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writers on the subject was com- ed by our ancestors, and by them pletely exhausted ; and the refult transmitted to ourselves, wears an of their debates, was the production appearance of tyranny, which difof two and thirty articles, most of gusts and alarms, unless we are giv. them evident truisras. The two fol. en to expect some suitable recom. lowing, as aiming at the abolition pence, or are taught, by argument, of tyrannical restraints, peculiar to the necessity of the sacrifice. These the kingdom, are worthy of notice. observations will apply to some of By the fourth article, it is declared, the following resolutions, which that every man is free in the exer were nuw adopted by the assembly; cise of his personal faculties, on the though many be worthy of imitation, fingle condition of not inju: ing the most of them de serving of applause, rights of others: accordingly, (says and, indeed, the general tendency the fifth) no person is responible of the whole highly beneficial to for his thoughts or sentiments; the public. every man has the right to speak or These were--A distribution of to bé Gilent; no method of promul- imposts, in equal proportions ; a re. gating his thoughts and sentiments nunciation of all municipal and prowould be prohibited to any man; vincial privileges; the fuppreffion and, in particular, each man is free of mortmain and of all personal to write, print, or cause to be print- servitude; the abolition of all pried, whatever he thinks proper, sub- vileges of the chace; (this article, ject to the sole restriction of not at- demands the serious attention of the tacking the rights of others. Every Englih; our own game laws, fram. author, in fine, may publish, ored by a herd of ignorant and inte caufe to be published, his produc. rested country esquires, are a dif. tions, and circulate them freely, grace to the Statute Book, as being is well by the poft, as by other highly repugnant to the free spirit means, without dreading any breach of our constitution, which forms the of confidence. And, in particular, juft boast of all Englishmen; let epistolary correspondence should be he example of the French, in this held sacred by all the intermediate instance be followed; we often ape. agents between the person who their follies, for once let us profit, writes, and the person who receives by their wisdom).-The abolition the letter.

of manorial tribunals, (somewhat But so intent were the affembly similar to our court leets;) an equal on the reformation of abuses, that distribution of justice to the people, they did not stay to adopt those pre. free from expence; the recovery of vious regulations, which are ever of all tithes and quit-rents ; the reneceffary in the abolition of ancient covery of feudal rights, with a procustoms, and the removal of'ancient hibition to create them in future; prejudices. We are apt to behold an augmentation of salary to the the works of our ancestors with a inferior clergy; the fuppression of degree of fuperftitious reverence, annates ; (by which the pope, it is which renders us blind to their im- supposed, will experience a diminu. perfections; hence we fhudder at tion of his annual income, to the the daring hand of innovation when amount of three hundred and thirty it endeavours to demolish the be. thousand pounds sterling ;) the adloved fabrics, ere the persuasive million of all citizens into civil and tongue of reason has attempted to military offices; the suppression of convince us of their defects. Be- the droit du deport; (a species of fides, the suppreffion of rights enjoy- firit-fruits paid by the rector to the

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bishop ;) the fuppreffion of ward- maintained that no retrenchment Thips; the prohibition against plura, in the expence, no plan of reform lity of bepefices ; and finally, a re or economy would be adequate to solution to proclaim Louis the Six. afford the kingdom that relief which teenth the restorer of French liberty! its present situation required. The

The curious appellation here be- marquis concluded his speech by a flowed on the French monarch, ex- notice, that on a future day he should hibits a fingular instance of that move, that all effects, termed ecclefie strange inconfiftency which has ever aftical, of what nature fuever, should distinguished the national character belong to the nation ;-that, from of France. The revolution is by the year one thousand seven bun. this means ascribed to the sovereign, dred and ninety, allecclefiastical" though wholly effected by the peo- tythes Mould be, and seinain sup. ple, in direct opposition to his will prefled ;-that all incumbents whatand endeayours ; as well might our eyer Mould retain for lite a revenue anceltors have given the fame deno- equal to the produce of their premination to John, tor figning Magna sent benefices, which fum should be Charta, whose de position, or perhaps paid to them by the provincial af. deach, might have proved the con- semblies ;--that the provincial af sequence of his refutal; and, with semblies mould in future regulate equal propriety, might the French the honorary tax for the bishops, themselves bave itiled the marquis who, with the curates, were the only, de Launay the demolisher of itate effential ministers for propagating prisons, because his defence of the the gospel; and that they should Bastiile most probably accelerated also be empowered to grant equitatheir destruction. In whatever point ble penfions for persons of both sexes of view the proclamation be confi- engaged in the monastic orders, which dered, it must reflect a lasting disgrace should be suppressed. Should these on the proceedings of an assembly, motions be carried, which cannot who call themselves the representa. be expected unless the power of the tives of a free people; the itrains of clergy and the bigotry of the monks adulation may become the advocates, be materially diminihed, a most imfor Slavery, but the French, ata period portant alteration will be effected in when they had just begun to assert an the ecclefiaftical polity of France. independence of thought, and since. We must observe, however, that nority of speech, should have been ftu- thing but the most urgent neceffity diously careful not to degrade those can justify the violent seizure of proimportant privileges, by the promulo perty, appertaining either to indigation of a falfhood, notorious to all viduals or to any body of men; the. Europe.

example of our Eighth Henry is The next object of importance surely regarded with a sufficient dewhich attracted the attention of the gree of execration to prevent the a. national assembly, was the deranged doption of a fimilar line of conduct. ftate of the finances ; M. Neckar With respect to the convents, though having represented the annual ex- they may juftly be deemed of great penditure as exceeding the revenue detriment to the nation, yet can the by nearly two millions and a half nation have no reasonable pretenferling, a loan of twelve hundred lions to seize their revenues for its and fifty thousand pounds had been own use; on the contrary, justice, voted ; atter which the marquis de whose Itrong claims should ever rise la Colte rose, and entering into a fuperior to the dictates of policy, long detail of the national debts, requires that the heirs of those bem


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nefactors, whose misguided zeal for heard was in danger from his attach: religion led them to appropriate ment to the popular cause. their fortunes to the support of iri The commotion was increased by dolenee, should be diligently fought, the renewal of the debate on the and to them alone the property of royal négative; in the course of their ancestors be faithfully restored. which, the count de Lally Tolendal, Should


other method be pur-' who had, in the first instance, mainFued, the establishinent of a despot- tained the propriety of giving to the ism, as intolerable as that which king an integral share in the governthey have recently abolished, may ment of the country, declared that justly be dreaded by the people. with his last breath he would support

While the national assembly was the justice of his cause, founded on thus employed, the most horrid ex. the first principles of the French mocesses continued to rage in the pro- narchy, from which the assembly vinces ; where, as is usual in all po- were bound never to depart. This pular tumults, numerous vićtions of effufion of pure patriotism (which private resentment were sacrificed to consists not in the subverfion, but in a pretended spirit of public liberty. the defence of the constitution) irriNor was it long before the contagion tated the factious mob, who propaYeached the metropolis, where, on gated reports, that a strong aristothe propagation of rumours, tending cratic party being formed in the boto enforce a belief that intrigues and som of the national assembly, and cabals prevailed in the national af- the public liberty being in danger, fembly, the minds of the multitude it was necessary that the king, the became inflamed to a dangerous de- dauphin, and the affembly itself, gree. They were told of a coaliţion ought to be removed to the capital, between the clergy and the nobles, where alone his majefty could be who having acquired the ascendancy, fafe, under the protection of his excluded all hopes of deriving a free faithful {ubjects, the citizens of Pa.' constitution from the endeavours of ris ; and it was farther resolved to the patriotic party. With that acute present an address, requiring their ness of judgment, which is peculiar iminediate presence in the metropolis, to a mob, however composed, they But before the execution of this considered the veto or negative patriotic scheme, a circumstance ocgranted to the king, as wholly de- curred, which encreased the fury of structive of liberty; whence they the populace to a height which it had fagacioufly concluded, that many of not hitherto attained. The regiment the members had been induced, de Flandres paffing through Vereither by intrigue or corruption, to jailles, the officers were invited (ac, forsake ihe cause of the people; and cording to the accustomed etiquette they denounced vengeance against throughout the army) to dinner, by, these devoted objects of their chimeri- the only regiment in garrison there, eal fufpicions. Things were in this fi- which was the king's body guard, tuation, when a resolution was adopt- and the repast was served up on the ed by the ringleaders of the mob, af- stage of the opera-house belonging fembled at a coffee-house in the Pa to the palace, as the most capacious lais-Royal, to fend fix deputies to the place. After dinner the glass circu. town-hall, and twelve to the national lared freely, many loyal toasts were affembly, accompanied by a certain given, and when these fons of Mars number of armed men, of whom fifty had sufficiently facrificed to Bacchus were to compote a guard for the count to produce the generous expanfion de Mirabeau, whose life they had of heart which diitinguifhes the vota:

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ties of that jovial deity, they unani- fity of a reinforcement. But this remously burit forth into the warmest monftrance being construed by the expreffions of attachment to their fo- populace into a proof of disaffection vereign, which naturally led to re- to their cause, they had recourse to flections on those whom they regard-threats, and having intimidated him ed as his persecutors.

by the erection of a gibbet, for the In this moment of enthusiasm, it purpose of his execution, compelled was agreed to express their contempt him to obedience. He accordingly of the popular party by trampling departed for Versailles, on the evenunder foot the national cockade; and ing of Monday, at the head of twenty the flow of loyalty was increased by thousand of the Parisian guard, and the sudden appearance of the king, accompanied by several of the mathe queen, and the dauphin, who gistrates. This formidable band had came merely with the view of doing been preceded in the morning by honour to the guests. The marks of another body of the rabble, to the affectionate zeal which the king now amount of eight thousand persons, experienced, affected him the

more chiefly consisting of the poissardes, fenfibly, as, of late, he had been so (fishwomen) who in all the civil little accustomed to them; and being wars in France have been distinguishovercome by the acuteness of his feel- ed for the intrepidity of their conings, he burst into tears, and imme- duct. The troops did not arrive at diately withdrew. This circumstance Versailles till late in the eyening, inspired the officers, already heated and they remained under arms the with wine, with a still greater degree whole night, which was employed of enthusiasm, and when they quitted in taking their stations about the paa the table; they insulted the Garde lace, so as to secure the avenues, Bourgeoise, by ridiculing their unmi- and be prepared to repel any attack litary appearance, and the aukward- . from the troops who were posted ness of their demeanour.

within. About two o'clock in the When the news of these proceed- morning of Tuesday (the fixth) a ings was conveyed to Paris, they confiderable number of men, disguiswere eagerly seized as a pretext for ed like women, forced an entrance the speedy execution of that project into the palace, and rushed up the which bad been previously adopted; staircase which led to the queen's and on Monday-the fifth of O&tober apartment, with an intent, as is gethe disturbances became so general, nerally supposed, and certainly not that all the districts of the capital without reason, to sacrifice her to were summoned; and the marquis their licentious fury. Fortunately, de la Fayette (as commander in chief a greater number than usual of the of the metropolitan forces) received king's body-guard had been posted orders to proceed immediately to in the anti-chambers leading to it, Versailles, at the head of a large with orders to exert their utmost via body of troops, and bring the king gilance against alarm. These thereto Paris; in cther words, to attack fore were soon roused to arms, and the royal palace, and make his fo- the first body of the insurgents who vereign prisoner! The marquis, made their approaches were fired on, however, expressed a reluctance to and seventeen of them killed on the obey; observing, that it would be spot. The rest of this band, whose more decent for him to repair to Vere courage had been solely founded on failles, attended only by some of the the little resistance they had hitherto magistrates and a few guards, and experienced, instantly retreated, and then to make his report of the neces. every thing affumed an appearance of


tranquillity till the morning. The eighteen coaches, accompanied by Parisian troops being then refused the marquis de la Fayette and about entrance at the palace, which they five thousand guards. The road to had imperiously demanded, resolved Paris was fo thronged with the moh, to obtain it by force, when they re that though fifty thoufand of the Pas ceived å fire from the regiment of risian troops had been sent to clear the king's body guard, who deo the way, the royal family were fix fended the residence of their fove. hours in reaching the Hotel de seign with a spirit that reflects the Ville, though only a distance of highest honour on the corps. A four French leagués - about ten few of the Parifian troops, and some English miles. women, who had mixed with the

The king being led into the crowd, fell on the first fire, which great hall, was there harangoed by was immediately returned ; and the the orator general of the mob; M. action then becoming general, the Moreau de St. Mery, who had the ícount de Lusignan, colonel of the impudence to affure him that he had regiment de Flandres, ordered his only been conducted to Paris for his troops to fire; but the factious cow. better security; and the ignorance ards, infected with the spirit of mu- to tell him, that he would find him. tiny, which prevailed through the self more happy among his loyal army, and, doubtless, trembling at children there, than he had been at the number of their foes, refused to Versailles ; to which curious decla. obey, and threw down their arms. ration his majesty paid all the ato The king's body guard being now tention it deserved. After remaining left to sustain the unequal conflict at the town-hall near two hours, alone, were overpowered, after a the royal family were conducted to desperate resistance, and obliged to the old palace of the Louvre, which seek for safety in fight, while the has remained uninhabited fince the victorious mob forced the entrance days of Louis the Fourteenth, and of the palace, and the utmost exer- where tot the smallest preparation tions of the marquis de la Fayette had been made for their reception. were scarcely adequate to restrain In the action at Verfailles, the them from rushing in, in a body, regiment of body guards, which difo when, there can be little doubt but played fo much fpirit, (and which, the whole of the royal family would let us obferve, to their honoür, was have fallen victims to their ungo. the only regiment in France which fernable rage:

had the sense to know, and the coa The marquis himself, attended by rage to fulfil their dury at this imsome of the magiitrates of Paris, was portant conjuncture) loft thirty men, then introduced to the king, and besides eighty who were taken pricommunicated the desires, or, more foners and conducted to Paris. This properly speaking, the orders of the regiment was wholly composed of mob, that he might conduct his ma- perfons of the fecond order of nobijesty and the royal family to the lity. The heads of those who were capital. The king, seeing the in- ftain, were carried in triumph to utility of resistance, complied with the capital, and exhibited in the á good grace, and the royal car. streets on tent-poles, as a farther riages having been prepared, their specimen of the lavage ferocity of a majelties, with the dauphin, mon- Parifian mob. fieur, (the king's eldest brother) and On the morning after the king's the king's aunts, left Versailles, with arrival, all the districts met at an their attendants, in a proceffion of carly hour, and orders were given

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