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But soon as I held out my hand to take him,
And he in his instinctive knowledge wise
The philosophy of Orpheus was the Phænician language. Origen brought from Egypt, where can be doubts not the personality of these, discovered a clue to the mythology but whether their books had been preof the Greeks and Romans. The served. Plato, however, speaks of veiled Isis was a symbol of the inner Orpheus as a real person, and refers or esoteric doctrine, that the world not merely to the Orphic writings, was Deity. Orpheus makes the Sun but to those of the individual Orpheus a type of the universe, and even its himself. He was supposed to have source. He seems to have inculcated lived before the Trojan era. Great a more material pantheism, where as doubts exist whether the remains exthe Egyptians connected their solar tant are genuine. They were produand planetary worship with the sup- ced by Onomacutus, who lived in the posed transmission of the souls of the time of Xerxes and the Pisistratida, virtuous ancestors of mankind to the but it should be added, he was banishStars. Hesiod appears to glance at ed on a charge of having issued forged this belief, though without the refer- oracles. It has been objected to the ence to a solar translation, in his good genuineness of the Argonautics, that demons. This may, however, have we have authority for Orpheus habeen a branch of the exoteric or out. ving used the Doric dialect; but the ward doctrine promulgated to the objection is not valid, for Onomacutus people for social and political pur. may have changed it for the Homeric; poses, as the residence of the virtuous and it appears more probable that he souls in the stars meant probably no- should have been in possession of certhing more than a physical energy. tain fragments, which he made the
Having spoken thus of the works groundwork of the poems, than that and philosophy of Orpheus, it would he should have been their entire inseem very ungrateful, with Vossius ventor, as the name of Orpheus was and others, to deny his existence, and too well known, many of his tradiassert that Orpheus, Musæus, and Li- tionary verses being dispersed abroad, nus, were merely names deduced from to render such a forgery plausible.
VOL, XLIY. NO, CCLXXIII.
“Je veux la paix,Pet je ne veux que la Charte."
“ Comment veut-on que je cede avec la taille que j'ai ?"
Casimir Perier was the conqueror most difficult to attain, as it is one of of the Revolution of 1830! He found the most valuable when acquired. To it arbitrary—he made it legal. He govern is to rule—but it is to rule with found it warlike—he made it pacific. wisdom and justice; humanity, perselle found it Destructive-he made it verance, and truth. To govern is to Conservative. He found it tumultuous regulate, to influence, to direct, to maand anarchical—he reduced it to order nage, to restrain. It is more than this and obedience. He found it supported – it is to “ be" superior, as well as to by the refuse of society-he gained for maintain a superiority. Temple said it friends among the virtuous, enlight that there seemed to be but two ened, patriotic, and wise. He found general kinds of government in the it the humble imitator of the terrorism world. The one exercised according of 1793—he made it the sincere and to the arbitrary commands and will of zealous opponent of all such imbecile some single person ; and the other acprojects, and of all such sanguinary cording to certain orders or laws inorgies. He found it screaming for the troduced by agreement or custom, and destruction of the treaties of 1813--hé not to be changed without the consent compelled it, in time, to acknowledge of the many. The one is absolute that it was only by recognising those power; the other is legal liberty and treaties-by acting with good faith to regular government. Bonaparte reall foreign powers—by being satisfied presented the former system, and thus with the boundaries assigned to France closed the Revolution of 1789. Casi. by those treaties, and by pursuing a mir Perier represented the latter sysConservative policy, that the Revolu- tem, and thus conquered the Revolution tion of 1830 could have any chances of of 1830. life, or that the throne of July could The science of government, of legal, hope to exist. He found the Revolu- reasonable, national government, was tion of 1830 looking every where about understood and appreciated by Casifor some spot of earth on which it mir Perier. He felt that the science might pounce, and then exclaim_" of government does not consist in have made a conquest--and will now haughtiness of character, nor in absomaintain it ;" but, before he died, he lute personal power, nor in a constant taught that same Revolution to feel that irritating state of opposition to national the greatness of a country does not tastes and national predilections. All consist in the extent of its territory, or this may exist in a governor, whether he in the vastness of its conquests, but in be a king, an emperor, or a president, its nobility and frankness of character and yet he may be wholly ignorant of -in the high honour with which it the science of government. It is much fulfils all its engagements—in the in- to have a “will,” but in order that the telligence, enterprise, and wisdom of “ will” may be respected, as well as its inhabitants—and in the just and submitted to, it is essential that there legal conduct of its national govern- should be a harmony between the real ment.
wants and real desires of a people, “ Je veux la paix, et je ne veux que la
and the character of the policy by
which the nation is directed. “ A Charte,"
government is an established state of was the maxim of Casimir Perier ; legal authority.”. Yes, of “ legal auand though he was prematurely cut off thority." Then the science of governfrom his family, his friends, his coun- ment is not merely a knowledge of the try, and the world, yet he has left a form of a community with respect to name which shall never perish, and an the disposition of the supreme authoexample which we propose to hold up rity, but it is a knowledge of the estaat once for study and for imitation. blished state of legal authority, and at The science of government is one of tho once a full comprehension of the wants, situation, and character of a people, as “Je veux la paix, et je ne veux que la of the means by which those wants Charte;" may be supplied, that situation may be and when Casimir Perier thus proimproved, and that character may be claimed his will, and his system of ameliorated, without being destroyed- government, he not only represented and benefited, without being wounded. the wise and the enlightened portion
The science of government includes of the French people, but he knew that a knowledge of human character-of he so represented it. When he refused national history—of the motives which to accept office when he accepted influence men and nations of the con- office—when he resigned office and temporary movements of society in when he re-accepted office-he did all other countries and under other forms he did, knowing quite well what he of government-and a facility in com- was doing, what he was refusing, and prehending, and duly weighing, and what he was re-accepting. He apconsidering, how the most opposite in. pealed “ from Philip drunk, to Philip stitutions, existing at the same mo- sober;" and he did not begin to govern ment among different people, may yet till he knew that France longed to be be the most eligible, the most advan- ruled. But he governed her legally—he tageous, and even the most truly libe- ruled her according to the Charte-he ral for them. This is that portion of had all the law and all the constitution the science of government which was on his side, and he knew it; and thus, never understood by the first French whilst he supported public opinion, Revolution; and theignorance of which public opinion in its turn backed him led to universal war, and, in the end, and his science of government came to iron despotism in the very country to his aid, and enabled him to triumph which had proclaimed itself the eman- over illegality, disorder, anarchy, and cipator of mankind.
crime. The science of government includes Great men are raised up by Provi. a knowledge of all classes of the nation dence, and not by accident; by Heathat is governed. It is not enough to ven, and not by a mere concurrence of know the nobles or the paupers of a circumstances, to meet the exigencies land, but the middling and upper of great events, of great commotions, classes, and the working and indus. and of great changes. We were much trious divisions of society must like- pleased lately with the observation of wise be understood and appreciated. a French authoress of distinction. She This was never the case with the first said, “ It is always the same man." French Revolution ; and Bonaparte Her meaning was this :- It is always never addressed himself to more than a powerful agent—always a mastera fraction of the country over which mind—always a man far above his he ruled. The Revolution of 1830 fellows—always some one who has the would have fallen into the very same science of government-who adapts error, but for Casimir Perier. The his measures to the peculiar circumLafitte Ministry lived on the support stances in which he is placed—who of the mob! The mob cried for en- takes a comprehensive, and yet clear and larged frontiers—for the destruction distinct view of all that surrounds him of the fortresses erected on the Bel. -and who, in one word, is “the” man gian frontiers against the incursions of for the moment, and apparently the France--for the Alps, the Rhine, and only man. This is the distinctive and the Pyrenees as its boundaries—for a precise character affixed by Heaven on war against Russia—for the insurrec- its agents. There is nothing of doubt tion of the Rhenish provinces—for Pro- in their purposes, or of feebleness in pagandism in Spain, Portugal, Ger- their movements. They have a task many, Italy, and Switzerland—and to perform-a duty to accomplish-an for “ the union of the people against end to attain—and they invariably the kings"—and of Spain, Portugal, succeed, because they are special and Belgium, France, and England against consecrated agents. Now, although the rest of Europe. Its " science of. there would be some danger in followgovernment" was to unite the govern- ing this up to the extreme point of its ed against their governors, and to in- veracity, yet the general statement is volve the world in an interminable a true one. The Pitts, the Norths, war. But Casimir Perier arose, and the Wellingtons, the Napoleons of
modern times have not been mere ordi.
nary agents, created by circumstances It was necessary that he should be-but they have been, like Casimir long to the people—have been brought Perier, “ the" men adapted to the up amongst them-have made his formoment, and the agents raised up tune in the midst of them—and have either to accomplish great and perma- been associated with all the errors, as nent good, or to prevent vast and well as with all the mingled justice coming evils. And, if we turn over in and truth of their cause.
It was neour memories the pages of history, cessary that he should have great whether sacred or profane, and whe- powers of oratory- great personal ther of ancient or of modern date, re- couragema firm confidence in the sysreading all our readings, and calling tem he espoused-at the same time that back to our memories the leading he could point to his antecedents and events of the world which we inhabit, say, “ Was I not one of you when you we shall find that at various epochs in rose against the ordinances of Charles this world's history, “it is always the X.? and when you proclaimed Louis same man;" that is, a powerful agent- Philip the King of the French ?" It a master mind — always a man far was also necessary that his antecedents above his fellows who is “ the" man should have a still more ancient date for the moment, and apparently the that he should be identified with the o only” man.
Neys and Manuels, and Foys and BenAnd we have been forcibly struck jamin Constants of the Restorationwith this fact in considering the sub. and that he should be able to point to ject of this memoir-Casimir Perier. the records of the Opposition during A Legitimist leader, in opposition to the that epoch, and say, “ Was I not then Revolution of 1830, could have had no also one of the foremost in your influence with the Chambers, with the ranks?" and above all this, it was neCrown, or with the lower orders. A cessary that this man of ten thousand Bonapartist would have been sus. should be willing to devote all the pected of intentions in favour of the powers of his body and all the energies family of the Corsican usurper, and of his mind to the cause he believed to would have been rejected as entertain- be just, national, and true. Now there ing opinions allied to those of the was but "one" man in France in whom Propagandist party.
all these qualities and all this fitness A Republican •Chief would have were united, and that man was Casiarmed against him all the middling MIR Perier! and when we say this, classes, and his government could have it is not in haste or with inconsiderabeen only that of the mob. It was ne
tion. We have looked over in our cessary that the conqueror of the Revo- minds-yes, and with contemporary lution of 1830 should be a man iden- histories in our hands—all the men of tified with the Opposition during the 1830, with their powers, their relations, Restoration-a man of fortune and their defects, their qualifications, and good moral character, to inspire the their influence over the Crown, the mass with respect, and the middling Chambers, and the people; and we classes with confidence a man who declare most positively that Casimir had the power of addressing the pub- Rier was the “only” man—there lic, and of causing himself to be res
was no other. There were too many pected by it—a man whose private prejudices against M. Guizot; the fortune should protect him against the Duke de Broglie belonged to the old charge of wishing office for the sake aristocracy of France ; Lafayette was of its pecuniary advantages, and yet the chief of the Republicans ; Lafaywho should in no wise belong to the ette could not so suddenly rise in opold aristocracy of the country. It was position to the Revolution he had aided necessary that this man should have a in organizing ; Gerard was a mere commanding appearance, that he might soldier ; Lamarque was an avowed feel that confidence in his person as Bonapartist; Benjamin Constant was well as in his mind, which it was ne
old and withered ; Dupin was nothing cessary he should feel at such a con- but a lawyer, rather suspected than juncture, and which enabled him to otherwise by the popular party ; Odilsay,
lon Barret and Mauquin were scarcely
known ; Count Montalivet was too " Comment veut-on que je cede avec la young ; Barthe was a mere barrister, taille que j'ai?".
of the Carbonari school in politics;