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thereof be naught, which is made and produced by it; flesh being nothing else but blood coagulated and converted into the same?

The same author, ibidem initio libri, saith also, that hare's flesh breedeth better blood, than mutton or beef. And, if these two come every day to the tables, even of the noblest and richest persons, why should the poor hare, which is better, and yieldeth better nourishment than they, be banished from the same?

After Galen, learned Heurnicus reckoneth hare's flesh in the first place, amongst those meats, which alter melancholy in the kidnies; but to alter and free from melancholy, and to breed me. Jancholy, cannot both be done by one kind of meat.

For, if any man would fly here to similitude of substance, or to an hidden property, he should deserve to be hissed at; but they say, it is a melancholy fearful creature. What reason they have to call him 80, unless it be, because he shunneth and runneth away from the dogs, which pursue him, I do not know; but, if that be all, do not wolves, bulls, bears, yea and lions also, the like? If we may believe those, who have been in Africa, an old woman there, or a child, with a stick in their hands, do drive away lions, as we do dogs here. And a hare is not so fearful, but that you some of them turn about; and look upon the dogs, after a daring manner. They do not lie in holes and burrows, as conies do, which, in that regard, should be more melancholy; and yet they are in most common use amongst us, and accounted the best meat. And, as for their food, it is the same with that of partridges, the excellency whereof is no where controverted; and with the use of them only the pox may be cured, as Cardan holdeth, who could speak of it, by experience, as having had that disease seven times, as himself witnesseth, in that book of his, which he intitleth, De utilitate ex adversis capienda; and sure his witness is not to be rejected. Let the hare then return in use, and be re-admitted to his former pre-eminence, so he be not too old, but of a competent age, as of a year or less. But, as for water-fowl, you shall do well to abstain from the same.

Concerning fish, though it be for the most part unwholesome, and apt to breed excrementitious and slimy humours, yet for a change you may sometimes eat some river-fish, that are firm and not slimy; as, trouts, gudgeons, pikes, perches, and the like, either broiled, or boiled in wine (if you will go to the charges) rather than in water, and corrected with fennel, spearmint, thyme, rosemary, parsly, or the like. But, for mints in particular, let those women, that come to the water for fruitfulness, refrain the same, because it is thought it hindereth conception. At your fruit, you may use some raisins of the sun, a bit of marmalade, a roasted wardon, or pippin with carroways, or the like; but in all this you

must be sparing. Now, for an end of all, I must repeat what I have touched be. fore, namely, that you avoid variety of dishes: For, the nature of several meats being diverse, and sometimes clean opposite and

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contrary one to another, and some sooner concocted, and others later, from hence those evils will arise, against which you come to seek help from the water; as, crudities, wind-gripings, pain of the reins, obstructions of the mesaraical veins, rawness of the chylus, and consequently of the blood which shall be made of the same, and such like, inconveniences, which by a sober and mode. rate diet may be avoided.

Thus much concerning meat. As for drink, good ordinary clear beer, and of an indifferent strength and age, is best, and it is the ordinary drink of this island, which agreeth best with the nature of those who are bred in it. Yet, if any, having been used to drink wine at meals, desire to continue the same, I am not against it, if so be they he not of too hot a constitution, and have no principal part offended through excess of heat; for a cup of wine, or two, at meals, doth but help to make the better digestion. And for that purpose sack or claret better than white wine; because white wine, by the diuretical faculty it hath, passeth too soon away, and before the chylus be thoroughly perfected, and so it may carry some of the chylus raw and unconcocted with it, and consequently breed crudities and obstructions. And thus much concerning diet.

The Conclusion of this Treatise.

HAVING briefly run through the chiefest things needful to be known and practised by such as shall desire to use this water, I will here end with an exhortation unto them to be well advised concerning the nature of their diseases, before they come; and, when they are come, to observe the rules and directions contained in this treatise, as also to be constant in the use of the water. And, although, perhaps, some of them perceive little or no benefit at first by the same, yet let them not be discouraged, but persevere in the use of it; for some, having been there once with small or no profit at all, the next year after, upon a second trial, have returned houie perfectly cured. It is the ordinary reward of constancy and perseverance, in the end, to hit the mark they aim at. Every thing in this world hath a certain period, before which it cannot come to a full perfection; and so, herewith, I wish all happy and prosperous success to all such as shall come to these springs, and will be ready at all times to afford them my and counsel.

Now, as for this treatise, I do not look it should have a privi. lege, above all other writings, to be exempted from controulment and carping; for it were better luck, than any man ever had, that exposed himself to the censure of the world. There are far more fools than wise men in the world; and, as the Spaniard well observeth, Un loco haze cientio, one fool maketh an hundred more such (most men having their wits pinned to another man's sleeve) and the greater fool commonly is the bolder censurer ;

best help which maketh books to be variously received, liked, and entertained, according to the variety of the reader's understanding and capacity :

Pro captu lectoris habent sua fata libelli.
Upon the reader's wit the fates of books depend,

But the best is, that I ever was regardless of the multitude, as well in this, as in all things else. If the judicious reader find any just fault with any thing contained in this treatise, let him remem. ber, that Humanum est errare ; that to err is incident to the frail. ty of our human nature. But I never was so wedded to my own opinions and conceptions, but that, upon better information, I ever was, and ever will be willing to acknowledge my errors, if I committed, or shall commit any, without esteeming it any shame so to do, any more than many good and worthy authors have done, when they published their retractions.

A DISCOURSE,

Setting forth the unhappy Condition of the Practice of Physick

in London, and offering some Means to put it into a better; for the Interests of Patients, no less, or rather much more, than of Physicians.

BY JONATHAN GODD.IRD, Doctor of Physick, Fellow of the College of Physicians, and of the Royal

Society, and a Professor of Physick in Gresham-College. London, printed by John Martyn and James Allestry, Printers to the

Royal Society, 1670.

Quarto, containing sixty-two Pages.

January 19, 1669-70. Imprimatur, Rob. Grove, R. P. Domino Episc. Lond. à

Sac. Dom.

THE
T'HE art of physick hath had, in common with other arts and

professions, the infelicity to be abused by the professors there. of; who, either out of insatiable avarice to make the utmost ad. vantage of gain to themselves thereby, or out of pride and state, or humour, have given just occasion to the world to judge, that they had not that care and consideration of the lives and healths of persons with whom they had to do, as, in humanity, reason, and conscience, they ought to have had. Admitting this to be inexcusable, as to the persons guilty of it, yet it may be said, as to the present professors thereof, having the legal right to practise in the

city of London, and undertaken on their behalf, that there was never in any age, less grievance or cause of complaint upon any such account. However, that distinction between the vices of persons, and of arts or professions, is so clear and obvious, that whosoever transfers those of the one upon the other, must needs appear deficient in the use of his reason, or else partial and inju. rious.

As to the art itself, though it cannot be denied, that it is, as all human knowledge in other kinds, imperfect and defective; yet, that it should be an imposture (as ignorance in conjunction with confidence may surmise or eharge upon it) the world doth so much abound with persons learned and judicious, and (though not professed physicians) competent to judge thereof, as to render it superfluous to go about to vindicate it from such an imputation. Neither is the imperfection and defect of knowledge in things relating to, or comprehended in the art, so great, as to render it an empty or mere notional speculation; but though it, as all other arts and sciences (the mathematicks excepted) hath too much abounded with notions and speculations wanting foundation in nature and experience; yet it may vie with any other for number of real truths and discoveries, sufficient to employ and take up the best intellectual abilities and studies of any person addicted to it, for his whole life: And especially in this age, after great improvement lately made therein, by many happy discoveries in nature, of great advantage and concern thereto.

According to the grand importance of this art, employed in the conservation of the life and health of mankind, it hath been the wisdom of princes and states to provide for the encouragement of the professors thereof, by liberal maintenance, privileges, and powers, honorary and advantageous, for the exercise thereof, whereby persons of eminent learning, education, and abilities might be in. duced to betake themselves to an art standing in need of such accomplishments; without which, in an inferior way of education, persons could not attain to any such improved judgment, as is re. quisite to the understanding and comprehension of the vast variety and exquisite subtilty of the things constituting the subject of that art, or relating thereto.

Accordingly, it hath been no less the wisdom of the princes and parliaments of this kingdom to provide for the encouragement and good regulation of the profession of physick therein, especially in London; insomuch that, by law and custom, it hath had as great advantages in the kinds beforementioned, with us, as in any conntry in the world. And, therefore, it is the more to be taken notice of, that at this time it should be reduced, probably, to the worst condition that it is in any where; more than probably, to such a condition as cuts off all hopes of honourable or free maintenance of the professors thereof, or the most part of them, and of improve. ment in the art itself, for the future; as may in some measure appear by what followeth.

The dividing and separating of that part of the art of physick, which concerns the preparation and composition of medicaments, from the body of it, so as to put the practice of it into other hands, was never heard of in the ages of Hippocrates, Galen, and other ancient physicians; and hath been judged, by some of the chief authors in physick, to be of unhappy consequence to it, upon several accounts. Hence many physicians, while there was a good understanding between them and the apothecaries (these keeping within their own bounds) thinking it became them, in civil respect, to leave all to these, that belonged to their art; and so, not con. cerning themselves to be judicious and versed therein, became strangers to the materials and preparations of medicines; and, by consequence, less able to prescribe the making of them, to the best advantage. And this the apothecaries have not been wanting to make their advantage of, to the disparagement of the physicians; so that it is justly to be accounted an error and neglect in such phya sicians; who, if they had given their minds to it, might have been as conversant in, and as well acquainted with the materials of remedies, whether vegetables, animals, or minerals, and all the more considerable ways of preparations thereof, as many other physi. cians, or any apothecaries; by frequent viewing, inspection, and observation, and chiefly by experimenting and exercising i hem. selves in preparations more accurate, and of greater importance, chymical, or other: which are the ways that enable a physician authentically to prescribe.

And yet, notwithstanding such an error, and neglect of some physicians occasioned by it, the distinct practice and exercise of that part by apothecaries, as it hath been used in London, had its advantage; and was looked upon as a great ease and happiness to the practice of physick. For-by this means physicians were freed from some troublesome and inferior employment; and they had the advantage of giving account, and making appear, upon occasion, all that was done on their part, by their prescriptions extant in writing, in case of any ill success, which might happen by error upon their account, or suspicion of hurt done to a patient, by any thing advised by them.

But these are really, and upon the whole account, advantages to the profession of physick, only upon this supposition, that apo. thecaries keep within the limits of their work and trade, not med, dling with the practice of physick themselves; the prescriptions of physicians being faithfully and fafely lodged with them, to the use of their patients, and the benefit of the apothecaries in their trade. Otherwise, neither the advantages before-mentioned, nor any other, can ever compensate the disadvantage and detriment, not only to the profession and professors of physick, but to the publick: In consideration whereof, it were to be accounted a small inconveni. ence, for physicians to put themselves to the drudgery of making all the medicaments they have use of in their practice, if need were; and to depend upon their own single reputation and credit with their friends and patients, for their vindication, as the case should require.

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