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ferred myself to the Russian service, even after suspicion had connected with the view of gaining some ap. itself with this dress, it was sufficient pointment on the Polish frontier which that I should appear unmasked at the might put it in my power to execute head of the maskers, to insure them a my vow of destroying all the magis- friendly reception. Hence the facility trates of your city. War, however, with which death was inflicted, and raged, and carried me into far other that unaccountable absence of any regions. It ceased, and there was motion towards an alarm. I took hold little prospect that another generation of my victim, and he looked at me would see it relighted; for the dis- with smiling security. Our weapons turber of peace was a prisoner for ever, were hid under our academic robes ; and all nations were exhausted. Now, and even when we drew them out, and then, it became necessary that I at the moment of applying them to should adopt some new mode for exe- the throat, they still supposed our gescuting my vengeance ; and the more tures to be part of the pantomime we so, because annually some were dying were performing. Did I relish this of those whom it was my mission to abuse of personal confidence in mypunish. A voice ascended to me, day self? No- I loathed it, and I grieved and night, from the graves of my for its necessity ; but my mother, a father and mother, calling for ven- phantom not seen with bodily eyes, geance before it should be too late. I but ever present to my mind, conti. took my measures thus :- Many Jews nually ascended before me; and still I were present at Waterloo. From shouted aloud to my astounded victim, amongst these, all irritated against • This comes from the Jewess! Hound Napoleon for the expectations he had of hounds! Do you remember the raised, only to disappoint, by his great Jewess whom you dishonoured, and assembly of Jews at Paris, I selected the oaths which you broke in order that eight, whom I knew familiarly as you might dishonour her, and the righmen hardened by military experience teous law which you violated, and the against the movements of pity. With cry of anguish from her son, which these as my beagles, I hunted for some you scoffed at?' Who I was, what I time in your forest before opening my avenged, and whom, I made every regular campaign; and I am surprised man aware, and every woman, before that you did not hear of the death I punished them. The details of the which met the executioner, him I mean cases I need not repeat. One or two who dared to lift his hand against my I was obliged, at the beginning, to mother. This man I met by accident commit to my Jews. The suspicion in the forest ; and I slew him. I was thus, from the first, turned aside talked with the wretch as a stran- by the notoriety of my presence elseger at first upon the memorable case where ; but I took care that none of the Jewish lady. Had he relented, suffered who had not either been upon had he expressed compunction, I might the guilty list of magistrates who conhave relented. But far otherwise : demned the mother, or of those who the dog, not dreaming to whom he turned away with mockery from the spoke, exulted ; he- - But why re- supplication of the son, peat the villain's words? I cut him " It pleased God; however, to place to pieces. Next I did this : my agents a mighty temptation in my path, wbich I caused to matriculate separately at might have persuaded me to forego the college. They assumed the college all thoughts of vengeance, to forget dress. And now mark the solution my vow, to forget the voices which of that mystery which caused such invoked me from the grave. This was perplexity. Simply as students we all Margaret Liebenheim. Ah! how terhad an unsuspected admission at any rific appeared my duty of bloody rehouse. Just then there was a com- tribution, after her angel's face and mon practice, as you will remember, angel's voice had calmed me. With amongst the younger students, of respect to her grandfather, strange it going out a-masking,—that is, of en- is to mention, that never did my inno. tering houses in the academic dress cent wise appear so lovely as precisely and with the face masked. This prac. in the relation of grand-daughter. So tice subsisted even during the most beautiful was her goodness to the old intense alarm from the murderers ; for man, and so divine was the childlike the dress of the students was supposed innocence on her part, contrasted with to bring protection along with it. But the guilty recollections associated with
him—for he was amongst the guiltiest Consequently, in our parting intertowards my mother-still I delayed his view, one word only was required to punishment to the last ; and, for his place myself in a new position to her child's sake, I would have pardoned thoughts. I needed only to say I was him—nay, I had resolved to do so, that son; that unhappy mother, so when a fierce Jew, who had a deep ma- miserably degraded and outraged, was lignity towards this man, swore that mine. he would accomplish his vengeance
“ As to the jailer, he was met by a at all events, and perhaps might be party of us. Not suspecting that any obliged to include Margaret in the ruin, of us could be connected with the fa. unless I adhered to the original scheme. mily, be was led to talk of the most Then I yielded; for circumstances hideous details with regard to my poor armed this man with momentary pow. Berenice. The child had not, as had
But the night fixed on was one been insinuated, aided her own degrain wbich I had reason to know that dation, but had nobly sustained the digmy wife would be absent ; for so nity of her sex and her family. Such I had myself arranged with her, and advantages as the monster pretended the unhappy counter-arrangement I to have gained over her-sick, deso. do not yet understand. Let me add, late, and latterly delirious-were, by that the sole purpose of my clandes- his own confession, not obtained withtine marriage was to sting her grand- out violence. This was too much. father's mind with the belief that his Forty thousand lives, bad he possessed family had been dishonoured, even as them,could not have gratified my thirst he had dishonoured mine. He learn- for revenge. Yet, had he but showed ed, as I took care that he should, that courage, he should have died the death his grand-daughter carried about with of a soldier. But the wretch showed her the promises of a mother, and did cowardice the most abject, and not know that she had the sanction of but you know his fate. a wife. This discovery made him, in “ Now, then, all is finished, and huone day, become eager for the mar- man nature is avenged. Yet, if you riage he had previously opposed ; and complain of the bloodshed and the this discovery also embittered the mi. terror, think of the wrongs which sery of his death. At that moment I created my rights; think of the sacriattempted to think only of my mo- fice by which I gave a tenfold strength ther's wrongs; but in spite of all I to those rights; think of the necessity could do, this old man appeared to me for a dreadful concussion, and shock in the light of Margaret's grandfather; to society, in order to carry my lesson and, had I been left to myself, he into the councils of princes. would have been saved.
« This will now have been effected. never was horror equal to mine when And ye, victims of dishonour, will be I met her flying to his succour. I had glorified in your deaths; ye will not relied upon her absence; and the mi- have suffered in vain, nor died without sery of that moment, when her eye a monument. Sleep, therefore, sister fell upon me in the very act of seizing Berenice,—sleep, gentle Mariamne, her grandfather, far transcended all in peace. Aud thou, noble mother, else that I have suffered in these terrific let the outrages sown in thy dishonour
She fainted in my arms, and rise again and blossom in wide harI and another carried her up-stairs and vests of honour for the women of thy procured water; mean-time her grand- afflicted race. Sleep, daughters of father had been murdered even whilst Jerusalem, in the sanctity of your sufMargaret fainted. I had, however, ferings. And thou, if it be possible, under the fear of discovery, though more beloved daughter of a never anticipating a rencontre with Christian fold, whose company was herself, forestalled the explanation re- too soon denied to him in life, open quisite in such a case, to make my thy grave to receive him, who, in the conduct intelligible. I had told her, hour of death, wishes to remember no under feigned names, the story of my title which he wore on earth but that mother and my sisters. She knew of thy chosen and adoring lover, their wrongs ; she had heard me
" MAXIMILIAN," contend for the right of vengeance.
As it was,
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF CONSCIOUSNESS.
Part IV. CHAPTER I.
To enter at length into a discussion Aristotle, down through his scholastic concerning the multifarious theories followers, past the occasionalists and that have been propounded respecting pre-established harmonists, and onthe fact of perception, would be an wards to Dr Brown, who is merely to endless and unnecessary labour. But, be considered as one of its most expli. as the problem we are about to be cit expounders. One and all of them engaged with has much in common assume that the great law of cause with these speculations, and as its solu- and effect is as little violated in the tion has been retarded by the assump- intercourse which takes place between tion of various false facts which have the external universe and man, as it is invariably been permitted to mingle in the catenation of the objects themwith them, we must, in a few words, selves constituting that universe. Have strike at the root of these spurious we, then, any fault to find with this facts, and, employing a more accurate doctrine, supported as it is by such a observation, we will then bring for- host of authorities ; and if we have, ward, purified from all irrelevant ad- what is it? We answer that, in our mixture, that great question of psycho- apprehension, it places Dr Brown and logy-how, or in what circumstances all the philosophers who embrace it in does Consciousness come into opera- a very extraordinary dilemma, which tion ?
we now proceed to point out. “ Perception," says Dr Brown, " is If by “ perception," Dr Brown a state of mind which is induced di- understands • sensation," and nothing rectly or indirectly by its external
more than sensation, then we admit cause, as any other feeling is induced his statement of the fact to be correct, by its particular antecedent. If the and his doctrine to be without a flaw. external cause or object be absent, Sensation (the smell of a rose, for the consequent feeling, direct or indi- example) is certainly “a state" which rect, which we term perception, will is “induced by its external cause," not be induced, precisely as any other namely, by the rose. This is certainly feeling will not arise without its pecu- a simple and ordinary instance of liar antecedent. The relation of cause sequence,-a mere illustration of the and effect, in short, is exactly the common law of cause and effect, and same in perception as in all the other not a whit more extraordinary than mental phenomena--a relation of in- any other exemplification of that great variable sequence of one change aster law. We admit, then, that here the another change.'
phenomenon is correctly observed and This doctrine, which explains the stated, that the law of causality em. phenomena of perception by placing braces sensation, and adequately ac. them under the law of causality, is counts for its origin. Where, then, maintained, we believe, in one form or does our objection lie? It lies in this, another, by every philosopher who that the origin of sensation is not the has theorised on the suljeet, † from true and pertinent problem requiring
* Physiology of the Mind --P. 125-6.
† We are aware that Dr Brown and others have endeavoured to teach the doctrine of causation as a simple relation of antecedence and consequence, emptying our notion of cause of the idea of ctriciency, that is, of the element which constitutes its very essence. But, unlike Hume, who adopted the same views, and never swerved from them, but carried them forth into all their consequences, they never remain consistent with themselves for ten consecutive pages. They keep constantly resuming the idea they profess to have abjured ; as, for instance, in their admission with respect to the efficieney or power of the Divine will. Therefore, their doctrine, whatever it may be, does not in any degree affect the line of argument followed out in the text, addressed though that argument is to those who entertain the common notion of causation, as, no doubt, Dr Brown himself in reality did, however different a one he may have professed.
solution, but is a most frivolous and as well as the sensation that passes irrelevant question. We thus, then, through him. In other words, he is fix for Dr Brown and many other not only sentient, like other animals, philosophers the first horn of our but, unlike them, he is sentient with a dilemma. If by “perception" they consciousness, or reference to self, of understand « sensation" merely, they sensation ;-two very different, and, as no doubt hit the true facts and their we have already seen, and shall sce true explanation, but then they entire still further, mutually repugnant and ly miss, as we shall see, the question antithetical states of existence. properly at issue, and, instead of grap- This consciousness of sensation, then, pling with it, they explain to us that is the other fact contained in percepwhich stands in need of no explana- tion; and it is an enquiry into the nation.
ture and origin of this fact, and of it But by “ perception,” Dr Brown alone, that forms the true and proper and other philosophers probably under- problem of psychology when we are stand something more than "sensa: busied with the phenomena of perception." If so, what is the additional tion ; because it is this fact, and not fact they understand by it? When the fact of sensation, which constitutes we have found it, we will then fix for man's peculiar and distinctive characthem the other horn of our dilemma. teristic, and lies as the foundation-stone
When animals and young children of all the grander structures of his are sentient, there is in them, as we moral and intellectual being. have all along seen, nothing more than We now then ask :- Have Dr sensation. The state of being into Brown and other philosophers enterwhich they are cast is simple and tained the problem as to the origin and single. It is merely a certain effect import of this fact—the fact, namely, following a certain cause. There is of consciousness, as distinguished from in it nothing whatsoever of a reflex the fact of sensation, passion, &c.character. A particular sensation is, and have they thus grappled with the in their case, given or induced by its true question at issue: We answer: particular external cause, and notining That if they have, then have they more is given. Indeed, what more grossly falsified the facts of the case. could we rationally expect the fragrant For it is not the fuct, that the conparticles of a rose to give than the sciousness of sensation is “induced, sensation of the smell of a rose ? Here, either directly or indirectly, by its exthen, the state into which the sentient ternal cause,” or by any cause whatcreature is thrown begins, continues, socver. Sensation, no doubt, is inand ends, in simple unmixed sensa- duced by its external cause, but contion, and that is all that can be said sciousness is altogether exempt from the about it.
law of causality, as weshall very shortly But when we ourselves are sentient, prove by a reference to experience itwe find the state of the fact to be self. In fine, then, the dilemma to' widely different from this. We find which Dr Brown, and, we believe, all that our sentient condition is not, as is other theorists on the subject of per. the case in children and animals, a mo. ception may be reduced, stands thus : nopoly of sensation, but that bere a Are they, primo loco, right in their new fact is evolved, over and above facts ?-then they are wrong in the the sensation which makes the pheno. question they take up. Or, secundo menon a much more complicated and loco, do they bit the right question ?-extraordinary one. This new and then they falsify, ab initio, the facts anomalous phenomenon which acconi- upon which its solution depends. In panies our sensations, but which is, at other words, in so far as their statethe same time, completely distinct from ment of facts is true, they take up a them—is the fact of our own persona. wrong question, inasmuch as they exlity-the fact and the notion denoted plain to us the origin of our sensations by the word “ I.” Surely no one will when they ought to be explaining to maintain that this realisation of self, in us the origin of our consciousness of conjunction with our sensations, and as sensations, or the notion of self which distinguished from the objects causing accompanies them. Or, again, supthem, is the same fact as these sensa- posing that they take up the right tions themselves. In man, then, there question ; then their statement of facts is the notion and the reality of himself, is false, inasmuch as their assumption
that our consciousness of sensation We can now steer equally clear of falls under the law of causality is total- the Scylla of an irrelevant problem, ly unfounded, and may be disproved and the Charybdis of fictitious facts. by an appeal to a stricter and more Perception is, as we have seen, a syn. accurate observation.
thesis of two facts, sensation, namely, The erection of this dilemma places and consciousness, or the realisation of us on a vantage ground from which we self in conjunction with the sensation may perceive at a glance both what experienced. The former of these is we ought to avoid and what we ought possessed in common by men and by to follow. On the one hand, realising animals ; but the latter is peculiar to the true facts, we can avoid the fate of man and constitutes his differential those who expended their labour on quality, and is, therefore, the sole and a wrong question ; and, on the other proper fact to which our attention hand, hitting the right question, we ought to direct itself when contemplatcan also avoid the fate of those who ing the phenomena of perception. wrecked its solution upon false facts.
We have already* had occasion to manity, which is fully brought to light establish and illustrate the radical dis- when our sensations, emotions, &c., tinction between consciousness, on the are rendered very violent, clearly one hand, and sensation on the other, proves that there is at bottom a vital or any other of those “states of mind," and ceaseless repugnaney between con. as they are called, of which we are sciousness and all these « states of cognisant.
We showed that con- mind,” even in their ordinary and sciousness is not only distinct from any more moderate degrees of manifesta. of these states, but is diametrically op- tion, although the equipoise then preposed, or placed in a direct antithesis served on both sides may render it to them all. Thus, taking for an ex- difficult for us to observe it. Had ample, as we have hitherto done, the man been visited by much keener sensmell of a rose, it appears that so long sations, and hurried along by much as the
nsation occasioned by this stronger passions, and endowed with a object remains moderate, conscious- much more perfect reason, the realisaness, or the realisation of self in union tion of his own personality, together with the feeling, comes into play with. with the consequences it involves, out any violent effort. But, suppose would then have been a matter of much the sensation is increased, until we greater difficulty to him than it now almost
is ; perhaps it would have amounted to “ die of a rose, in aromatic pain,"
an impossibility. Even as it is, no.
thing can be more wonderful than then we affirm that the natural ten that he should evolve this antagonist dency of this augmentation is to weak power in the very heart of the floods en or obliterate consciousness, which, of sensation which, pouring in upon at any rate, cannot now maintain its all sides, are incessantly striving to place without a much strongerexertion. overwhelm it ; and, secure in its We do not say that this loss of self- strength, should ride, as in a life-boat, possession, or possession of self, always amid all the whirlpools of blind and happens even when human sensations fatalistic passion, which make the life are most immoderate; but we affirm that of every man here below a sea of roar. in such circumstances there is a natu- ing troubles. ral tendency in man to lose his con- We now avail ourselves of the as. sciousness or to have it weakened; and sistance of this antagonism,-- which that when he retains it, he does so by has thus been established as fact by the counteracting exercise of an un- experience,—in order to displace the natural, that is, of a free and moral false fact generally, we might say unipower; and we further maintain that versally, assumed in our current meta. this tendency, or law, or fact of hu- physics, namely, that consciousness, or
• Vol. XLIII, p. 445.