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that a large part of the Notes is solely the result of my professional labors and experience.

The method which I have aimed to pursue in the preparation of the Notes is the same as that which I followed in my edition of Livy, modified only by the character of the present author, and by the fact that the reading of his works belongs to a later stage of the course of study in our schools and colleges. While I have endeavored to keep in view the study of the language in all its bearings, it has been a cherished object to take advantage of the means so variously and richly furnished by Horace for promoting the literary culture of the student. I have sought to explain only real difficulties, and these chiefly by suggestion and reference, and to give such and so much aid, as may at once stimulate and reward the pupil's industrious efforts; and also not to supersede or interfere with the course of direct instruction and illustration which every good teacher is accustomed to follow with his classes. The commentary on the Epistle to the Pisos, or the Art of Poetry, is fuller and more extended than in any other part of the work; a circumstance naturally occasioned by the peculiar character and merits of that celebrated piece.

Of the editions I have consulted besides those already mentioned, the following are the only ones which it is necessary to name: the two of Düntzer, the one in four vols., 12mo., 1840-44, and the other in one volume, 8vo., 1849; Wüstemann's Heindorf's, of the Satires, 1843; Schmid's, of the Epistles, 1828-30; Th. Obbarius's, of the Odes, 1848; S. Obbarius's, of the First Book of the Epistles, 1837-47; Lübker's, of the first three Books of the Odes, 1841; Girdlestone and Osborne's, London, 1848; and Keightley's, of the Satires and the Epistles, London, 1848.


I have also been able to avail myself of the Notes of Lambin, contained in the Aldine edition, published at Venice, 1566, a fine copy of which, forming a part of the rare collection of Aldines in the private library of John Carter Brown, Esq., of this city, was kindly placed at my disposition by that gentleman.

To this list of foreign editions, remain to be added those of American editors; the well known edition of Mr. Gould, whose name, as I write it here, awakens within me the most grateful recollections, as it was my good fortune to receive from him, then the Principal of the Boston Latin School, my first instructions in Latin; the larger and the smaller edition of Professor Anthon, which have done much for the study and appreciation of Horace, and to the merits of which I cheerfully bear my testimony, though I differ from the distinguished editor in the principles which should be followed in the preparation of editions of the classics for the use of schools and colleges; and lastly, the recently published edition of Mr. Edward Moore, the Notes of which will, by their neat and tasteful character, secure the favor of scholars, even if they be found by teachers not altogether suited to the wants of their classes.

The grammatical references have been chiefly made to Andrews and Stoddard's, and to Zumpt's Grammar, and are indicated by the abbreviations, "A. & S." and "Z.;” the abbreviated form, "Hand, Turs.," stands for Hand's Tursellinus, "Arn. Pr. Intr." for Spencer's edition of Arnold's Latin Prose Composition, published by the Messrs. Appleton, and "Dict. Antiqq." for Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities; the occasional references to Freund's Lexicon, will now apply equally well to the admirable Ameri

can work recently published, Andrews's Latin Lexicon; the other references need no particular explanation.

The Life of Horace, which has been written for the work, together with the brief estimate connected with it of the character and writings of the poet, will perhaps be a source of some interest and value to the student.

The illustrations, which have been introduced with a view at once to the embellishment and the usefulness of the book, have been, with three exceptions, taken from Rich's Illustrated Companion; those on pages 204 and 241 have been taken from Becker's Gallus, and the one on page 309 from Milman's elegant edition of Horace.

It is hoped that the superior mechanical execution of the volume will gain the attention and praise which it merits; and I cannot but acknowledge the very liberal manner in which the Publishers have superintended it, sparing no pains or expense to make it as perfect as possible.

I avail myself of this opportunity to make my grateful acknowledgments to Professors and Classical Teachers for the very favorable reception which they have given to my edition of Livy; and to express the hope that the present work, the result of a larger experience and of more extended labors, may be found not unworthy of their approbation.

BROWN UNIVERSITY, February 22d, 1851.


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