the indiscriminate with which Ignorance or Enthufiafin pánegyric' of a certain marquis*, has clothed them, as from a thorough we must ascribe the errors and vices knowledge of their difpofitions, acof Lewis the Sixteenth, to weakness quired from a long residence among of mind, prejudice of education, them, we are enabled to pronounce bad example, and.evil counsels. the French army (that is, the lus • We thould have thought it need: balterns and privates) as profligate less to add a single remark on the and tyrannical a body of men, as conduct of the troops, had they not ever disgraced a nation; always eages heen held up as objects of admira• to exert their authority over the cion, as well by the English, as by lower class of citizens and people, the French themselves. Their re: with a degree of infolence and bru. fusal to fire on their fellow-citizens— tality that makes an Englishman that is, on the Parisian mob has shudder. The same arbitrary conbeen imputed to sentiments of pa- duct is, indeed, observable in all triotism, which would have done , absolute monarchies, where every honour to the citizens of Rome, in class of men, entrusted with the the most virtuous days of the Ro- finallest portion of power, are ape inan republic.' An ardent zeal for to tyrannize over their inferiors, by liberty, is too apt to 'extort com- way of making themselves amends mendation from her votaries, on for the servility they are obliged to Those who contribute to support her evince to those whom Nature or * Vide lord Shelburne's panegyric on

Fortune has placed above them. the French, in his speech on ihe Commer

We shall conclude this article sial Treaty with France,

with fincere wishes that the labours

of

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